A more interesting phenomenon of

is that the evaluation of Cromwell in later generations often varies according to the social background of different periods. For example, on the occasion of his death, historians recorded in their diary that “this was the happiest funeral I had ever seen”. Subsequently, the monarchy was restored, and various works of scolding Krishnamurti, represented by James Hess’s whip, were published one after another.

article is extracted from: Southern Weekend, July 4, 2013, issue 1533, author: Li Huixiang, original title: National founder or single husband and private thief? – What do the British think of Cromwell’s

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? The most controversial figure in British history is Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658).

at the beginning, Cromwell was just an ordinary boy with average grades and unable to adhere to his studies except mathematics. When he was a freshman at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge University, he was evaluated by Bishop Burnett as “only learning a little Latin, making mistakes and struggling in speaking Latin”. After dropping out of school, he originally wanted to inherit his father’s mantle. When he was a squire, he participated in a large number of political gatherings when he went to London to study law, and embarked on the road of no return for rural intellectuals in politics. The two key years of “spekds” and “spkds” determine the destiny of “spekds” and “spekds”. On March 19 that year, the leader of China’s peasant army whipped the Forbidden City. The 400000 forbidden army “fought against the enemy and only two people died in Xinjiang”, while the former Ming officials “were dressed in clothes and clothes, and rebelled like clouds”.

in July of the same year, Cromwell led the “New Model Army” of “coarse clothes” and the Royal Army led by King Charles I to fight to the death on the Marston grassland thousands of miles away. In the end, the poor squire, who had neither attended military academy nor received special military training, became a hero who turned the world around in one fell swoop. More than 3000 enemy troops were annihilated, more than 1600 enemy troops were captured and 16 artillery were captured.

five years later, under the leadership of Cromwell, the British supreme court put King Charles I on the guillotine for the crimes of tyrant, traitor, murderer and national public enemy. The British revolution opened the prelude to the revolutionary movements in Europe and North America and is an indispensable chapter in the modern history of the world. As for Cromwell, he was a powerful figure in that era. Because of his irreplaceable position in the revolutionary process, Cromwell was studied and evaluated by later generations.

however, after entering the peak of his life, Cromwell’s next move has led to his controversial historical image.

after the execution of Charles I, Cromwell, who was willing to run away in support of the great protest and protest against the abuse of kingship, has in fact become a strong political man in Britain. He founded the only Republic in British history, but he was no longer enthusiastic about the ideal of constitutional government. He told jurists that “it may be beneficial for the country to make a man king”.

like his infatuation with violence when conquering Ireland, Cromwell dissolved Parliament by relying on the army. In the last five years of his life, Cromwell became the “protector” of the Republic. This lifelong position not only integrates legislative, administrative and military powers, but also has the right to appoint successors.

in 1655, he further divided the country into 11 military regions. Each military region was led by a major general and ruled by the police. Residents’ activities were monitored and dissidents were persecuted.

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personal reputation and absolute support of the army turned into a complaint of “Torrential Flood” after his death. When Cromwell fell on his bed in the Whitehall of London, Charles II was restored in 1661. Krishnamurti’s tomb at Westminster Abbey was ordered to be excavated, and his head was publicly displayed for 25 years after his body was found by autopsy and sentenced to car crack.

Cromwell ranked 10th in the “100 greatest Britons” poll sponsored by the BBC in 2002. How to evaluate this character, which will be mentioned in Chinese middle school textbooks, has been debated for more than 300 years by historians, politicians and media in Britain and around the world. According to a statistics in the first half of the 20th century, there are nearly 3700 books on Cromwell’s research. This man with mixed reputation left a big problem for later generations –

in 1899, on the occasion of Cromwell’s 300th birthday, British parliamentarians initiated the casting of a bronze statue for Cromwell. Today, the statue is still standing and facing Parliament Square, which is more magnificent than the bronze statues of several kings. However, before the bronze statue was erected, there had been several heated debates in the house of Commons.

on the 311th anniversary of Cromwell’s death in 1969, the people column of the Times published two articles commenting on Cromwell at the same time. One praised Cromwell’s achievements, especially his military skills to improve Britain’s national strength; The other one cursed Krishnamurti as the prototype of a hypocrite, traitor and fascist.

interestingly, Maurice Ashley, an expert on contemporary Cromwell research. He has written two biographies of Cromwell. The first was in 1937 and was entitled Cromwell, a conservative dictator. There is nothing good to say about Kirschner in the book. Twenty years later, Dr. AI published a new book entitled “the greatness of Cromwell”. The dictatorial and old-fashioned usurper described in the previous book became the national hero in the later book.

when Cromwell was alive, he had been attacked by the left and right. The British study of Krishnamurti’s historiography has formed different schools: Torrey historians clarenton and Hume denied Krishnamurti and cursed him as a bloodthirsty murderer. Whig historians Macaulay and travlin believed that he was a great soldier with a sword and a Bible, and a hero of Britain’s becoming a sea overlord. Green, a scholar of democratic radicalism, praised Kirschner for improving Britain’s strengthHe also attacked his violation of freedom and civil rights… There are a lot of them.

a more interesting phenomenon is that the evaluation of Cromwell in later generations often varies according to the social background of different periods. For example, on the occasion of his death, historians recorded in their diary that “this was the happiest funeral I had ever seen”. Subsequently, the monarchy was restored, and various works of scolding Krishnamurti, represented by James Hess’s whip, were published one after another.

after the completion of the industrial revolution in the 19th century, many people began to look back on Krishnamurti, who “opened the way for their overseas expansion”, and felt that he was particularly admirable. Like Che Guevara, the revolutionaries have shaped Ke Shi into a totem. Carlyle, the famous author of heroic historical view, has given Ke Shi the reputation of “the hero of the king”.

however, during the Second World War, due to people’s hatred and worry about fascism, Krishnamurti’s “cruel figures that strangle democracy and freedom” were also reinterpreted and made a negative evaluation of Krishnamurti.

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