if possible, I hope to start from the origin and introduce the main events that promote the process of historical development.
occupy a pit first. You can just quote an article written three years ago.
is an excerpt from my blog, which has been deleted:
[careful entry] a concise history of Europe sorted out by boring eggs (260bc ~ 1707ad). We can quote a group of pictures popular on the Internet for a long time and slowly say:
260bc Punic War, Rome vs Carthage, which lasted 118 years, The end was the destruction of Carthage by ancient Rome.
Brown is ancient Rome, white is Carthage, and green is the scattered Celts. Originally, there was a powerful Macedonian empire on the Apennine Peninsula and Asia, but after the death of the great emperor, the Empire was divided by four generals.
0Ad, since Octavian established the head of state system in 27 BC, the Roman Empire entered the early imperial period and continued to fight abroad. After the conquest of Carthage, Rome continued to expand to the eastern Mediterranean, successively conquered the kingdom of Macedonia and the western and central parts of Asia Minor, and expanded the Empire to the south of the Danube River.
450ad in 91 ad, the Xiongnu failed in the long-term war with the Han nationality, began to move westward, entered the agricultural civilization area of Europe, constantly impacted the crumbling Roman Empire and created a new European history. (big gray ball with whip) in 330, the Roman Emperor Constantine the great established a new capital in the ancient Greek immigrant city of Byzantium, known as “Constantinople”. (purple ball) in the late 4th century, under the pursuit of the Huns, a group of East Goths of the Germanic took refuge in Rome and joined hands with the Visigoths who had been bullied in the Roman Empire earlier to resist Rome and establish a state within a state. (the Germanic people were dense and the Western Roman Empire fainted) in 395, the Roman Emperor Theodosius died. The Roman Empire was officially divided into East and west parts. The Western Roman Empire survived under the ravages of Gothic and other Germanic tribes. In the same year, Sima Rui was known as the king of Jin in Jiankang and the Eastern Jin Dynasty in history.
since 410, the angles, Saxons and judes among the Germanic people have been invading Britain.
in 436, Attila became the king of the Hun empire. He successively conquered many Slavic and Germanic tribes, forcing the Eastern Roman Empire to pay tribute and making the Empire enter an unprecedented period of strength.
so the Roman Empire is our loser’s loser’s loser’s loser’s loser’s loser.
in 731ad 476, odoyak, the leader of Germanic mercenaries, deposed the last emperor of Rome and the Western Roman Empire perished. In the same year, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty began to reform.
since then, the Germanic people established many new countries on the ruins of Rome. Among them, there are the Frankish kingdom in the northwest of Gaul, the eastern Goth Kingdom on the Italian peninsula, and the Lombardy kingdom in the middle and north of Italy.
the old slave era ended and history entered the feudal period.
so we can see that China has long been ahead of Europe and entered the feudal society, which is one of the reasons why China was ahead of the western world in the middle ages.
after the Germanic conquest of Britain, many small countries were established. The continuous internal wars made these small countries merge and eventually become seven kingdoms. The period from the 5th century to the beginning of the 9th century was called the “seven nation era” in British history. And China has experienced a,,, beginning during this period.
in 481, Clovis, the leader of the Franks, established the Frankish kingdom in Paris (the big blue ball on the left). The Franks were brave and good at war, and almost conquered the whole Gaul region (the Franks in Central Europe).
in 527, Justinian inherited the Byzantine throne and actively expanded to the outside world, making the Byzantine national strength unprecedentedly strong. (guy with torch and cross.) In 610, Muhammad came out of the Mai family and founded Islam. With the support of believers, Muhammad established the first Islamic country “Medina” in ARIB, which means “city of prophets”. In the following years, the Arabian Peninsula completed substantive unification under religious belief. (the six pointed star on the right) in 711, after the Arabs (the big ball wearing a headscarf at the bottom of the map) conquered the whole of West Asia and North Africa, they waved across the Strait of Gibraltar, destroyed the Visigoth Kingdom, conquered the Pyrenees Peninsula and established a great empire across Europe, Asia and Africa.
in 717, the Arabs suffered a disastrous defeat under the Byzantine capital Constantinople.
in 731, the Arab Spanish governor Abu led the army to invade Frank.
in 1099ad741, the dwarf piping became the official Minister of the merovian Dynasty. He abandoned emperor melovin in 751 and became independent. Later, he exchanged the land in central Italy for the Pope’s coronation. Piping won the “divine” kingship and began the Carolingian Dynasty.
in 768, piping died, and Charlie inherited his father’s business. He was Charlemagne the great.
after Charlie’s death, his grandchildren competed for the territory of the Empire. In 843, they signed the Treaty of Verdun, which divided the empire into East Frank (the predecessor of Germany, which will become a big yellow ball later), West Frank (the front of France, a big blue ball), and the Middle Kingdom (a small white ball sandwiched in the middle).
in 962, Otto I, king of the East frank and Otto Dynasty, was crowned emperor by Pope John XII in Rome,By 973, he became the guardian of Rome, the emperor and the supreme ruler of the Roman Catholic world. In 1157, the Empire received the title of “holy Empire”. In 1254, the Empire began to use the title “Holy Roman Empire” for the first time. After the Cologne Empire conference in 1512, a royal decree was issued to use “the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation”, which was then used as an official name until 1806. (so it’s too early for the big yellow ball to take the national emblem of the Holy Roman Empire as the image) in 829, Egbert unified Britain and named the unified country “England”.
at the end of the 10th century, the Danes invaded England again. In 1042, the Empire collapsed and England regained its independence.
at the end of the 11th century, due to the week of the city and with the support of the civil class, the feudal separatist forces were declining, and the prospect of reunification became more and more clear (Franci split after the death of Louis V, the last king of the Carolingian Dynasty in 987). Later, through the efforts of several generations of Kings such as Philip II, Henry VI and Philip IV, France finally became strong.
at the end of the 9th century, Harald became king after unifying Norway.
in 885, pirate leader Rollo became emperor in Frankfurt.
in the 9th century, the Normans of northern Europe invaded East Slav under the leadership of liurik, thus opening the Kiev Ross era. Kiev is regarded as the mother of the rose cities. (big brown ball on the right, this is uncertain) in the 9th century, the Czechs established an independent Czech Kingdom centered on Bohemia. (red and white ball) in 1086, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV conferred the title of king of fratislav II, Duke of the Czech Republic. From then on, the Czech Republic became a part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Poland was a Slavic country that won independence in the middle ages. (half red and half white ball) 1099 is the last year of the First Crusade. The knight Crusade set out from Constantinople to occupy Jerusalem. I don’t understand why the Byzantine in the picture was stabbed by the long gun of Asia.
by the way, Christianity.
due to the different social environment, since the 4th century, Christianity in eastern and Western Europe has shown increasing differences in religious language, doctrine, ceremony and so on. The Eastern Church is greatly influenced by Greek culture, while the Western church is greatly influenced by Latin culture.
in 1054, the eastern and Western churches were officially divided. The eastern church calls itself “orthodox”, also known as “Eastern Orthodox” and “Greek Orthodox”; Western churches call themselves “public religion”, “world religion”, also known as “Roman public religion”.
1300AD from the 11th century, the Mongols (big blue ball) began to march to the West. The Tuque nomadic tribes living in Central Asia suffered a lot and moved to West Asia. Ottoman Turkey is one of them. Later, the Roman Empire was destroyed and the Ottoman Turkish empire across Eurasia was formed. It was also in the 16th century, as will be mentioned later.
Russia in the Middle Ages was a disaster prone country. The invasion of poles and Teutonic Knights and the conquest of Mongolian army brought great disasters to the Russian people.
at the end of the 13th century, the Ottoman Turkish Empire began to expand outward, and the Byzantine Empire had come to a dead end. The fall of Constantinople marked the end of this ancient empire.
1500 AD 1492, after seven centuries, the Spanish finally won the victory of the “land recovery movement” and completed reunification.
in 1453, the Ottoman Turkish Empire fell to Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire perished, and the Ottoman Turkish Empire continued to expand.
between 1337 and 1453, Britain and France fought a hundred year war, but it is not reflected here. The end of this war is also the end of the middle ages. However, it is worth mentioning that France finally completed the great cause of national reunification because of this war, laying the foundation for its future expansion in the European continent. Thus, the feudal monarchy evolved into a feudal autocratic monarchy, and the monarchy was further strengthened. After the war, after a period of internal political disputes, Britain also established a centralized autocratic monarchy. After the hundred year war, Britain not only gained nothing, but also lost almost all its territory in France. As a result, it was forced to abandon its attempt to dominate the mainland and develop at sea, so as to embark on the road of maritime empire…
in 1515, Francis ascended the throne and became the king of France, known as Francis I. After taking office, he continued to carry out the previous foreign policy and continued to invade Italy.
in 1600ad1574, Ivan IV was crowned and became the “czar”. After Ivan IV came to power, he was ambitious and actively expanded abroad. From the Principality of Moscow to the huge Russian Empire, it is the “record” of successive czars’ crazy external expansion. (the big red, white and blue ball in the upper right corner) by the 16th century, the territory of the Ottoman Turkish Empire had been quite vast. (lower right corner) in 1558, Elizabeth ascended the British throne, and the British Pirates and slave trade developed rapidly. Later, Britain defeated Spain’s “invincible fleet” and became a maritime overlord.
1707ad1700, Russia allied with Denmark and Saxony and launched a war with Sweden, which was a major military power at that time (Poland later declared war on Sweden). In 1700, the Russian army was defeated in the battle of Narva. After the battle, the king of Sweden turned his attention to other enemies. Meanwhile, Peter rebuilt the Russian army. Sweden and Russia fought again, and the Swedish army was completely defeated in Poltava in 1707.