Eliza died since the queen in 1603, the British bourgeois revolution.

With the end of the Tudor Dynasty (1484-1603), Britain entered the reign of the Stuart dynasty.

King James I and his successor Charles I believed in “divine power” politically and believed that “the king is not responsible for anyone except God”.

They enforce autocracy and often violate the interests of the bourgeoisie.

It also practiced religious autocracy, persecuted Puritanism, an ideology that reflected the requirements of the bourgeoisie, and set off a “Puritanism movement”.

This led to political tension and finally triggered the British bourgeois revolution in 1640.

The strength of the British bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy has been continuously strengthened due to the development of the domestic capitalist economy, forming an opposition against the autocratic monarchy in the parliament, and the contradiction and struggle between the Parliament and the king have been developing.

In 1628, the parliament passed the “petition of rights” restricting the royal power, and King Charles I reluctantly approved the “petition of rights” in order to obtain the appropriation from the Congress.

However, when the Congress protested against the king’s arbitrary taxation, Charles I announced the dissolution of the parliament, and the contradiction between the royal power and the Congress became increasingly acute.

In November 1640, Charles I was forced to restructure the new parliament, marking the beginning of the British revolution.

In January 1642, Charles I left London where the revolutionary situation was high and went north to York City to organize the king’s protection army, ready to suppress the “rebellion” of the parliamentary faction by force.

On August 22, he set up a royal flag in Nottingham and announced his crusade against the rebels in parliament, thus opening the prelude to the British civil war.

At the beginning of the civil war.

The Congressional army lost the battle.

Later, Cromwell, the representative of the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy, organized the “cavalry” and “New Model Army”, which reversed the situation and won a decisive victory in 1645.

Charles I fled to Scotland but was detained by Scotland.

The British Parliament paid 400000 pounds to redeem him and imprison him.

The revolution achieved initial victory, but the anti feudal camp and the army began to split.

The king of the party gathered his strength and escaped from the prison.

Faced with the threat of restoration forces, all factions within the revolutionary camp temporarily united and finally smashed the plot of the royalist party.

In January 1649, the special supreme court composed of 135 people sentenced Charles I to death, and Cromwell personally drafted and signed the death execution order.

In May, Congress declared England a republic.

The British bourgeois revolution, which began in 1640, created the bourgeois era and marked the beginning of modern world history.

Charles I was on the guillotine.

The British civil war ended with the victory of the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy.

King Charles I was captured by the Congressional army and imprisoned in the ancient Windsor Castle in the suburbs of London.

On the afternoon of January 20, 1649, the public trial of Charles I was held in London.

After the door of the special trial Hall of the supreme court composed of some members of the house of Commons and senior military officers was opened, the members of the Supreme Court led by Bradshaw, the president of the Supreme Court and a famous barrister in London, led by 16 halberd officers, took their places.

Subsequently, the masses who spontaneously came to the audition swarmed in.

After the court session is announced.

Bradshaw ordered, “take the prisoner!” 32 officers and soldiers rushed a man who was nearly half a century old and holding a walking stick onto the dock.

This prisoner is Charles I.

When Charles I was taken to the Supreme Court, his attitude was very arrogant.

When attorney general cook was about to read out the indictment, Charles I actually walked up to cook and banged cook on the shoulder with his walking stick.

While shouting: “shut up!” As a result, the head of the handle and stick fell off.

After Xin finished the indictment, he was even more furious.

Refused to recognize the legitimacy and authority of the trial.

During the trial on the 22nd and 23rd, he still roared at the court, which aroused the anger of the officers and soldiers present.

They shouted in unison to ask the court to try and execute Charles I.

On the 25th, the Supreme Court convicted Charles I of “tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy”.

On the 27th, the Supreme Court ruled that “Charlie Stuart should be beheaded as a tyrant, traitor, murderer and public enemy”.

January 30, 1649, was the end of Charles I.

At 2 a.m., he got up and asked to wear more clothes for him.

He said, “it’s so cold that I may tremble if I wear less.

Some people think I’m afraid, but I’m not afraid.

” At 1 p.m., Charles I was taken to the guillotine.

Behind him stood bishop Jackson and a beheading Colonel, with an executioner on each side.

After praying, Charles I knelt down and put his head on the cutting board of the guillotine.

With the order, Charlie’s head was different, and the once arrogant autocratic tyrant was punished.

This is the first king executed in modern British history and in modern world history.

The British royalist party and the governments of some feudal countries in Europe tried their best to rescue Charles I: many nobles in the British upper house publicly opposed the trial of Charles I.

There are also some members of the house of Commons who disapprove of the trial and execution of Charles I.

The 135 member Supreme Court is legally constituted, and less than 60 people have participated in the trial process from beginning to end.

Therefore, the trial and execution of Charles I was a great victory in the British anti feudal struggle.

In May of the same year, the Republic was proclaimed, and the British bourgeois revolution reached its peak.

After Charles I was beheaded.

Cromwell held the power of the Republic and became the “protector”.

However, Cromwell soon embarked on the path of dictatorship.

Cromwell died in September 1658.

His son Richard Cromwell succeeded as protector.

Mediocre and incompetent, he was forced to resign within a year, and the state power fell into the hands of the group of senior officers.

The chaotic political situation made the big bourgeoisie more afraid, so it was born to restore the rule of the Stuart dynasty.

In February 1660, the royalists and the commander of the British army in Scotland, monk, led his troops to London and convened a new parliament dominated by the elders and royalists.

The meeting decided to invite Charlie Stuart, the son of Charles I, back to be king, saying Charles II.

From 1660 to January 1685, the Stuart dynasty was restored.

However, as soon as Charles II came to power, he made a crazy counter attack on the revolution.

He vigorously hunted and killed those who participated in the revolution.

He also dug up Cromwell’s body and hung it on the gallows for public display.

Despite the opposition of the domestic people, he sold Dunkirk, which Cromwell won from the Spanish, to France.

His administration gradually aroused the dissatisfaction of the bourgeoisie and the people.

In 1685, Charles II died and his brother James II ascended the throne.

James II was a fanatical Catholic.

He was more reactionary than Charles II.

Some of his measures seriously damaged the interests of the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy, and were opposed by the broad masses of the people.

By 1688, resistance movements rose one after another.

James II still cruelly persecuted the Puritans.

The anger of the bourgeois new nobility and the broad masses of the people is becoming increasingly fierce, which indicates that there may be another revolution.

The bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy finally launched a coup and ended the rule of James II.

And sent an invitation to William, James I’s son-in-law, asking him to come to England immediately to take the throne.

On November 5, 1688, William came to England.

His arrival was supported by the nobles and squires.

Many senior officers went to William’s station to express their support in person, and James II fled to France reluctantly.

In February 1689, the parliament declared William king of England and Mary Queen, exercising double king rule.

Subsequently, the parliament passed the famous bill of rights and the law on succession to the throne, both of which are conducive to protecting the interests of the bourgeoisie.

The 1688 coup was a coup without bloodshed, so it is also called “Glorious Revolution”.

The “Glorious Revolution” completely ended the autocratic rule of Britain.

From then on, Britain began the rule of constitutional monarchy.

Oliver Cromwell is the representative of the new aristocracy of the British bourgeoisie in the 17th century and the leader of the independents.

In April 1599, Cromwell was born into a gentleman’s family in Huntington, England.

In primary school, influenced by his family, he began to accept the idea of Puritanism.

Later, Cromwell attended Sidney sussacks college and then went to London to study law for two years.

In 1628, he was elected as a member of Parliament and began to appear on the political stage.

And the attack on Charles I’s reactionary rule aroused strong repercussions in the society.

Won the support of the broad masses of the people and began to emerge on the political stage.

In 1642, Britain’s first civil war broke out.

The whole country is divided into two camps: the revolutionary camp led by the Parliament and the royalist camp led by the king.

Cromwell joined the revolutionary camp and fought against King Charles I.

At the beginning of the war, the parliamentary army retreated one after another.

Cromwell was very anxious and decided to establish a strong cavalry.

He recruited a thousand man cavalry team mainly composed of farmers from Cambridge, Huntington and other counties.

This army has strict discipline, is brave and good at fighting, and has repeatedly made extraordinary achievements.

Therefore, it has won the title of “iron cavalry army”.

In July 1644, Cromwell led the “cavalry” to wage a fierce battle with the king’s army on the Marston grassland in northern England, and finally won the victory.

This victory reversed the passive situation of the Congressional army in the early stage of the war.

Therefore, Cromwell became famous, won the trust of Congress and began to serve as the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary army.

Cromwell reorganized the army following the example of the “cavalry” and formed a “New Model Army”.

The New Model Army wiped out the main force of the king’s army in the battle with the king’s army, basically ending the first civil war.

On the 30th of 1649, he was guillotined.

The Republic was established, and Cromwell soon took control of Britain.

Cromwell was appointed governor of Ireland and commander-in-chief of the expedition army in 1649.

Relying on his strong military strength, Cromwell brutally suppressed the Irish uprising.

Later, Cromwell went on an expedition to Scotland to suppress the rebellion of the Scottish ruling group.

Cromwell’s victory gave him the title of “ever victorious general” in Europe.

With the military victory, Cromwell’s ambition gradually expanded and began to dominate power.

He first dissolved Parliament by force and then established military dictatorship.

At a grand ceremony in London on December 16, 1653, Cromwell accepted the title of “protector of England, Scotland and Ireland”.

From then on, the British bourgeois revolution entered the period of protector rule.

The protector of the country is a lifelong post.

He has the right to appoint his successor, and integrates legislative, administrative and military power to become a de facto military dictator.

Later, Cromwell changed the protector of the country to family inheritance and became a king without the title of king.

Cromwell died in September 1658 at the age of 59.

Newton, the great master of science, is a famous scientist in England and the founder of modern mechanics and spectroscopy.

He was born in a farmer’s family in England, and his father died two months before he was born.

His mother remarried when he was two years old, and his grandmother took the responsibility of raising and educating him.

He has been fond of reading since he was a child.

He is very diligent.

He also likes handicrafts.

The pocket money given to him by his family is used to buy woodworking tools.

He made many delicate windmills, kites, sundials, leaky pots and other practical instruments.

In 1661, Newton was admitted to Trinity College of Cambridge University.

Because of the serious plague that swept across London, Newton returned to his hometown in order to avoid the suspension of the school and the suspension of school holidays in Cambridge.

He was edified and trained by mathematics and Natural Science in Cambridge and had a strong interest in exploring natural phenomena.

In the two years of living in his hometown, Newton, who had the courage to explore, made three great achievements and formed the preliminary thought of calculus, universal gravitation and optical analysis.

In mathematics, Newton founded binomial theorem and calculus, which promoted the development of mathematical research.

In terms of optics, Newton used a prism to experiment with light, and decomposed white light into seven color bands of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and purple.

He integrated the seven color light bands into white light through an inverted prism.

In this way, it is correctly explained that white light (i.e. sunlight) is organized by colored light, which lays the foundation of spectroscopy.

In addition, he made the world’s first reflection telescope, which can be magnified 40 times.

Through it, you can see the satellites on Jupiter.

The invention of the reflecting telescope has brought human observation of celestial bodies to a new stage.

In mechanics, Newton explained many mechanical phenomena and established a complete mechanical theoretical system on the basis of mechanical theory and long-term in-depth research.

Among them, the three laws of mechanics, also known as “Newton’s three laws”, have the greatest impact on the development of modern natural science.

Newton made great achievements in science, because he could not bear to be abused, Rousseau fled the place and began to live a vagrant life like a beggar.

At the age of 16, he wandered to Sava and went to Mrs.

Warren.

With the help of Mrs.

Warren.

Rousseau came to Turin.

There he worked as a sculptor and a servant of a lady.

After the lady died, he returned to Mrs.

Warren and lived on her for 10 years.

In May 1740, Rousseau left Mrs.

Warren to work as a tutor at Mabuli’s house, the road director of Lyon.

Three years later, with the help of a lady, he became the Secretary of the French ambassador to Venice.

After leaving office and returning to Paris, he was engaged in the creation of music, drama and dance drama for a period of time, but he made no achievements.

In 1750, Rousseau wrote an essay on science and art to apply for an essay on whether the revival of science and art contributes to civilizing customs.

This thesis won Rousseau the first place, and he became a famous figure in the field of philosophy.

In 1755, he published “on the origin and basis of human inequality”, and then completed three main works: Philosophical novels “new Alois” and “Emil”, and on the theory of social contract.

In these works, he systematically expounded the political proposition of “natural human rights” and ruthlessly attacked the inequality of feudal society and the feudal slavery system.

The publication of Emil and the theory of social contract brought great disaster to Rousseau.

The attacks on theologians and feudal autocracy in these two works aroused great anger among church people and government authorities.

The court ordered Rousseau to be wanted and burned the two works in public.

Rousseau was forced to flee abroad.

During the escape, some people published pamphlets to personally attack Rousseau’s own moral character and personal life.

Rousseau wrote his autobiography confessions and his sequel the dream of a lonely walker with grief and anger.

When Rousseau was alone, the British philosopher Hume invited him to live in England.

Rousseau arrived in London in January 1766 and moved to Wootton in March.

However, Rousseau was suffering from persecution paranoia, which made him suspect that Hume tried to murder him and began to quarrel fiercely with Hume.

In 1967, he was allowed to return to France under the pseudonym of lenu.

In 1768, he officially married dalece in Gu’an.

In 1770, the French government announced a pardon for Rousseau and Rousseau moved to Paris.

In Paris, he regained his real name and read fragments of confessions in some salons.

On July 2, 1778, the great enlightenment homesick died at the age of 66.

Prussia Kingdom Prussia is a German state.

It was originally the residence of the ancient Prussians.

It was conquered by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century and was called Prussia.

It was subordinate to Poland in 1466 and became the ten principalities of Prussia in 1525.

Prussia merged with Brandenburg in 1618 and got rid of Polish suzerainty in 1648.

In 1701, Frederick III, the emperor of Brandenburg, supported the Habsburg dynasty of Austria to declare war on the Bourbon Dynasty of France in exchange for the title of king.

On January 18, Frederick III was crowned king Frederick I of Prussia in cornisburg, and the kingdom of Prussia has a remarkable history of more than 200 years.

The seven-year war and three partition of Poland in the second half of the 18th century made it acquire Silesia in Austria, West Prussia in Poland and other places, and gradually became the feudal military power of Germany.

In the 19th century, capitalism developed further.

The bourgeois revolution broke out from 1848 to 1849, but failed.

After taking office as prime minister in 1862, he defeated his main competitors Austria and France through war and realized the unification of Germany.

In 1871, the German Empire centered on the kingdom of Prussia was established.

The Imperial Emperor and Prime Minister served as king and Prime Minister of the Kingdom respectively.

The Empire changed to centralized rule, and the Prussian Kingdom lost the meaning of “state”.

In November 1919, the German revolution overthrew the monarchy and established a republic.

The name of the kingdom of Prussia disappeared.

From 1697 to 1698, Russian Czar Peter I sent an ambassador mission to Western Europe.

In order to strengthen and expand the anti Turkey alliance with Western European countries and learn from the advanced science and technology of Western European countries.

In 1698, after calming the domestic military rebellion, in order to strengthen centralization and consolidate serfdom, Peter I began a comprehensive reform in the country.

The main contents of the reform are as follows: in terms of military affairs, he established a regular army of 200000 people, created a naval fleet, updated equipment and strictly trained officers.

In terms of economy, Peter vigorously developed all kinds of handicraft workshops and practiced mercantilism.

He also allowed factory owners to buy a large number of serfs as labor.

At the same time, trade ports have been built to develop domestic trade, and protective tariff policies have been implemented to reward exports and restrict imports.

In terms of culture and education, Peter founded schools at all levels to train all kinds of professionals.

At the same time, they sent foreign students to study in Western Europe, stipulating that noble children must receive education and learn arithmetic and a foreign language.

He also established Russia’s first printing house, museum, library and theater.

Politically, Peter held the religious power in his own hands, reformed the administrative system and strengthened the centralization of power.

In terms of social life, Peter asked the Russians to westernize their lives, forced the Russians to cut off their proud long beard, and asked the noble men and women to communicate according to Western etiquette.

These reforms have changed the situation of Russia’s low level of productivity, underdeveloped industry, commerce and culture, and laid the foundation for Russia to become one of the European powers.

Peter the great Peter Romanov is the fourth generation czar of the Romanov Dynasty and an outstanding politician, strategist and diplomat in Russia.

He is considered the most outstanding emperor of Russia.

He was born in 1672.

In 1682, after a court coup, 10-year-old Peter and his half brother Ivan V became Czar, but the power of the court soon fell to his half sister princess Sofia.

Peter and his mother were forced to live in seclusion on the outskirts of Moscow without asking about political affairs.

During this period, Peter established two boy legions himself, which caused Sofia’s concern.

In 1689, Sophia instigated a well-equipped shooting army rebellion to kill Peter and officially seize the throne.

After hearing the news, Peter led the boy scouts to attack quickly and captured Sophia, so that he could control the power of the country.

After Peter took power, he handed over the state affairs to his mother, uncle and other cronies.

He began to take power only after his mother died in 1694.

In 1695, he led 30000 troops to TurkeyThe rest of the troops marched south into chalizin.

Want to launch a Cossack uprising there and rebuild important military areas.

Due to the early preparation of government forces, the Don Cossacks did not respond to the Pugachev uprising.

The Tsarist government took the opportunity of the army to press in.

At this time, there was a rebellion within the rebel army, which was almost completely defeated.

Finally, Pugachev fled to the grassland with only the remaining 200 people.

On the way to escape, there were only 45 people left.

Under the temptation of the Czar government, some traitors decided to sell for glory.

They cheated Pugachev to the Bank of the great Wujin River, took him by surprise, tied him up and gave him to the Czar government.

On September 21, 1775, Pugachev was escorted to Moscow.

With the approval of yekaterina II, the court announced that Pugachev would “cut off his head and limbs, poke his head on a pointed peg, transport all parts of his body to four directions of Moscow, crush it with a car and burn it in place”.

The Pugachev uprising failed, but this uprising dealt a heavy blow to the serfdom in Russia and shook the foundation of the serfdom country, so that queen Ekaterina II had to change her ruling strategy and strengthen the political alliance with aristocratic landlords.

Russian poets once spoke highly of him, calling his denunciations and orders “a wonderful example of the people’s good rhetoric”.

In the 17th century, the capitalist economy in Europe developed greatly.

Trade between countries is increasing.

At that time, the trade channels among countries in the world were mainly at sea.

At that time, Dutch merchant ships traveled between five continents and three oceans, contracted most of the world’s maritime transportation, and was the most powerful maritime overlord in the world.

Therefore, they were known as “maritime coachman”.

Before independence, the Netherlands was only a province of Netherlands, a Spanish dependency.

“Netherland” means lowlands.

It is the general name of a large area of lowlands in the sea of people on the Rhine.

It includes today’s Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and part of northeastern France.

Netherland is a rich region, where half of the taxes of the Spanish Empire came from.

King Charles I of Spain regarded it as “a pearl in his crown”.

At the end of the 16th century, political movements and armed uprisings against Spanish rule generally rose in Netherlands.

In 1581, the seven northern provinces of Netherlands established the “inter provincial Republic”, of which the Netherlands province is the largest, so it is also known as the Netherlands Republic.

After independence, the Netherlands quickly accumulated a large amount of capital by relying on the fishing industry.

They put this capital into the shipbuilding industry.

The Dutch imported a large amount of wood for shipbuilding at low cost, low transportation costs and low tariffs.

The Netherlands has become the most developed country in the shipbuilding industry in the world and a powerful country in Western Europe.

Dutch shipbuilding technology is the most advanced in the world.

Many European countries go to the Netherlands to order ships.

In 1650, the number of merchant ships owned by the Netherlands ranked first in the world.

At that time.

Almost monopolized maritime trade.

At that time, Amsterdam was the center of international trade, and more than 2000 merchant ships often berthed in the port.

Dutch warships are almost twice as many as the navies of Britain and France.

They cruise the world’s oceans, protect their merchant ships, and engage in overseas colonial plunder.

In Asia, the Dutch first bypassed the Cape of good hope to India and Java in 1595.

Soon, the Dutch fleet defeated the Portuguese fleet twice in the claw border and the Strait of Malacca, and constantly pursued and robbed Chinese merchant ships, monopolizing the Eastern trade.

In 1602, the Netherlands established the East India Company to specifically control the trade in this region.

In the Americas, the Netherlands established the West India Company in 1621 to control the trade between northwest Africa and the Americas.

And occupied a colony in North America and established a new Netherlands centered on New Amsterdam (now New York).

In Africa, the Netherlands is the throat of traffic between the East and the West.

The Cape of good hope in South Africa built fortresses and colonies, and opened plantations there to ensure the supply of fresh water and food for passing ships.

In the second half of the 17th century, with the rise of Britain, France and other countries, Britain and the Netherlands launched three wars for hegemony at sea, and Britain gradually gained the advantage of the sea.

Later, France also participated.

The French Dutch war swept through the Netherlands and ended in a disastrous defeat.

The Netherlands has never recovered.

The position of world hegemony is declining.

From 1756 to 1763, two warring groups composed of major European countries fought for colonies and territories in Europe, America, India and other vast regions and waters.

In 1756, in order to regain Silesia occupied by Prussia in the war of succession to the Austrian throne, Austria was ready to launch a war against Prussia, so it allied with France.

Russia, Saxony, Sweden and Spain successively joined the alliance.

In order to compete for colonies with France, Britain needed Prussia to contain France in Europe, so it allied with Prussia.

On the European battlefield, after countless battles, the passive situation of Prussia was changed due to the withdrawal of Russian Peter III from the anti Prussian alliance. last. The general army repulsed the French Austrian coalition army and won the victory.

On February 15, 1763, it signed the Hubertusburg treaty with Austria and Saxony, and the war in Europe ended.

At the same time, Britain and France continued to compete for colonies in America, India and other places.

In America, the British occupied Quebec in 1759.

In 1760, the French army occupied Montreal and completely conquered Canada.

In India, Britain completely replaced France and was in an absolute advantage.

France retains only a few trade strongholds.

In West Africa, British forces occupied Gore island in Senegal.

In the West Indies, the British army defeated the French Spanish coalition and occupied Martinique, Grenada and the islands of Saint Lucia.

On February 10, 1763, Britain and France signed the Paris Treaty.

France was forced to cede the whole of Canada to Britain and withdraw from the whole of India.

Only five cities and towns were retained.

Britain became the overlord of overseas colonies and the road to the empire with the sun never setting.

The battlefields of the seven-year war spread across the European continent, the Mediterranean, North America, Cuba, India and the Philippines.

The war had a far-reaching impact on the formation of the international strategic pattern and the development of Military Academy in the second half of the 18th century.

The British Industrial Revolution in the 17th century AD, the British bourgeoisie established their rule through the revolution, clearing the way for the development of capitalism.

By the middle of the 18th century, it had met the basic conditions of the Industrial Revolution: a large amount of capital, a large number of free labor and a broad domestic and foreign market.

The so-called industrial revolution, which means “industrial revolution”, refers to the transition from capitalist handicraft workshops to large-scale machine productionThe declaration of civil rights establishes the basic principles of capitalism, such as human rights, the legal system, civil liberties and private property rights.

Parliament also issued decrees abolishing the aristocracy, abolishing the guild system, and confiscating and auctioning church property.

At the beginning of the revolution, the constitutional monarchy, which represented the interests of the big bourgeoisie and the liberal aristocracy, took power.

On June 20, 1791, Louis XVI fled in disguise in an attempt to collude with foreign forces to put out the revolution.

He was found out and taken back to Paris.

The broad masses demanded the abolition of the monarchy and the implementation of the Republic, but the constitutional monarchy advocated maintaining the status quo and retaining the monarchy.

The constitutional monarchy formulated the constitution of 1791 and convened a legislative session to safeguard the constitutional monarchy and oppose the continued development of the revolution.

On August 10, 1792, the people of Paris rose again, overthrew the rule of the constitutional monarchy and arrested King Louis.

The national assembly was convened on September 21, and the French Republic was announced the next day.

On January 21, 1793, the National Assembly tried and executed Louis XVI for treason.

The capture of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, the French Revolution reached a climax.

On this day, the brave people of Paris captured the Bastille prison, which imprisoned revolutionaries and symbolized feudal rule.

The Bastille is a very strong fortress.

It was built in the 12th century.

At that time, it was a military castle, mainly to defend against the British attack, so it was built in the east outside the city.

Later, with the continuous expansion of the urban area of Paris, the Bastille fortress became a building in the east of the urban area and lost its role in defending foreign enemies.

At the end of the 18th century.

It has become the commanding height of controlling Paris, where famous French political prisoners are detained.

The Bastille is 100 feet high and surrounded by a 25 foot wide trench.

There are eight towers around the prison, with cannons on them.

It is condescending and can look down on the whole of Paris.

The Bastille became a symbol of French autocracy.

When the uprising swarmed in, the soldiers guarding the Bastille pulled up the drawbridge and shot out with artillery and muskets.

Many insurgents fell to the ground and the attack was blocked.

At this time, the insurgents found some old guns from everywhere.

The shells broke the sling and the suspension bridge fell down.

The insurgents marched forward bravely, stepped on the drawbridge and rushed into the Bastille.

As soon as the commander of the Bastille saw that the general situation was gone, he picked up a torch and tried to light the powder magazine and blow up the Bastille.

The soldiers of the fortress were afraid to live with them.

At this time, the vanguard of the uprising rushed in and killed the commander.

Liberated the Bastille.

“The Bastille has been captured!” People recited it one after another, and for a time, their fighting spirit became more excited.

The capture of the Bastille became a signal of national revolution.

Following the example of the people of Paris, various cities armed themselves to seize the power of municipal management and established the national self defense army.

In the countryside, farmers attacked the Lord’s manor and burned the title deeds everywhere.

Soon, the constitutional assembly organized by the people took power.

This year.

The constituent assembly promulgated the “August decree” to “abolish all feudal obligations”.

Then the famous declaration of human rights was adopted, which solemnly proclaimed the principle of “personal freedom and equal rights” to the world.

The Bastille, a symbol of feudal evil, was completely destroyed.

In order to commemorate the great achievements of the people of Paris in their heroic capture of the Bastille, the French people took July 14 as their national day.

The fall of the Bastille in the hot moon coup kicked off the French Revolution.

Subsequently, a number of revolutionary groups appeared in Paris.

Among them, Jacobin Club played a great role in the revolution.

However, in the course of the revolution, divisions continued to appear within the bourgeoisie.

On August 10, 1792, the second armed uprising of the people of Paris overthrew the Bourbon Dynasty and ended the rule of the constitutionalists.

On September 22 of the same year, the first Republic of France was established, and giren special came to power.

On January 21, 1793, the National Assembly tried and executed Louis XVI for treason.

Later, Gironde used its main force to oppose the Jacobins led by Robespierre.

In the end, the Jacobins defeated Gillen mission and established the Jacobin dictatorship.

After the Jacobins came into power, the new regime faced a severe situation.

The Jacobin regime united with the people and took tough measures.

On June 24, 1793, the new government announced France’s first Republican democratic constitution.

In July, the national salvation Committee was reorganized and strengthened.

In September, the National Assembly put the “terror” policy on the agenda.

These measures brought about a rapid improvement in the situation.

From the end of 1793 to the beginning of 1794, all foreign intervention forces were driven out of the country, and the domestic rebellion was basically subsided.

With the improvement of the situation at home and abroad, there has been a division within the Jacobin faction, which is divided into Dandong faction, Robespierre faction and EBER faction.

Robespierre realized that more and more people opposed him, so he adopted a more cruel terrorist policy.

Arbitrary, he successively sent Abel, Dandong and others who opposed his current policy to the guillotine.

His reign of terror led all bourgeois parliamentarians who opposed Robespierre to quickly unite in the national assembly and soon became an anti Robespierre force.

On July 27, 1794, at a meeting of the national assembly, the anti Robespierre members arrested Robespierre and the core Jacobins such as St.

juster and Anton without giving him any chance to speak, and sent them to the guillotine the next day.

This year is the “second year of the Republic” of the French Republican Calendar.

It is a hot month in September.

Therefore, this coup is called “hot month coup” in history.

The coup marked the end of the Jacobin revolutionary dictatorship and the rising stage of the French Revolution.

The French bourgeois revolution entered a politically reactionary period.

After the fog moon coup and the hot moon coup, the hot Moon Party came to power.

The hot Moon Party was originally a temporary combination of various factions.

There was no unified program, and the domestic political situation has always been volatile.

It was in this context that Bonaparte stepped onto the stage of history.

Napoleon in his youth fully demonstrated his outstanding military genius with excellent command ability.

The French national revolutionary military government greatly appreciated his talent and boldly appointed him to lead troops everywhere.

Napoleon also lived up to his high expectations and dealt a powerful blow to the feudal forces in Europe.

In March 1796, Napoleon, 26, was appointed commander in chief of the French and Italian front army.

In 1798, Napoleon led an expedition to Egypt.

At that time, Egypt was occupied by Britain and was invaded with the support of BritainIn December 1773, the angry people of Boston dumped all 342 boxes of tea worth £ 15000 on the East India Company tea ship into the sea.

In order to retaliate for the “tea pouring operation”, the British rulers successively implemented five new decrees since March 1774: closing Boston port, canceling Massachusetts autonomy, the British army can be stationed freely in the colonies, the British officials broke the law and handed it over to the UK for trial, and forbidding the colonial people to reclaim land in the West.

These decrees made the people of North America feel unbearable, so a struggle to get rid of colonial rule and strive for national independence burned unstoppably and rapidly.

In 1774, the first Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia.

The Continental Congress focused on the issue of national independence, and unanimously adopted the declaration of rights, requiring the British government to lift various economic restrictions and high-pressure decrees on the colonies.

After the first Continental Congress, the people of North America actively prepared to overthrow British colonial rule.

On the evening of April 18, 1775, Massachusetts Governor gage sent 800 British troops to Boston to search the secret Arsenal.

On April 19, when the British army passed Lexington, it was ambushed by the militia.

The British Army protruded from the ambush circle and found that the arms had been transferred.

On the way home, the British army was attacked by the volunteers again, with heavy casualties.

This was the famous battle of Lexington, which fired the first shot of the North American Revolution.

In May 1775, the Second Continental Congress was held.

The meeting decided to issue banknotes, buy weapons from abroad, recruit volunteers, reorganize the militia into the “Continental Army”, appoint George as commander-in-chief to command the war of independence, and then announced the declaration of independence.

In 1777, a British general bogoin was defeated when he tried to enter New York from Canada and passed through Freemans farm.

He was surrounded in Saratoga and finally had to surrender.

In the same year, France and Spain declared war on Britain one after another, which greatly hindered Britain’s maritime traffic.

In 1781, the British army under general Cornwallis was surrounded on the Yorkton Peninsula in Virginia and was forced to surrender.

In 1783, the armistice was signed in Paris, so 13 states from Maine to Georgia formed an independent and sovereign interstate alliance.

After the end of the North American War of independence, the United States of America was founded.

Washington George Washington is the founding president of the United States of America and the only one who was elected president by a unanimous vote.

He is respected by Americans as the “father of the country”.

He was born in a plantation family in Virginia on February 22, 1732.

When his father died at the age of 11, Washington inherited his 8000 acres and hundreds of serfs.

In 1753, the French invaded Virginia.

Washington joined the anti French army and was appointed lieutenant colonel.

In 1773, the Boston Tea dumping incident broke out, and the contradiction and conflict between Britain and North America intensified.

The people of North America United to hold the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

With Lexington’s first shot against British colonial rule, the American War of independence began.

On May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia.

Washington was appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army, commanded the war of independence, and issued the declaration of independence.

Under the leadership of Washington, the people of North America have won victory after victory.

In 1778, it formed an alliance with France, and the US military received strong support.

He began to take the initiative in the war.

In 1781, the American War of Independence ended with the victory of the United States.

Washington led the people of North America to win the victory with his talent and wisdom.

Independence is at hand.

In 1783, Britain and the United States signed a peace agreement and the United States of America officially declared its independence.

After the war, Washington refused any reward, left the army and returned to Mount Vernon.

In 1787, the constitutional convention was held in Philadelphia, and Washington was elected chairman of the constitutional convention.

In 1789, Washington was elected the first president of the United States.

After two terms of office, he resolutely refused to be re elected and returned to Mount Vernon.

During his eight-year presidency, he made great contributions to the United States.

Economically, Washington established the first national bank “Bank of the United States”, a stable monetary system.

Legally, the first ten amendments to the constitution known as the “bill of rights” came into force.

This is the highest achievement that Washington has contributed to the United States and all mankind.

It has now become the norm of international human rights and has played an inestimable role in promoting the development of human rights in the United States and even the whole world.

In foreign affairs, Washington advocated that the United States should be neutral in European affairs, and issued a declaration of neutrality in April 1793.

In order to avoid disputes with Britain.

The Washington government signed the Jay Treaty with Britain in 1794, which eased the relationship between the United States and Britain and created conditions for the development of the American economy.

In 1799, Washington died of laryngitis at the age of 67.

Washington is a hero in the eyes of Americans.

He created a new America and guided it forward.

His policies and the principles he established were observed by later American leaders and laid the foundation for the prosperity of the United States.

Benjamin Franklin was an American industrialist, scientist, social activist, thinker and diplomat in the 18th century.

He is the first scientist and inventor with international reputation in American history.

Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston, North America, on January 17, 1706.

He came from a humble background.

He dropped out of school at the age of 10 and went home to work.

At the age of 12, he became an apprentice in the small printing factory run by his brother.

Since then, he has been a printer for 10 years.

In 1723, Franklin left Boston to work as a worker at the kiveal printing house in Philadelphia and the palvey and watts printing house in London, England.

In the autumn of 1726, Franklin returned to Philadelphia.

At this time, he had mastered the exquisite printing technology and began to operate the printing house independently.

He printed and distributed the Pennsylvania newspaper and published the Poor Richard Almanac.

At that time, he was translated into 12 languages and sold in European and American countries.

In the autumn of 1727, he and several young people founded the “co reading society” in Philadelphia.

A small library was organized to help workers, handicraftsmen and small staff learn by themselves.

Franklin also became a learned scholar and Enlightenment thinker through hard self-study, and his reputation in North America is increasing day by day.

In 1746, an English scholar performed electrical experiments in Boston using glass tubes and Leiden bottles.

Franklin was strongly attracted by the emerging science of electricity, and then Franklin began the research of electricity.

FranklinThe experiment shows that there are two kinds of charge sources in the home.

Later, he thought of lightning.

After repeated thinking, he concluded that lightning is also a discharge phenomenon.

Therefore, he wrote a paper called “on lightning in the sky is the same as our electricity”, but no one paid attention to it.

Franklin did an experiment in a storm.

He made a kite with a metal rod and then flew it up into the air.

At the moment when the lightning flashed, the current flowed down the wire on the kite.

Franklin touched it with his hand and felt numb by the electric shock.

He immediately introduced an electric current into the Lai Gu bottle.

After returning home, Franklin carried out various electrical experiments with lightning, which proved that the lightning in the sky had exactly the same properties as the electricity generated by artificial friction.

The success of the kite experiment made Franklin famous in the scientific community all over the world.

He developed a lightning rod based on this principle.

Franklin was not only a great scientist, but also an outstanding politician, diplomat and one of the leaders of the American independence movement.

He made an indelible contribution to the establishment of the United States of America.

After the outbreak of the American War of independence, Franklin resolutely cut off all ties with Britain and supported the revolutionary war with his own property.

He participated in the drafting of the declaration of independence, was appointed by the Continental Congress and visited Europe as a diplomatic envoy, which achieved great success in diplomacy.

After the victory of the war of independence, Franklin shouldered the important task of peace talks with Britain.

After more than a year of hard work, Britain was finally forced to sign the US UK peace treaty in 1783 and officially recognize American independence.

April 17, 1790.

Franklin died.

On the day of his funeral, 20000 people were buried for him, which fully expressed the condolences of the American people to him.

At the same time, not only the US Congress decided to mourn for him for one month, but also the French National Assembly decided to mourn for him, indicating that he belongs not only to the United States, but also to the world.