The Renaissance and the Middle Ages in Western Europe were a particularly “dark era”.

The Christian Church became the spiritual pillar of the feudal society at that time.

Under its strict control, philosophy, literature and natural science became the vassal of theology, and the development of science and culture was seriously hindered.

From the 14th to the 16th century, in the historical turning point of the transition from feudal society to capitalist society in Western Europe, the emerging bourgeoisie achieved autonomy in some cities through the struggle with feudal lords.

Humanist thinkers, artists and poets are all keen to study the cultural classics of ancient Greece and Rome, and explore and use all the cultural factors opposite to Christian theology as ideological weapons.

They advocated people-centered, opposed God centered, advocated getting rid of the shackles of the church on people’s thoughts, and vigorously advocated the revival of the ancient culture of Greece and Rome.

Therefore, they were called the “Renaissance” movement.

Italy is the birthplace of the Renaissance.

Petrac, a Florentine, was the earliest humanist thinker.

He widely collected ancient books from Greece and Rome and advocated the idea of taking man rather than God as the center.

Florentine poet Dante was also a pioneer of the Italian Renaissance.

His famous work Divine Comedy describes the author’s experience of traveling to heaven and hell, and puts many monks to suffer in hell, reflecting his hatred of medieval theology.

Boccaccio, another florentine, is a novelist.

His famous book, the Decameron, reveals the hypocrisy and ugliness of priests and castigates the asceticism of the church with humorous, sharp and spicy strokes.

Leonardo da Vinci is a typical cultural master in the Renaissance.

He is full of talent, imagination and creativity.

He worked hard all his life and made remarkable achievements.

He left rich wealth for future generations in painting, sculpture, mathematics, mechanics and architecture.

The Renaissance movement soon extended to Germany, France, Britain and other countries.

It has made brilliant achievements in literature, art, politics and ideology.

In Italy, there are “three literary heroes” and “three artistic heroes”: Montaigne, a thinker in France.

There are poets, playwrights and utopian socialists Thomas Moore in England and Cervantes in Spain.

The Renaissance also made great achievements in natural science, such as the creation of the “Sun center theory”, which overturned the earth center theory recognized by the Catholic Church.

The Renaissance made the medieval culture lose its luster and greatly promoted the process of social history.

The Renaissance heralded the end of the “Dark Age” in the middle ages and the eternal pursuit of a beautiful society with equality from the south.

Petrac, the father of humanism, is an Italian poet.

On July 20, 1304, he was born into a lawyer’s family in Arezzo, Florence.

From his youth, Petrac was very fond of literature and rhetoric, especially the works of classical writers.

He was strongly attracted by Virgil’s poetry and Cicero’s speech in ancient Rome.

But his father wanted him to become a jurist, so he sent Petrac to montpoli in France and Bologna in Italy to study law.

After his father died, he devoted himself to literary activities and traveled around Europe.

He proposed to replace “God’s thought” with “human thought”, which is known as the “father of humanism”. 1340. Paris and Rome vied to invite him to accept the crown.

Petrac finally chose Rome.

On April 8, 1341, the traditional ceremony was solemnly held on Mount kapito in Rome.

The host solemnly announced that he was awarded the glorious title of “poet laureate”, and people warmly congratulated him.

Petrac became a famous writer throughout Europe.

Petrac wrote many poems and essays in Latin, among which songs, Africa and Ode to Italy are particularly famous in the world.

These works praise people’s nobility and wisdom and publicize people’s right to pursue earthly happiness and enjoy honor.

It also challenges the theocracy and asceticism advocated in the middle ages.

He also believes that people’s nobility is not determined by birth, but by people’s behavior.

In his later years, Petrac bought a house in Xiaocai Akwa.

People in the village often see the light in the old man’s room burning late into the night.

One day in July 1374, when people walked into his cabin, they found that Petrac, who was lying at the table, had died, and his head was still buried in the manuscript of Virgil, a famous poet in ancient Rome.

Dante and Dante Alighieri are Italian poets and representatives of the early Renaissance in Western Europe, Engels commented on him: “the end of the feudal middle ages and the beginning of the era of modern capitalism are marked by a great man.

This figure is Dante, an Italian.

He is the last poet in the middle ages and the first poet in the new era.

” Dante has studied Latin, classical literature, poetry and rhetoric since he was a child, and has made great achievements in painting, music and other arts.

When he attended a party with his father at the age of nine, he met a girl named Beatriz, which made him fall in love at first sight.

Nine years later, Dante met her on the street again and became more admiring.

He began to write poems for her to express his thoughts.

Later, beatrizzi married a banker and died in 1290.

Dante was so sad that he began to write poetry.

At the age of 28, he completed a collection of 31 lyric poems, rebirth.

These lyric poems are written for Beatriz.

They use the artistic techniques of dream and symbol to praise the ideal lover and express the desire for a better life.

In 1300, a war broke out between guilver party and Berlin party, and finally guilver party won.

Dante participated in the supreme executive council of Florence as a member of the guilver party and was appointed administrator.

Soon, guilver’s party split into black party and white party.

The Mafia advocates relying on the Pope.

The white party called for urban autonomy and opposed the Pope’s intervention in politics.

Later, the black party gained the upper hand and exiled the white party leader.

Dante was also sentenced to lifelong exile.

During his exile, Dante went everywhere to give lectures, visit friends and travel around many cities.

Extensive exposure to the reality of unrest in Italy and the difficult life of the civilian class made him have a deeper understanding of the society.

In 1307, Dante began to create the eternal masterpiece divine comedy.

This is a political lyric poem.

The whole poem is divided into three parts: Hell, Purgatory and heaven.

Each part has 33 songs, plus the overture, a total of 100 songs, up to 14232 lines.

The content of divine comedy isWhat he saw, heard and felt during a long-distance sleepwalk comprehensively reflected the social life at that time through the writing method of metaphor and symbol, and deeply expressed the writer’s religious philosophy, moral and ethical concepts and social and political propositions.

He firmly stood on the position of the people and solemnly drove the hypocritical feudal guard into the eighth floor of hell and accepted torture.

Dante severely criticized the feudal ruling class, wealthy nobles, corrupt officials and usurers, revealing that they were the root cause of the country’s degeneration and the people’s general poverty.

Dante lived in exile for 20 years in his life.

In the past 20 years, he has never bowed to the reactionary forces.

In 1321, Dante died at the age of 56.

The divine comedy he left behind is a treasure in the treasure house of human culture and art.

Forever shining with immortal artistic brilliance.

Da Vinci Da Vinci is one of the most outstanding representatives of the whole European Renaissance and the first painter of the Italian Renaissance.

He is profound, knowledgeable and versatile.

He is also a master of art, a master of science, a literary theorist, a philosopher, a poet, a musician, an engineer and an inventor.

He is called “the most perfect representative of the Renaissance” by later scholars.

Da Vinci is an illegitimate son.

Born in ankiano village, safinchi Town, Florence.

Early on, Da Vinci showed extraordinary talent in painting.

In 1466, his father sent the 14-year-old Da Vinci to the famous artist verozio and began to systematically study plastic arts.

Verozio is very strict with his students and his training methods are not ordinary.

When he began to instruct Da Vinci to learn painting, he just asked Da Vinci to draw eggs.

Da Vinci began to be very interested and drew very carefully according to the egg.

But after a period of time, the teacher still told him to draw eggs.

He was a little tired and impatient.

So he summoned up his courage to ask the teacher for advice and said, “the object of painting is complex.

The skills are diverse.

Why did the teacher just ask me to draw a simple egg?” Verozio patiently said to him, “although it is simple to draw eggs, you can’t find two identical eggs in a thousand eggs.

Even if it is the same egg, its shape will be different as long as you change its angle.

” After hearing this, Da Vinci still asked, “teacher, even if you draw these different eggs well and accurately from different angles, don’t you just draw one egg?” Verozio smiled and said: “You need to know what kind of basic skills you have to have to show it accurately on the drawing paper! So I ask you to draw eggs repeatedly.

First, train you to observe things carefully and grasp the image accurately.

Then, through repeated practice, you can achieve the consistency of eyes and hands and express things as you want.

With this basic skill, no matter what you draw, you don’t have to be attentive Are you comfortable with your hands? ” From then on, Da Vinci studied painting more seriously.

By the age of 20, he had high artistic attainments and became a recognized painter in the society.

His most famous works are the mural “the last supper” and the portrait “Mona Lisa”.

May 1517.

Da Vinci came to the official residence of the king of France.

Received a warm welcome.

However, due to his old age, living abroad and loneliness, Da Vinci’s creative passion can no longer advance.

On May 2, 1519, the painting master died.

Michelangelo Michelangelo was a great master in the European Renaissance.

He was as versatile as Leonardo da Vinci.

He was an art master who combined sculptor, painter, architect and poet.

On March 6, 1475, Michelangelo was born in a small town of Capris near Florence, Italy.

He showed his love for art when he was very young.

At the age of 13, I learned painting skills from the famous painter girandayo in Florence at that time.

At the age of 15, he was recommended by girandayo to study sculpture in the art school, and was appreciated by the great Florentine monarch Lorenzo at that time.

From then on, Michelangelo received strict training and advanced humanistic thought.

He began to understand that no matter how advanced art is, it is only the unity of beauty and holiness.

This aesthetic standard became the principle of his later creation.

In 1494, the French army invaded Italy and approached Florence.

Michelangelo fled his hometown and fled to Venice and Rome.

While studying and observing the cultural relics of various places, he carved antique statues and saints, which reached a level of being almost unreal.

Michelangelo, 23, was commissioned by the French cardinal to make a statue of mourning Christ for St.

Peter’s church.

The appearance of this statue made Michelangelo famous at one stroke.

The work shows the grief and mourning of the Virgin Mary for the martyrdom of her son Jesus, and the grief of the Virgin Mary when she picked up her son, giving people a shocking sacred beauty.

In 1501, Michelangelo, 26, returned to Florence and immediately devoted himself to the production of the marble statue of David.

Three years later, he finished the statue.

The standing statue, which is more than 2 or 5 meters high, portrays the image of David, a Patriot with both wisdom and courage in the story of the Bible, who is ready to fight resolutely for the just cause.

The statue was placed in front of the main entrance of the palace of vegio as a symbol of Florence’s patron saint and democratic government. 1505. Michelangelo was invited to Rome by Pope Julio II to draw large murals on the roof of the Sistine Chapel.

The roof of the Sistine Chapel is a flat dome.

It is very difficult to draw murals with a total area of more than 500 square meters on it.

With his strong will, Michelangelo overcame all kinds of difficulties and completed this world-famous work genesis in nearly five years.

In 1536, Michelangelo was invited to Rome to paint the last judgment on the altar wall under the zenith of Genesis.

The murals on the roof of the Sistine Chapel are regarded by later generations as the greatest works of that era.

In February 1564, Michelangelo died at the age of 89.

His realistic attainments are very high and his personal style is extremely prominent.

It marked the peak of Western art in the Renaissance and had a far-reaching impact on later European art.

Shakespeare was a dramatist and poet in the English Renaissance.

He was born in Central EnglandTrafford is really a merchant family.

At the age of 7, he entered the local Holy Cross grammar school.

At the age of 14, his father failed in business.

Shakespeare left school to be his father’s assistant.

In 1582, at the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, a 26 year old peasant girl from his neighbor.

In 1586, Shakespeare came to London.

He worked as a groom at the gate of a theater and waited on the rich who rode to the theatre.

He is quick witted and articulate, and often makes use of his spare time.

Quietly watching the performance on the stage.

When he learned that the troupe needed extras, he would immediately sign up and play some small roles.

Before long, he was absorbed by the troupe as a formal actor.

At that time, the London troupe had an urgent need for scripts.

While learning acting, Shakespeare also began to write some plays.

At the age of 27, his trilogy of the historical play Henry VI was adapted and staged, which was deeply loved by the audience.

Shakespeare’s plays are mostly based on historical records, novels, folklore, traditional plays and other existing materials, reflecting the historical reality of the transition from feudal society to capitalist society.

Publicized the human nature view and humanitarian thought of the emerging bourgeoisie.

On the one hand, it widely draws lessons from ancient drama, emerging culture and art in Europe and drama in the middle ages of England.

On the other hand, it has a deep understanding of society, observes life and grasps the pulse of the times.

Therefore, Shakespeare was able to create a large number of characters and depict a broad and colorful picture of social life.

Shakespeare wrote two long narrative poems, 37 plays, 154 sonnets and some miscellaneous poems.

Its main achievement is drama.

The birth of his “four tragedies”, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth, marks a new stage in the development of western tragedies.

His works.

It deeply depicts the living conditions of Britain at that time, exposes and criticizes the reality.

Humanism is the basic idea of all Shakespeare’s works.

In his language, it is “love”.

His works are the expression of the concept of “love” in many aspects.

Humanism is the ideological weapon of the emerging bourgeoisie against feudalism.

Shakespeare’s works reflect the ideals of the emerging bourgeoisie.

He is good at thinking, has a deep feeling of life, has a high artistic cultivation and has a strong image of his works: he integrates the new ideas and cultures of European countries into his brain, so his works deeply and vividly reflect the British reality from the 16th century to the 17th century and intensively represent the literary achievements of the whole European Renaissance.

In his later years, Shakespeare purchased real estate and 127 acres of real estate in his hometown.

Living with my daughter, life is very happy.

In 1616, he died of illness and was buried in the Holy Trinity Church in the town.

Boccaccio and the Decameron in 1348, a terrible plague occurred in Florence, Italy.

Every day, even every hour, a large number of bodies are transported outside the city.

From March to July, more than 100000 people died of illness.

The beautiful and prosperous city of Florence in the past has become a place full of cemeteries and bones.

This incident had a profound impact on Boccaccio, a great Italian writer at that time.

In order to record the human disaster, he wrote The Decameron, the most famous collection of short stories in Italy at that time, against the background of the plague.

At that time, the Decameron was called “human song”, which was a literary work as famous as Dante’s Divine Comedy, and also known as the sister of divine comedy.

Why is this novel called The Decameron? It turned out that one morning during the plague in Florence, seven beautiful young and educated ladies met three handsome and passionate young men in the church.

Three of the seven young ladies are their lovers, and the others have relatives with them.

They were determined to take their servants and leave Florence, a terrible city on the verge of death.

They made an appointment and went to a villa on a hill in the suburbs two days later to avoid the plague.

There is a quiet environment and pleasant scenery, surrounded by green trees, winding corridors, exquisite murals, clear springs and pleasing flowers and plants.

There are also fragrant wine in the cellar.

These 10 young people either sing and play the piano, or dance and walk every day.

In the hot summer, they sat in the shade of green grass.

Everyone agreed to tell an excellent and beautiful story every day to spend the most difficult time of the day happily.

They told a total of 10 days and told 100 stories in 10 days.

These stories were collected into a collection called The Decameron.

As soon as the Decameron came out, it was deeply hated by the Catholic Church.

The church publicly accused the Decameron of being an “obscene book”, and various conservative forces in the society also united to attack Boccaccio, and sometimes even threatened him personally.

Boccaccio could not stand persecution and attack, and he wavered under the curse and threat of the church.

Three years after writing the Decameron, Boccaccio wrote his last novel, the crow, which completely denied the ideas put forward in the Decameron.

Even once, he wanted to burn all his works.

Fortunately, it was his good friend Petrac who advised hard that the Decameron can be preserved to this day.

When Petrac died in 1374, Boccaccio suffered a heavy mental blow.

The next year, he died in solitude and poverty.

Rabelais and biography of the giant Francois Rabelais is one of the important humanist writers in the European Renaissance.

He was born in Chinon, Duran Province, central France in 1494.

His father was a rich judge.

As a teenager, he began to study religious education and later became a monk in a monastery.

This time gave him free time to study Greek and philosophy.

Later, Rabelais followed the Archbishop to Rome, visited Italy, the birthplace of the Renaissance, visited many celebrities and historic sites, learned a lot of knowledge such as religion, philosophy, mathematics, phonology, law, archaeology and astronomy, and finally became a knowledgeable person.

In 1530, Rabelais entered the university to study medicine.

At this time, he was 36 years old, but it took him only two months.

He got a bachelor’s degree and became a doctor.

In 1535, he went to Paris to study medicine, and soon received a master’s degree and a doctor’s degree.

Later, he bravely dissected the body of a prisoner and became one of the first doctors in France to study anatomy.

While practicing medicine, Rabelais also created literature, and published the novel biography of the giant in 1532.

The biography of the giant is divided into five parts.

It has been created for 20 years.

After its publication, it was warmly welcomed by the urban bourgeoisie and the lower class people, but it was extremely hated by the church and the nobility, and was declared banned by the court.

The publisher was burned and Rabelais was forced to flee.

It was not until 1550 that he was allowed to return to France.

The de Lian Mei monastery described in the biography of the giant embodies Rabelais’s social ideal.

In this monastery, the relationship between people is not intrigue, but mutual trust.

Both men and women can enter the monastery at any time and exit at any time.

In monasteries, people can live freely without being bound by any religious rules.

It reveals the darkness and decay of the church in the middle ages and reflects the humanists’ pursuit of the sexual liberation of the bourgeoisie in the Renaissance.

Rabelais believed that the power to liberate people should be through education.

He emphasized the role of knowledge and believed that as long as mankind mastered science and became a giant in knowledge, it would have the power to fight against the dark forces.

Rabelais died in Paris on April 9, 1553.

Copernicus founded the heliocentric theory that Nicolas Copernicus was a great astronomer in Poland and the founder of modern astronomy in the world.

In 1473, Copernicus was born in the city of torun on the visingwa River in Poland.

He had a keen interest in astronomy as a teenager.

In middle school, under the guidance of teachers, a sundial was made to determine the time according to the shadow of the sun.

In 1491, Copernicus studied at Krakow University in Poland.

He studied astronomy and mathematics under the guidance of astronomer bruchuski.

After returning home from college, vazlod sent him to Italy to study church laws.

In addition to studying the laws and regulations of the church, he also studied a variety of disciplines, especially mathematics and astronomy, and had close contact with nofara of the school.

Nofara was a professor of astronomy and one of the leaders of the Italian Renaissance.

He had a great influence on Copernicus.

They often telemetry the universe together, record data, and study previous works on astronomy.

Copernicus learned.

As early as the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus, an ancient Greek astronomer, put forward the concept of the earth moving around the sun.

At first, the approximate ratio of the distance between the sun and the moon to the earth was measured, but later it was opposed by religious forces.

In order to read these works, Copernicus learned Greek.

In 1506, Copernicus returned to Poland.

He worked as a priest in Fort fronberg cathedral.

In order to facilitate research, he specially chose the arrow tower on the wall of the church as his dormitory and studio, personally made astronomical observation instruments, established a small Observatory, and began 30 years of celestial observation.

It was here that he wrote the great work on the operation of celestial bodies.

Copernicus put forward the theory of the center of the sun and criticized Ptolemy’s theory that the earth is stationary.

However, the “geocentric theory” at that time had become the theological theoretical basis for maintaining the rule of the church, so gozini delayed publishing his theory.

In 1541, at the urging of German young scholar deakas and his friends, the revised theory of celestial bodies was published.

Two months after the book was published, Copernicus died at the age of 70.

On the movement of celestial bodies not only shocked Europe dominated by religious theology at that time, but also had a wide and far-reaching impact on all parts of the world.

As a new thing challenging authority, the publication of the theory of celestial bodies is not only a great victory of science over theology, but also the beginning of a new and arduous struggle.

Galileo was an Italian physicist and astronomer.

Born in 1564 in a declining noble family in Pisa, Italy.

His father vincenzio was a musician and mathematician, and he also had some attainments in painting.

Therefore, Galileo received a good family education from an early age.

At the age of 12, Galileo entered the valombrosa monastery near Florence to receive classical education.

Galileo, 17, entered the University of Pisa to study medicine and made instruments and experiments in his spare time.

In 1586, he combined the lever principle and buoyancy principle to invent the “hydrostatic balance” for determining the composition of alloys.

In 1588, he completed his paper on “the center of gravity in solids”.

Due to his outstanding achievements in mathematics, he was hired as a mathematics lecturer by the University of Pisa in 1589.

He was strongly criticized by the Aristotelian school and was forced to leave the University of Pisa.

In 1609, Galileo made a telescope based on the inspiration of Dutch optician lipasi that stacking two lenses together can magnify objects.

After continuous improvement, he finally made a telescope with a magnification of 1000 times that can be used for astronomical observation.

With the help of this telescope, Galileo had more confidence in Copernicus’s heliocentric theory.

In 1610, Galileo published his “star messenger” and announced his above findings to the world.

In 1618, three comets appeared in the sky, clear and bright.

Galileo observed that the trajectory of the comet was obviously curved by using a telescope.

This overturned the church’s wrong view that the comet orbit is a straight line.

In 1632, Galileo published the dialogue between the two world systems, in which he defended Copernicus’ theory.

A few months later, the Holy See ordered to stop publishing the book, and Galileo, who was nearly 70, was summoned by the Pope to the holy see for trial.

Under torture, he was forced to take an oath to abandon Copernicus’ theory and was finally sentenced to house arrest at home.

He spent another three years of hard work to complete the last masterpiece dialogue and mathematical proof of two new sciences on mechanics and positional motion, which summarized his research achievements in mechanics and laid the foundation of modern physics.

Galileo died in the early morning of 1648 in Florence.

On the eve of his death, he also repeated a sentence: “the pursuit of science requires special courage.

” Martin Luther was a German religious reformer in the 16th century.

When he was a child, his mother gave him extremely strict religious education, which made him form a strong religious belief from an early age.

At the age of 21, he got his master’s degree and was about to move towards legal affairs according to his father’s wishIndustry.

But he resolutely chose to enter St.

Augustine monastery in ralford as a monk.

His move was completely beyond the expectation of his family.

There he devoted himself to monasticism and performed various penance activities.

Known for its holiness.

In 1510 and 1511, Luther visited Rome twice.

Luther was very excited when he first arrived in Rome.

When he went to the suburbs of Rome.

I can’t help admiring this sacred city.

But while visiting the places of interest in Rome, the corruption and cruel reality of the church made Luther realize that the holy city of Rome had become filthy.

In 1517, Pope Leo x used the pretext of repairing St.

Peter’s Cathedral to sell atonement vouchers everywhere.

Luther responded to the Pope’s practice.

On the evening of October 31, Luther posted the “debate on the effectiveness of atonement vouchers” (i.e. 95 theses) in front of the door of Wittenberg cathedral It aroused strong repercussions, stimulated people’s dissatisfaction with the Holy See, triggered people’s willingness to reform religion, and made Luther become the spokesman of the whole German nation for a time.

In 1519, Martin Luther launched a great debate with the theologian John Ike of the Roman Church in Leipzig.

This great debate became a major turning point in Luther’s religious reform career.

In October 1520, the Pope issued an edict ordering Luther to repent within 60 days, otherwise he would be expelled from his church.

Facing the threat, Luther did not flinch.

He burned the Pope’s edict in the praise of his supporters to show his determination to completely break with the Holy See.

This action also greatly inspired the people of Germany and Western Europe.

This year, Luther published the book of Christian Nobility to the German nation, the prisoner of Babylon of the church, and on Christian freedom.

Then Luther wrote the encyclical against anti Christianity in response to the Pope’s edict.

In 1543, Luther’s translation of the German Bible was published.

His translation of the Bible provided people with an ideological weapon against the Catholic Church.

His translation of the Bible uses the German language, which has also become an important link between the divided German states.

Luther’s translation was beautiful and smooth, and became the object of imitation at that time.

Virtually, it also promoted the formation of German language.

On February 18, 1546, Luther died of illness at the age of 63 in his hometown of eisleben.

Buried in the cemetery of Wittenberg cathedral.

Due to the developed shipbuilding technology, China’s compass needle is widely used in navigation.

So that more and more people begin to explore new routes.

The Portuguese were the first to explore the route to the East.

In 1415, the Portuguese captured the city of Ceuta on the South Bank of the Strait of Gibraltar and established the first colony.

In the following 70 years, they have been exploring southward along the west coast of Africa, reaching Cape Verde, the Gulf of Guinea, the coast of Ghana, the estuary of Congo and Angola, making full preparations for navigation to India.

After Portuguese DIAS discovered the Cape of good hope, navigator da Gama began to sail further.

On July 8, 1497, da Gama led four sailboats and 170 crew members from Lisbon.

After bypassing the Cape of good hope, da Gama and his party sailed north along the east coast of Africa.

In March of the following year, they arrived in Mozambique and found an Arab sailor as a pilot there.

In April, they set out from Malindi, Kenya, and finally arrived in India after a month’s voyage.

Da Gama first landed in kalikut, the most important trade center in southern India, and then met with king kalikut.

The only result of this meeting was that the king agreed to sell the goods brought by the Portuguese in the local area.

However, spices cannot be exchanged without first-class goods.

Two months later, the butter, honey, red hats, shirts and other goods brought by Da Gama have not been sold, and the striped cloth is stacked in the warehouse.

Finally, they can only exchange copper, mercury and coral for spices.

In early September 1499, da Gama finally returned to Portugal through difficulties and dangers.

After 26 months, only 55 of the 170 crew members were left, and dagama’s brother died.

Like a triumphant hero, da Gama was ceremoniously welcomed by King Manuel.

After the spices, silk, gemstones, ivory and other commodities transported by the expedition from India were sold at high prices in China, the net profit was 60 times of the whole navigation cost.

So far, da Gama has opened a direct route from Europe to India.

Columbus discovered the new continent.

While the Portuguese explored the new route to India along the African coast, the Spanish opened another way to find the route to the West.

As a result, Columbus discovered the “new continent” – America.

Christopher Columbus was a sailor in Genoa, Italy.

He was obsessed with long-distance exploration activities and believed in the prevailing theory of the earth circle at that time, which believed that sailing westward from the coast of Europe could reach Asia and India.

For many years, Columbus had wanted to organize an expedition of Western Airlines to India and China.

To this end, he successively asked the kings of Portugal, Britain, France and other countries for funding, but all of them were rejected.

So he turned to the queen of Spain.

Queen Isabella of Spain finally accepted his suggestion and sent him to find the route to India and China in the name of the Spanish royal family.

On August 3, 1492, Columbus took the credentials of the king of Spain to Emperor Tao of China and led 87 crew members to embark on the first voyage to explore the route across the Atlantic Ocean from the port of Barros in three sailboats.

After more than two months of sailing, the fleet had no harvest.

Just when the crew was almost desperate for rebellion, they found a piece of land ahead.

Columbus was delighted to announce that it was Spanish land and named the island “San Salvador”.

Columbus thought he had arrived in India, so instead of continuing to sail west, he went south and reached nearby Cuba and Haiti.

After Columbus arrived in Haiti, he established a stronghold there and began the bloody rule and crazy plunder of the local people.

But Columbus was disappointed that there were not as many gold and spices as he thought, but many animals, plants and customs they had never seen.

Nevertheless, Columbus began to return with his achievements in arriving in “India”.

March 15, 1493, Columbus beltWith the plundered wealth and 10 Indians, he returned to Spain and announced to the Europeans that he had found the route to India.

This caused a sensation in Europe, and Columbus received the courtesy of the queen of Spain.

Become an aristocrat in Spain.

Since then, the queen of Spain strongly funded Columbus.

In the next eight years, Columbus successively arrived in Dominica, Guadeloupe, Antigua, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, the coast of Venezuela and Panama.

During Columbus’ expedition, Florentine Amelia Vespucci visited “India” with Columbus from 1499 to 1502 and concluded that it was not India in the east at all, but a “new continent”.

Although Columbus discovered the new world, it was not rich.

It did not bring huge revenue to the Spanish Treasury.

Columbus was misunderstood and abused, and the queen deprived him of his property.

May 20, 1506.

Columbus died in poverty.

Columbus always mistook the new continent he discovered for India.

Later, people named it “Americana” after him.

Magellan’s first global voyage Fernando Magellan, a Portuguese noble, was deeply influenced by the explorations of Columbus and others.

With the support of the king of Spain, he made the first global voyage of mankind.

In 1505, Magellan, as a naval soldier, followed Almeida, the first Portuguese governor in India, to participate in the colonial plunder war in the East.

After eight years of overseas expedition, Magellan mastered the knowledge of navigation and became familiar with the situation in the East.

During the investigation and tour of Sumatra, Java, Indonesia and the Moluccas (today’s Maluku Islands), Magellan learned that there is a vast sea to the east of the Moluccas, so he thought that the American continent discovered by Columbus should be not far from the Moluccas to the east of the sea.

Therefore, Magellan came up with the idea of global navigation.

For this reason, he read a large number of navigation materials and geography books, visited navigator leshboa, astronomer fariro and others, and finally determined the route of global navigation.

With the support of King Charles I of Spain, Magellan, after more than a year of preparation, set out from the port of San Lucar in Seville on August 9, 1519 and began the plan of Western Airlines to bypass the Americas and sail to the Moluccas.

At the end of November, it reached the northeast coast of Brazil.

Then go south along the coast and enter Rio de Janeiro Bay on December 13.

Then continue to sail south.

In October of the following year, the fleet finally found the Strait at the southern end of South America.

This narrow and tortuous Strait was later named “Magellan Strait”.

After crossing the Strait, Magellan finally entered the “South China Sea” he yearned for.

At this time, there were only three ships left in his fleet.

Nan Yu didn’t make due preparations.

The expedition experienced unprecedented hunger, thirst and scurvy.

Fortunately, there was no major storm in these three months.

Therefore, Magellan named the “South China Sea” as “Pacific Ocean”.

On March 6, 1521, Magellan and his party received fresh water, food, fruits and vegetables from the Aboriginal people of Guam.

Ten days later, a large land was discovered – Siago Island, which is rich in tropical fruits.

The next day, another nearby island was found.

March 17, 1521 is the San Lazaro Festival, so Magellan named the land he found “San Lazaro islands”, and later renamed it the Philippines.

Unfortunately, Magellan was involved in a local ethnic conflict during his visit to the islands of San Lazaro.

Magellan was killed by local aborigines on April 27, 1521.

Magellan’s companions continued to sail.

In November 1521, they parked at a spice market in the Maluku islands and exchanged cheap goods for a large number of spices.

The following may, they bypassed the Cape of good hope at the southern tip of Africa, when the crew was reduced to 35.

In 1522, they returned to Spain and finally completed their first voyage in history.

At this time, there were only 18 of the 234 people on board.

Magellan’s voyage around the world is a voyage of great significance.

It proves that the earth inhabited by human beings is indeed a round sphere, which makes people no longer doubt it.

Magellan’s voyage also proved that the world’s oceans are interconnected, and the area of the ocean is obviously larger than that of the land, thus overturning the misunderstanding that the ocean is smaller than the land.

The evil slave trade in the early 15th century, western colonists carried out overseas expansion one after another.

With the development of colonial expansion, the trade of plundering blacks as slaves began to appear.

By the middle of the 15th century, with the discovery of America, the establishment of plantations and the development of gold and silver mines, the criminal slave trade had intensified.

The first slaves were captured and sold by Portuguese and Spanish colonists.

The slave trade can be roughly divided into three stages.

From the middle of the 15th century to the 1980s, it was the initial stage, mainly characterized by pirate looting.

From the 1980s to the second half of the 18th century, it was the heyday centered on the monopoly of slave monopoly organizations.

The end of the 18th century to the end of the 19th century was a period of “Prohibition” of the slave trade characterized by slave smuggling.

The most typical route for slave traders is triangular.

They first brought salt, cloth, firearms, hardware and rosary beads to Africa, and then replaced these goods with slaves transported by African locals from the mainland to the coastal areas.

Then they loaded these victims into the cabin in poor conditions and transported them across the Atlantic along the so-called “central route” to the destination new world: then they took the products of the plantation, such as sugar, syrup, tobacco Rice, etc.

return to the country.

In this triangular voyage, slaves were not treated by people.

They were in a dirty environment and had little food.

Therefore, plague often broke out in quite a long route.

In order to prevent the spread of disease, the sick slaves were thrown into the sea and drowned.

The slave trade amassed huge wealth for western colonists and became an important source of primitive accumulation of capital.

It has greatly promoted the development of the Americas, but it is a deep disaster for Africa.

The African continent, once one of the birthplaces of human civilization, has lost a large number of people and seriously damaged social productivity.

The proportion of African population in the world’s total population decreased from 11% in 1500 to 6,8% in 1900.

African countries or tribes often fought for slaves.

Many villages were robbed, cities and towns declined, productivity was seriously damaged, and African society regressed for hundreds of years.

This is the darkest and most shameful thing in human historyA new page! In the early 19th century, Britain, the most developed country of industrial capitalism, took the lead in setting off the movement of abolishing slavery all over the world.

Since then, the movement of abolishing slavery has emerged one after another all over the world, forming an irresistible historical trend.

Haiti, the United States and Brazil abolished slavery in 1803, 1863 and 1888 respectively, and Cuba abolished slavery around 1888.

Since then, some other countries have abolished slavery one after another, and the oppressed slaves ushered in their rebirth.

Nevertheless, the worldwide slave trafficking movement did not stop abruptly, and the intermittent slave trafficking lasted for nearly a hundred years until the end of the 19th century.

The destruction of the invincible fleet Spain is an old colonial power in Europe.

The middle of the 16th century.

He has a population of about 10 million.

The colonial sphere of influence spread across Europe, the United States, Africa and Asia.

In order to protect its maritime transportation lines and its overseas interests, Spain has established a powerful maritime fleet with more than 100 warships, more than 3000 cannons and tens of thousands of soldiers.

At its peak, the fleet had more than 1000 ships.

The fleet straddled the Mediterranean and Atlantic oceans.

He proudly calls himself the “invincible fleet”.

At that time, British capitalism was in its infancy.

The development of light industry has forced it to look for overseas commercial markets.

The innovation of ship manufacturing and navigation technology has further expanded Britain’s ambition to seize colonies.

At the beginning of Elizabeth’s rule, the British navy was not strong enough to compete with the powerful Spanish naval fleet.

Therefore, the queen connived at some famous British Pirates to rob Spanish ships at sea, harass Spanish maritime transportation, take the opportunity to carry out smuggling trade and attack Spain from the side.

The British piracy made the Spanish government extremely angry and strongly demanded that the king punish these outlaws.

However, instead of responding to the Spanish government’s request, the queen rewarded the pirates led by Drake.

The Queen’s move further deepened the contradiction between Britain and Spain.

King Philip II of Spain colluded with British Catholic forces in an attempt to help Queen Mary of Scotland, a Catholic, to the British throne.

To this end, he began subversive activities in Britain.

Mary fled to England as early as 1568 because of the Scottish coup and was imprisoned by Elizabeth.

In 1587, Philip II organized subversive activities in Britain, encouraging British Catholics to assassinate Elizabeth and set up another Mary.

However, it was revealed that Elizabeth executed Mary.

Philip II’s murder failed.

He was determined to conquer Britain by force.

In order to compete for maritime hegemony, Spain and Britain fought a fierce and spectacular naval battle in the English Channel in August 1588.

In this naval battle, Spain has strong strength, advanced weapons, powerful warships and more than 30000 troops.

It is known as the “luckiest invincible fleet”.

At that time, the scale of the British army was small, and the combatants of the whole fleet were only 9000.

There is a wide gap between the two armies.

Spain clearly has an absolute advantage.

However, surprisingly, the British army completely defeated the Spanish fleet that once dominated the sea with advanced technology and flexible tactics.

Only about 100 British soldiers were killed, while more than 20000 Spanish officers and soldiers were buried and nearly 100 warships were shattered.

The failure of the “invincible fleet” made Spain lose its maritime hegemony and never recover.

However, Britain became a maritime power, which accelerated the process of its capital accumulation and overseas colonial expansion.

Aztec culture Aztec people originally lived on islands in western Mexico, According to legend, the God of war huiziboluozitli once gave them such a revelation: “if you see an eagle standing on a cactus and pecking at a snake, it is the place where they settle.

Later, the priests led the people to settle on the West Bank of Tesco Lake in Mexico according to God’s will.

The Aztec people called the place” Mexico “, which means the place designated by the God of war.

Today, the pattern of Eagle eating snake has become the national emblem of Mexico.

In 1325, the Aztecs established the capital city of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) on a small island in the lake.

By Montezuma I (1440-1469), the Aztecs had controlled the entire Mexican basin and formed an early slave state.

The azk is the “supreme ruler” of the state, and one of the two is the supreme ruler of the state.

The land is still owned by the village community, but the phenomenon of private ownership of land and the polarization between the rich and the poor has emerged, and the phenomenon of prisoners of war and debtors becoming slaves is widespread.

Aztec culture was influenced by Mayan culture.

Agriculture is the main form of economy.

They pay attention to water diversion and irrigation, and expand the area of farmland and vegetable gardens by piling piles in the water and spreading lake mud on rafts.

This kind of land is called “floating garden”.

Aztec people can also make gold, silver and bronze.

The bronzes they made are beautiful in shape and are characterized by Brown ground and black lines.

The clothes are mostly made of cotton and feathers of various colors, and the colors are gorgeous and eye-catching.

They can use precious bird feathers and shells to weave and inlay various exquisite ornaments.

Their exquisite workmanship is famous all over the world.

The Aztec calendar and hieroglyphs are similar to those of the Maya.

They set the year as 365 and 06 days, divided into 18 months, 20 days a month and 5 days a week.

Every day has a specific name, such as monkey day, rainy day, sea animal day, etc.

The hieroglyphic books of the Aztec people suffered almost the same fate as the Mayans.

Most of them were burned by the Spanish colonists.

Only two “tribute books” have been preserved, which are valuable information to understand the social life of the Aztec people.

The capital city of Tenochtitlan embodies the architectural art of Aztec people.

The city is built on two small islands.

There are three broad long dikes connected to the lake shore, one of which is 7 miles long.

The long dikes are equipped with suspension bridges that can block the enemy.

The city has neat streets, gardens and complete water supply system, with more than 100000 residents, larger than London and Paris at that time.

There are 40 pyramidal temples in the city.

The largest one in the central square is 35 meters high and has 144 steps.

The houses of the rich are painted white or red, which is extremely rich and spectacular.

In 1519, Spanish colonists occupied the city and destroyed it.

The Inca Empire was still in the stage of tribal alliance in the 13th-15th century.

From 1438 to 1533, Inca gradually developed into a unified and powerful slavery empire, its territory is centered on Peru, including part of Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, with a population of more than 6 million.

The Inca Empire had a relatively perfect institution of slavery.

The king is regarded as the son of the sun, the incarnation of God and the supremacy of power.

Nobles and priests enjoyed privileges and lived by exploiting farmers and slaves.

The country is divided into four districts, each of which governs several provinces.

The grass-roots unit of society is “Ai Liu”, that is, rural commune.

There are three kinds of village land: “Inca field” belongs to the state, “Sun field” belongs to priests or religions, and “commune field” belongs to the village.

All three kinds of land are cultivated by farmers.

In addition, farmers have to pay taxes and perform labor service to the state.

India’s accession has made great contributions to the development of human agricultural civilization.

They cultivated more than 40 kinds of crops, including tomatoes, strawberries and pineapples, many of which were not available in other continents at that time.

The Incas have created many miracles in architecture and transportation.

The halls and temples in Cusco, the capital, are all built of huge stones.

There is no mud between the boulders.

The silk seam is tight, and it is difficult to enter with a thin blade.

The temple of the sun in the city is the religious center of the country.

On the front wall of the main hall in the temple is the statue of the sun drawn in gold.

When the sun shines on the portrait, it emits thousands of golden lights.

Outside the main hall, there is a “Golden Garden” dedicated to the sun god.

All kinds of flowers, birds, plants, animals and reptiles in the garden are made of gold and silver.

The workmanship is exquisite and can be fake, random and real.

The state has also built transportation post roads all over the country, with two main roads of four or five thousand miles long, running through the country.

There are post stations and beacon signal systems along the post road, which can transmit information very quickly.

Both the construction level and length are higher than those of the ancient Roman Empire.

The Incas have their own weights and measures.

Scales made of bone, wood and silver have been unearthed from tombs.

In medicine, they can make mummies, extract anesthetics from coca, and even perform craniotomy.

The Incas have no words.

They use “Kip” – a method of tying ropes to record historical myths and legends.

In 1531, Pizarro led the Spanish colonists to invade the Inca Empire.

The next year, they entrapped the Inca King atawalpa and brutally killed him after defrauding the Indians of a large amount of ransom.

The Inca Empire perished from then on.

The unification of the Korean Peninsula was as early as the 4th century BC to the 3rd century BC, and an ancient Korea appeared in the north of Korea.

In 194 BC, Yan Renwei destroyed ancient Korea and established Wei’s Korea.

In 108 BC, Wei’s Korea was destroyed, and four counties of donglang, xuantu, lintun and Zhenfan were set up in this area, and the prefects were stationed to rule.

At the beginning of the 3rd century AD, the Eastern Han Dynasty perished, and Koguryo in the north of Korea took the opportunity to rise.

At the beginning of the 4th century BC, it destroyed donglang County, launched a territorial dispute with China in its north, and fought for a long time with Baiji and Xinluo in its south, forming a “era” in Korean history.

When Koguryo competed with Baiji.

Xinluo, located in the southeast corner of the Korean Peninsula, took the opportunity to make peace with the Sui and Tang Dynasties.

Therefore, when Koguryo and Baiji found that Xinluo had posed a threat to them, they jointly attacked it.

Xinluo then turned to the at that time.

With the assistance of the Tang Dynasty, Xinluo completed the reunification of the Korean Peninsula in 676.

After the reunification of the Korean Peninsula, a feudal system similar to China was soon established.

They first formed the state-owned land system.

In 687, they promulgated the Shishou Luyi system, and the state granted a certain number of rental land to cultural relics officials as Luyi.

The implementation of this system has led to the development of land annexation.

Therefore, in 722 ad, the Ding Tian system began to be implemented, and a certain amount of land was granted to men over the age of 15, which was divided into Kou Fen Tian and Yongye Tian.

The former was limited to their lifelong enjoyment and could not be sold or transferred, while the latter could be inherited.

Therefore, farmers are attached to the land and become the dependent people of the state who pay land rent, tribute and bear all kinds of corvee.

After the feudal land system was established throughout the country, in order to meet the needs of the feudal system, North Korea also established a relatively perfect centralized state system with reference to the political system of the Tang Dynasty.

Babur of the Mughal Dynasty is the fifth grandson of Timur.

He is resourceful, brave and powerful.

Babur led troops to battle several times and defeated the Sudanese army in Delhi.

In 1526, Babur, 22, defeated the 100000 troops of the Turkish King Ibrahim with an elite cavalry force of 12000 people, killed thousands of prisoners, occupied Delhi and established the mogul Dynasty.

The age of Akbar Empire reached its peak.

“Akbar” means “the greatest”, which is what India calls him.

His original name was Muhammad.

He was Babur’s grandson.

He was an excellent knight.

He liked playing polo and invented the luminous Polo so that he could play it at night.

When he was 14 years old, he was invited by Islamic priests to cut off the head of a prisoner with a machete, thus obtaining the title of Islamic Warrior – “executioner of pagans”.

During his reign, he continued to expand the border, went through a series of cruel and bitter battles, conquered the subcontinent and established an unprecedented empire.

At that time, the territory of the Mogul Empire included the vast area from Kashmir in the north to the upper reaches of the godavali River in the south, from Karr in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the East.

In 1566, the imperial capital moved to Agra.

Akbar has established a set of effective bureaucratic and legal systems.

During his reign, the government re measured and classified the land throughout the country, and levied taxes according to the new tax system according to the land type.

Culturally, the Mughal dynasty promoted Islam, but in order to rule the majority of Hindus, the rulers also appointed a large number of Hindus.

After Akbar’s death, his son Jia Hanjie ascended the throne and continued to implement Akbar’s policy.

In about 100 years from Akbar the great to his grandson Shajahan, the Empire expanded again.

But in the period of emperor Aurangzeb of the Mughal Dynasty, due to Aurangzeb’s piety to Islam.

He carried out a narrow-minded religious policy, destroyed Hindu temples to rebuild mosques, resulting in widespread complaints, continuous war, the strengthening of local independent forces and the decline of the Empire.

When Aurangzeb died in 1707, the Dynasty experienced several monarchs, but the time was very short.

At this time, the actual control of the Mughal Empire was very small, and later was limited to a small area around the Royal Palace in Delhi.

Finally, under the attack of the Marathi, the Empire completely disintegrated.