Mikhail sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931 -) the last general secretary and chairman of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Supreme Soviet.
The first and last president of the Soviet Union when the presidential system was implemented.
Gorbachev was born in the village of privolye in the border region of stevropol in the north Caucasus.
His parents were both farmers.
Many people died of famine in this area from 1932 to 1933.
Gorbachev’s grandfather was denounced to the authorities by his neighbors for hiding about 20 kilograms of grain and was locked up in a Siberian reform through labor camp for nine years.
Grandma once told Gorbachev this bitter story, which made a deep mark on his young heart.
In 1941, the Soviet German war broke out.
Gorbachev’s father and brother went to the front.
When his brother died on the battlefield, he interrupted his studies and returned to school two years later.
Due to the lack of male labor in the rear, children as young as 12 years old like him sometimes have to work on the ground for more than 10 hours.
After the war, his father returned home and became a combain harvester driver.
Gorbachev worked as an assistant to his father while going to school.
Because of his excellent work, he won the red flag Medal of labor in 1949, became a probationary member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1950, and then was recommended to the law department of Moscow University.
Gorbachev doesn’t have a special hobby in college.
“I read law, but I also like mathematics, history, economics and literature.
” In addition to completing the courses prescribed by the law department, Gorbachev spent the rest of his time reading books such as other social sciences and actively participated in various political activities held by the school.
He became a full member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union after two years of enrollment.
By the time he was in his senior year of college, he had become a well-known figure among his classmates with eloquence and keen mind.
After Khrushchev came to power in 1953, Gorbachev’s class organized an academic seminar on “the current domestic and foreign policy of the Soviet Union”.
At the meeting, most of the students still praised his achievements, but Gorbachev made a speech that surprised everyone, saying that there was a problem with the Soviet Union’s domestic policy, especially the “agricultural collectivization harmed the interests of the middle peasants” in the 1930s.
Foreign policy “put the Soviet Union in danger of isolation in the world”.
At the meeting, he said to his friend nietznaski: “Stalin’s life is half white and half black.
” Someone reported his deviant remarks to the school.
Strangely enough, the school did not trace it.
This can not help but make the students look at him with new eyes.
In fact, these students simply did not understand that Gorbachev had watched from Khrushchev’s remarks and official propaganda that the Soviet Union’s domestic and foreign policy was quietly turning.
In 1955, near graduation, most of the students tried to stay in the capital or big cities.
However, Gorbachev returned to his hometown, the stevropol border region, with his wife and classmate Raisa.
He believes that although small places are remote and backward, they can be used.
Sure enough, in the second year of his assignment to the Communist Youth League Committee in stefropol, he was promoted to the first Secretary of the Communist Youth League Committee because of his ability and shrewdness.
In February of that year, Khrushchev made a “secret report” against Stalin at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, in which he criticized the “great cleansing” and “agricultural collectivization” movements launched by Stalin in the 1930s.
After the report was transmitted to the party organization of the stefropol border region, most officials were skeptical, and some even held resistance.
Gorbachev read the report and welcomed it from the bottom of his heart.
However, he did not appear to be ecstatic, but calmly observed for a period of time.
With the implementation of Khrushchev’s “non Stalinization” policy throughout the country, Gorbachev’s strength also increased.
He led a group of members of the CYL Municipal Committee to go deep into factories, rural areas, organs and schools, enthusiastically publicize the party’s “new policy” and firmly support Khrushchev’s “reform” policy.
Therefore, he was soon promoted to the first Secretary of the Youth League Committee of stefropol border area and was elected as a member of the Party committee of the area in 1960.
In the district Party committee, he was highly appreciated by Kulakov, so he was transferred to the district Party committee in 1962, specializing in agriculture.
It happened that in the autumn of this year, the region had a bumper agricultural harvest, which provided Gorbachev with the capital for rapid promotion.
At the end of the year, he served as the organization Minister of the district Party committee.
In 1964, Brezhnev came to power, and Kulakov was transferred to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as secretary in charge of agriculture.
Under his recommendation, Gorbachev rose to the top: in 1966, he was promoted to the first Secretary of the Party committee of stevropol.
In 1968, he served as the Second Secretary of the Party committee of stefropol district.
In 1970, he was promoted to the first Secretary of the district Party committee.
After serving as secretary of the district Party committee, Gorbachev did two major things: one was to pay attention to grain production, and the other was to renovate the hot spring resort in the district.
As a result, in his first year as secretary of the district Party committee, the region’s agriculture achieved an unprecedented harvest.
He was praised by Brezhnev, general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In order to develop local natural resources, he vigorously renovated environmental sanitation, beautified the city appearance, built hotels, villas and expanded roads, so that the hot spring resort in the area took on a new look and attracted a large number of tourists at home and abroad.
Therefore, he got the nickname of “hot spring Secretary”.
Since Soviet Communist Party theorist Suslov and KGB chairman Andropov, who were born here, often came here for vacation and recuperation, Gorbachev gradually connected with the high-level leadership of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party.
Gorbachev was good at reporting work achievements and expressing bold ideas to the central leaders in a relaxed and pleasant atmosphere with mild and humorous words, so he won their favor.
One of the most appreciative of him is Andropov.
Andropov is the leader of the “reformist” in the leadership of the Soviet Communist Party.
He was sober minded and had long seen signs of economic and social decline in the Soviet Union.
In this regard, he once said to his aides with worry: “if this stagnation is not stopped and changed, it may put the Soviet Union on a dangerous road.
” To this end, he began to recruit talents, and placed allies in some key positions, ready to replace Brezhnev one day and carry out his reform intention.
Every time Andropov came here to recuperate, he would stay with Gorbachev for a long time, take a walk in the forest and discuss major political issues.
Through frequent contact and in-depth conversation, Andropov was convinced that GoreBachov is the supporter and successor of his future career.
In the summer of 1978, Kulakov, the central secretary in charge of agriculture, suddenly died of illness.
Andropov and Suslov recommended Gorbachev to fill the vacancy.
This year, due to good weather, the grain harvest of the whole Soviet Union broke the historical record, with a total output of 230 million tons.
Although this achievement had little to do with Gorbachev, he also had a good impression on the supreme leader of the Soviet Communist Party.
In 1979, grain production was reduced, and many people accused Gorbachev of incompetence.
However, he dished out an official investigation material that had been prepared for a long time, and explained with a large number of facts that the grain failure this year was mainly caused by the blind command and bureaucracy of local officials, in addition to the rainstorm.
They didn’t come to the scene in person during the harvest season, organized manpower and allocated machines to rush the harvest.
As a result, about one fifth of the grain and one third of the potatoes rotted in the field.
Accordingly, Gorbachev suggested that the central government replace those officials who neglect their duties, reform the agricultural management system, expand the autonomy of collective farms and state-owned farms, and implement the collective contract system.
This convincing material turned Gorbachev from passive to active.
It not only blindfolded Brezhnev, but also blocked the mouth of his attackers.
In November of the same year, Gorbachev was promoted to alternate member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.
In 1980, grain production rebounded, and Gorbachev was promoted to a member of the Political Bureau in October of the same year, becoming the youngest member of the senior leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In November 1982, Brezhnev died of illness, and Andropov, 68, was elected general secretary.
After he came to power, he began to carry out social and economic reforms.
For this reason, people like Gorbachev are strong.
In early 1983, Gorbachev was in charge of propaganda and ideological work.
In February that year, Andropov was hospitalized with nephritis.
Gorbachev managed some diplomatic and personnel work on his behalf and delivered a speech at an important meeting.
His name began to appear in the major newspapers of the Soviet Union.
In October, Andropov’s condition worsened, and only his personal assistant and Gorbachev could visit the hospital.
At this time, a group of old Politburo members led by Chernenko became active and began to slow down the speed of Soviet reform through the party’s organizational system and government departments.
However, Gorbachev was tit for tat.
Taking advantage of his special right to be close to Andropov alone, through his personal nomination, Gorbachev promoted a large number of confidants to the Political Bureau and the Secretariat at the plenary session of the Central Committee held in December.
These people later made great contributions to Gorbachev’s coming to power.
On February 9, 1984, Andropov died of illness.
Four days later, Gorbachev presided over the meeting of the Politburo to elect a new general secretary.
He thought that he had no problem being elected general secretary at the meeting.
As a result, he only got four votes.
At the same time, some people nominated Chernenko, 73, and others nominated Gregory Romanov, 56, leader of the Geller party and Secretary of the Party group of the national defense industry.
In this case, the scheming Gorbachev resolutely rejected the nomination of others, instead supported Chernenko, and delivered a closing speech at the end of the meeting to praise the new general secretary.
In this way, he not only won Chernenko’s favor, but also maintained his position as the “Second Secretary” of the party.
After that, he pretended to be Chernenko’s loyal assistant, but secretly moved around for the coming stage.
During the hospitalization of chilenko suffering from emphysema, he took the opportunity of presiding over the Political Bureau to advocate the “reform thought” of politics and economy on the one hand, and put a group of local young cadres into important leadership positions on the other hand.
The most important thing is to bring the veteran diplomat gromico into his own circle.
On March 10, 1985, Chernenko died of illness.
However, within 24 hours, Gorbachev could not wait to convene a joint meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and the Secretariat.
At that time, five of the 10 members of the Politburo opposed him, but one of them was on his way home after a foreign visit.
If he waited for the opposition to meet again, he would be in great trouble.
Sure enough, after the meeting began, Romanov first nominated grishen, Secretary of the Moscow municipal Party committee, as general secretary, and Prime Minister gihonov and other three members of the Politburo immediately agreed.
At this time, gromiko stood up, nominated Gorbachev and boasted about him.
Gorbachev’s supporters rallied in response.
Gorbachev finally got his wish.
Less than half a year after Gorbachev came to power, he drove Romanov and others who had opposed him as general secretary out of the Political Bureau.
At the end of October, gihonov retired and promoted the “docile” rezhkov to prime minister.
At the same time, he nominally promoted gromiko as the chairman of the supreme presidium of the Soviet Union, and his position as foreign minister was replaced by Shevardnadze, a pro western country.
Li gachev, who is “highly disciplined in organization”, was also allowed to take charge of the party’s propaganda and ideological and agricultural secretaries.
After all personnel work was arranged, Gorbachev launched a political and economic “reform” with “diversification”, “openness” and “marketization” of capitalism as the main contents under the banner of establishing “humane and democratic socialism”.
He acted in accordance with the models and wishes of western countries.
As a result, he not only failed to achieve any results, On the contrary, the national economy was on the verge of collapse, and various domestic social, political, economic, ethnic and other contradictions intensified day by day.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was besieged by hostile forces at home and abroad.
Gorbachev, as general secretary, retreated again and again until the decisive step leading to the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
On February 5, 1990, just five years after Gorbachev served as the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when the Communist Party of Eastern European countries successively lost power, in order to meet the appetite of the domestic opposition and Western countries, he convened the plenary session of the Central Committee, and even passed a resolution to repeal the provisions of the Constitution on safeguarding the leadership of the Communist Party, announcing that all political parties and opposition parties were allowed to hold free elections.
On March 3, he presided over a meeting of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet and decided to implement the presidential system.
He himself served as the first president of the Soviet Union.
Since then, the 15 republics in the Soviet Union have successively elected 15 presidents.
After taking office, these presidents immediately declared the Republic a “sovereign state” and asked the president of the Soviet Union to recognize its independence.
Although Gorbachev also took some measures aimed at preventing the disintegration of the alliance, such as economic blockade, threat of force, political persuasion and the formulation of the “new alliance treaty”,.