The footprints of Babylon in Cuba are the earliest civilization in the world and one of the birthplaces of human civilization – the two river basin.
Ancient Greece called this area “Mesopotamia”, which means the place between the two rivers.
It originates from Sumer region, a watershed between Tigris River and Euphrates River.
Mesopotamia is the seat of Babylon, Cuba, in what is now the Republic of Iraq.
The period from 4000 BC to 2250 BC was the heyday of the two river civilizations.
The banks of the two rivers accumulated fertile soil due to the flooding of the river, which was known as the “fertile crescent zone” in history.
Around 3000 BC, dozens of the earliest slavery countries were formed in the two river basins.
In order to compete for land and water, the city states fought constantly and gradually became unified in the war.
At that time, the Semitic people, a nomadic tribe living in the north of the Lianghe River Basin, established the Akkad Kingdom and gradually prospered.
Akkad conquered the city states of Sumer, unified the two river basins for the first time in about 2300 BC, and established the kingdom of Babylon.
The kingdom of Babylon reached its heyday in the 18th century BC under the rule of hammotoby, a state worker.
After the death of Hammurabi, the kingdom of Babylon gradually declined.
In 1595 BC, the Hittites in the North invaded, and the Babylonian kingdom of Cuba was on the road to extinction.
Hammurabi code after Hammurabi ascended the throne, he unified the two river basins and established a centralized autocratic system.
In order to safeguard the interests of private ownership and the slave owner class.
Hammurabi drew on the legislative achievements of previous states and formulated a code.
The code of Hammurabi is engraved on a black basalt pillar, and the upper part of the pillar is a relief of the kingship granted to Hammurabi by the sun god and the God of justice Shamash.
Below the relief is an inscription engraved in cuneiform.
There are 282 articles in the code of Hammurabi.
The original text on the stone tablet is engraved in column 51 and is divided into three parts: preface, text and conclusion.
The preface and conclusion are written in the form of poetry, accounting for 15 pages of the full text.
The content of the text is extensive, and the slavery relations, hierarchical relations, tenancy and employment relations, commercial loan relations, family and marriage relations and property relations formed at that time are firmly fixed by legal civilization.
The whole code reflects the spirit of protecting the private property of slave owners.
The code clearly declares that slaves are the private property of slave owners and can be sold, transferred and mortgaged at will.
At that time, the market price of slaves was about the same as that of a cow.
The system of maintaining class inequality is open.
The code divides the residents into slave owners, free people and slaves.
Their legal status is very different: slave owners enjoy full rights.
free people enjoy partial rights.
And slaves have no rights.
If the slave owner blinded the free people, he only needed to pay a little money.
If you blind a slave, you don’t have to pay for it at all.
And if the slave has a little disrespect for the slave owner, he will be severely punished and even sentenced to death.
In addition, the code also promulgated many laws and regulations similar to social security, including: determining the price of goods.
Limit the interest rate to 20%.
The city is responsible for making compensation to the victims of robbery or murder detected.
Hammurabi code is the earliest and relatively complete written code in the world.
It came into being in response to the needs of social and economic development, alleviated class contradictions and consolidated kingship.
It had an important influence on the written laws of the later ancient West Asian and North African countries (Hittite, Assyria, New Babylon, Persia).
Navigation nation – Phoenicians in the 13th to 11th centuries BC, in today’s Syria, there is an active nation from nowhere, bordering the Mediterranean in the west, Mount Lebanon in the East, Asia Minor in the north and Palestine in the south.
Her name is Phoenicia.
Phoenicia means “purple red” in Greek, but why has it become the name of a nation? It is said that nobles and monks in Egypt, Babylon, Hittites and Greece liked to wear purple robes at that time.
But to their chagrin, the color fades easily.
They all noticed that some people living on the east coast of the Mediterranean always wear bright purplish red clothes because they produce a kind of purplish pigment.
It seems that their clothes will never fade, even if they are worn out.
The color is the same as when it was new.
This is so striking that people call these residents on the east coast of the Mediterranean “purplish red people”, that is, Phoenicians.
Phoenicians are a nation of navigation people.
They use the geographical environment and sea routes to trade with other cities, so they can improve their understanding of the cultural things of other countries.
In fact, the Phoenicians were a group of excellent militarists, so they could control the areas along the Mediterranean.
Because they did business at sea, they were deeply influenced by Egyptian culture, so they learned the skills of mummification, made the bodies of the dead into mummies and put them in human coffins: they also worshipped Egyptian gods.
Phoenicians developed foreign business and intermarried with other nationalities, so they lost their cultural characteristics and gradually assimilated by other nationalities.
Nevertheless, the Phoenicians were still a powerful nation in the New Testament era.
Phoenician characters Phoenicians created the first set of Pinyin letters in the world, which gradually popularized Pinyin characters among ancient nationalities.
Due to the developed navigation and international commercial trade of Phoenicia, on the one hand, the economy needs to prepare commercial documents in time, which requires a set of generally understandable, simple and convenient text system.
On the other hand, because Phoenicia is engaged in international commercial activities, it is possible to create new alphabetic characters because of its extensive contact with and familiarity with the texts of ancient countries.
In the 13th century BC, the Phoenicians used Egyptian hieroglyphs and Babylonian cuneiform to create the world’s first set of Pinyin letters.
This set of 22 letters has only consonants and no vowels.
The ancient Greek and Aramaic letters are derived from Phoenician letters.
The Greek alphabet later developed into Latin and Slavic alphabets: the Aramaic alphabet later developed into Indian, Arab, Armenian, Uygur and other alphabets.
It can be said that the Phoenician alphabet is the common ancestor of the letters of all ethnic groups in the world.
Its invention is a great contribution to the world culture.
In Homer’s time, in the 12th century BC, the Dorians invaded the Greek peninsula, destroyed the city states of the Akaya people, destroyed the Mycenaean civilization, and made the disintegrating City surnameThe tribal system regained its dominance.
Greek history has entered a period of temporary retrogression.
The only important document left in this period is Homer’s epic, so later generations call this period “Homer’s era”.
Homer and Homer’s epic in the mid-9th century BC, there was a blind old man named Homer.
He collected the stories created and recited orally and compiled them into two epics.
Then he wandered around with a lyre on his back and sang the epic in exchange for food and accommodation.
His poems tell many glorious historical deeds, myths and legends of Greece.
Later, people recorded his great poem and named it after him, which was called Homer’s epic.
Homer’s epic is divided into two parts: the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Iliad tells the story of the last year of the Trojan War.
Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus, the resourceful hero of the Greek coalition army, who crossed the sea and returned home after the war.
Something risky on the way.
Spartans who preferred martial arts and light culture invaded the robennesian peninsula from the north of the Greek peninsula in the 11th century BC.
One of the Dorians entered lagonia.
They destroyed the original city-state, drove away the original residents and made themselves masters of the region.
A new city named Sparta (the name of a goddess in legend) was built on the right bank of the Euphrates River in lagonia.
However, the city has neither walls nor decent streets.
Later, people called these invaders Spartans.
In the process of conquering lagonia, the Spartans turned their original residents into slaves, and the residents of other city states conquered by them also became their slaves.
The Spartans collectively referred to these slaves as the Hilos.
It was the hard work of the Hilo people all year round that enabled the Spartans to dominate.
In order to maintain their rule.
To suppress the resistance of the Shilo people who were oppressed and exploited by them, the Spartans formed a unique political system and a social form in which the whole people joined the army.
The rise of Greek city states Greek city states evolved from primitive communes.
From about the 8th century BC, the Greeks not only built their own city states, but also carried out large-scale overseas colonization activities and established many new colonial cities, which is called “great colonization” in history.
At this time, the economic, political and cultural development of various regions in Greece was unbalanced.
Hundreds of small city states coexisted, and many city-state alliances appeared.
According to their political status, city-state residents are divided into three categories: free people who have citizenship and can participate in political activities: free people without citizenship.
A slave in a position of exploitation and slavery.
The citizens of the city-state constitute the ruling group as a whole.
As opposed to free men and slaves without citizenship.
The emergence and development of city-state system had a profound impact on the history of ancient Greece and Western society.
Due to the low level of productivity and limited knowledge of people in Greek mythology, ancient Greece understood many unexplained natural phenomena as the role of divine power, so there were legends about God.
Greek mythology includes two parts: the story of God and the legend of heroes.
The story of God involves the origin of the universe and mankind, the emergence of God and its pedigree.
It is said that there were twelve gods of Olympus in ancient Greece: Zeus, the Lord of the gods, Hera, Poseidon, the king of the sea, and Athena, the goddess of wisdom.
Apollo, the God of archery and light, Artemis, the goddess of hunting and the God of the moon, Aphrodite, the God of love and beauty, Ares, the God of war, Hephaestus, the God of fire and craftsman, Hermes, the God envoy, Demeter, the God of agriculture, and Hestia, the God of the kitchen.
They are in charge of all kinds of phenomena and things in nature and life, and form the Olympian God centered on Zeus and all kinds of phenomena and things in life.
Form the Olympian theocracy system centered on Zeus.
The legend of heroes originated from the worship of ancestors.
It is an artistic review of ancient Greek’s struggle against ancient history and nature.
The protagonists in such legends are mostly the descendants of God and man, half god and half man heroes.
They are extremely strong and heroic, reflecting the heroic spirit and indomitable will of mankind to conquer nature, and have become the embodiment of the collective strength and wisdom of the ancient people.
The most famous legends include Hercules’s twelve great feats, Iason’s taking gold, wool and so on.
In Greek mythology, God and man are of the same form.
There are not only people’s physical beauty, but also people’s seven emotions and six desires.
They know happiness, anger, sorrow and joy and participate in people’s activities.
The difference between God and man is only that the former has eternal life and no period of death.
The latter’s life is limited, with birth, old age and death.
The God in Greek mythology has distinct personality, no asceticism factors, and little mysticism.
Therefore, Greek mythology is not only the soil of Greek literature, but also has a far-reaching impact on later European literature.
There are many legends about the origin of the ancient Olympic Games in the ancient Greek Olympic Games.
The most important ones are the following three kinds: first, the ancient Olympic Games are sports and competitive activities held regularly to sacrifice Zeus.
Another legend is that Heracles, the son of Zeus, was praised as “Hercules” for his great power.
In the city of Elis, he completed tasks that ordinary people could not complete.
In less than half a day, he cleaned the king’s cowshed filled with cow dung, but the king didn’t want to fulfill his promise of giving 300 cows, so Heracles drove the king away in a rage.
To celebrate his victory, he held the Olympic Games at the Olympics.
The third and most popular saying is that the king of Elis of ancient Greece proposed that the candidate must compete with himself in a chariot in order to choose a son-in-law who is both literate and martial for his daughter.
In the competition, 13 young people were killed under the king’s spear, and the 14th young man was Pelops, the grandson of Zeus and the sweetheart of the princess.
Inspired by love, he bravely accepted the king’s challenge and finally won with wisdom.
In order to celebrate this victory, Pelops and the princess held a grand wedding in front of the Olympic Zeus temple.
At the meeting, chariots, wrestling and other competitions were arranged.
This was the original ancient Olympic Games.
Pelops became the legendary founder of the ancient Olympic Games.
The origin of the Olympic Games is closely related to the social situation of ancient Greece.
In the 9th-8th century BC, the Greek clan society gradually disintegrated, the slave society of the city-state system gradually formed, and more than 200 city-states were established.
The city states are governed by their own governments, there is no unified monarch, and there are constant wars between the city states.
In order to cope with the war, the city states actively trained their soldiers.
Spartan city childrenSince the age of 7, he has been raised by the state, engaged in sports and military training, and lived a military life.
War needs soldiers, soldiers need strong bodies, and sports is a powerful means to cultivate good soldiers.
The war promoted the development of sports in Greece, and the events of the ancient Olympic Games also had an obvious military brand.
The people are disgusted by the continuous war and generally yearn for a peaceful environment on which to recuperate.
Later, King Sparta and King Elis signed the “holy truce month” treaty.
Therefore, the military training and sports competition in preparation for the source of troops have gradually become a sports meeting of peace and friendship.
Solon’s reform Solon was born in a declining noble family in ancient Athens.
In his youth, Solon went on a business trip to avoid bankruptcy.
His footprints spread throughout the Greek city states.
He has also been to Asia Minor and other places.
Be familiar with local social systems and customs.
Solon, who gradually matured, learned about the suffering of the lower class people and sublated the arrogance of the aristocracy.
At the beginning of the 6th century BC, Megara occupied the salami peninsula.
Salami peninsula is the gateway of Athens, close to the west coast of Athens.
Athens rose up in revolt, but in vain.
Solon aroused national dignity and patriotic enthusiasm with a lament of salami, so the ruling group appointed Solon as commander to lead the battle.
With his unique wisdom, Solon captured the salami Peninsula and made great contributions to the country.
Solon became famous for recovering the salami peninsula.
In 594 BC, a slave owner noble named Solon was elected governor of Athens.
After Solon became consul, he announced to cancel the debts of civilians, abolish debt slavery, and prohibit the conversion of indebted civilians into slaves.
He also stipulated that the political rights enjoyed by citizens should vary according to the amount of their property: citizens at the first and second levels are eligible to hold the highest official position – consul.
Citizens at the third level are eligible for low-level official positions, while citizens at the fourth level cannot hold official positions.
Solon also set up new institutions to manage the country and promulgated regulations to reward commerce and handicrafts.
These political and economic reform measures weakened the power of the Athenian aristocracy, improved the poor situation of the civilians, enabled them to participate in the political life of the country, and alleviated social contradictions.
The foundation of Athenian state rule was therefore expanded.
Solon is also known as one of the “seven sages” of ancient Greece.