, the dating project of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, which is still in its infancy, is an important research work to determine the historical periods and related achievements of the pre-Qin, three dynasties, Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties by using the comprehensive method of multi-disciplinary (Archaeology, ancient philology, etc.). Although China is known as the four ancient civilizations in the world, compared with the 6000 year history of Egypt and the 5500 history of Babylon and India , China’s history is only 3400 years from the Yin and Shang Dynasties with Oracle as evidence, 4100 years from King Xia Yu and 4600 years from the Yellow Emperor. Now, with the development of Archaeology and the adoption of a series of new methods and technologies (such as prehistoric archaeology, physical archaeology, molecular archaeology, aviation archaeology, etc. ), the history of mankind and human civilization is extending to an older era. At present, the earliest ancient cities have been found, including Jericho in the Middle East 9000 years ago, elidu 6000 years ago, Susa in Persia 5000 years ago, Troy in Turkey 5000 years ago, and the Aegean civilization represented by Crete and Mycenae in Greece has been determined to have a history of 4000 to 5000 years [1,3]. one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four It was reported in that an ancient Andean city with thousands of people living 3800 years ago was found 350 kilometers north of Lima in South America, with about 4000 civilizations Years of history . In the face of these scientific facts, China’s status as the four ancient civilizations has been severely challenged, which has also attracted the attention of Chinese at home and abroad.
of course, the length of Chinese history is a scientific problem, which must not be fabricated out of nothing, such as the millions of years mentioned in the Han Wei book. Because Chinese history has 3000 years of continuous and detailed documents, which are unique in the world after all. However, as a reflection, foreign archaeologists turned myths and legends into history. The most famous example is the excavation of Troyer by German archaeologist H. sheriman from 1870 to 1890, which confirmed the historical authenticity of Homer’s long poem Iliad. However, some Chinese scholars classify the possible history as myth, not only deny Fuxi and Shennong, but even think that the Yellow Emperor and Dayu are legends. Are these too strong contrasts worth pondering by the Chinese people?!
China is known as Huaxia. Where does the word Huaxia come from? The modern Encyclopedia of China has no Chinese articles. The Concise Encyclopedia of Britain The entry is: “the ancient name of China and the Han nationality,… ‘Hua’ means’ Glory ‘and’ Xia ‘means’ Chinese people’, People in the Central Plains 2100-770 BC In, Xia people, businessmen and Zhou people in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River lived with other tribes for a long time, and gradually formed the Huaxia nationality. ” The Chinese article in Cihai reads: “China was called Huaxia in ancient times. Zuo Zhuan. Ten years of the reign of the Duke (said): ‘descendants do not seek summer, foreigners do not disturb China’. Shu: ‘China has great etiquette and righteousness, so it is called Xia; there is the beauty of clothing and rules, which is called Hua. China is also one of them.” “Wu Cheng”: “the Chinese people are so cruel that they don’t take the lead.” Shu: summer is also great. Therefore, the great country is called summer. China is also called “China.” It can be seen that the name of China was earlier than the spring and Autumn period and before China. However, it can be seen from the quotation of Zuo Zhuan that the explanations of Hua Weirong and Xia Weida are inappropriate. It seems that this is just a literal meaning after China has become a great country. In my opinion, China should be similar to Yanhuang, which originates from entities, not adjectives. Xia Ying originated from the name of the first dynasty in Chinese history. Just as the lunar calendar is also known as the summer calendar, it is said that this calendar has been adopted in the summer
. Hua precedes Xia and is called together with Xia, so the source should be similar. After reading the etymology and classics, China should come from the hometown of Fuxi, the ancestor of China, and the name of Huaxu country. The early ancestor of China was Fuxi (Taihao), which can be found in Shangshu. Biography, ceremony, book of changes, book of Han, history of the road, spring and autumn transportation and Doushu, baihutong, imperial century, spring and autumn Life Calendar preface and other classics. At the same time, the alias of Fuxi can also be found in pseudo three graves, Zuo Zhuan, Guan Zi, Huainanzi, corpse, Shiben and other books. “Zuo Zhuan. Seventeen years of the Duke of Zhao” was written by Tanzi in the dynasty of Lu, which also mentioned taking Taihao as the ancestor. According to the records of emperor’s century, Yu Di Guang Ji and the map of dunjia opening the mountain, Fu Xi was born in Chengji. No later than the Qing Dynasty, according to the records in Tongjian catalogue : “Fuxi, the Taihao emperor, was born in Chengji. The emperor’s mother lived in the Zhu of Huaxu, walked on giant tracks, moved her mind, and hung around it, so she began to conceive and was born in Chengji. There was Huaxu’s mausoleum in the ancient state of Huaxu, Huanyuji and Lantian County. The ancient city of Chengji is now Qin’an County, Qinzhou, Gansu Province.” Yuan Huang and Wang Shizhen’s “Gang Jian co edited” records are similar . “Lu Shi. Taihao Ji”: “Huaxu note, said Ji Yun’s capital country, there is the abyss of Huaxu, which was almost the name of the country at that time.” Therefore, we believe that the state of Huaxu is not empty. Combined with a series of archaeological discoveries, this paper discusses it from three aspects: space, time and historical sites. The era of Tongjian collection is . Fuxi was 1260 years away from Shennong, 520 years away from the Yellow Emperor, 2698 BC, so Fuxi was about 4478 BC. Therefore, the above ancient documents constitute a preliminary space-time reference system.
it is thought-provoking that Huaxu recorded in the Ming and Qing Dynasties was in Lantian, Shaanxi, and Chengji was in Qin’an, Gansu. From 1963 to 1964, 78-85 archaeological discoveries were made in CHENJIAWO and Gongzhuling, Lantian County The site of Lantian people 10000 years ago. Therefore, this is one of the birthplaces of Chinese people. Dadiwan site with different periods of Yangshao culture was found in Qin’an from 1978 to 1982, which is divided into 5850-5400 BC The early years of and the late years of 4050-2950 BC . The God carried by our ancestors is also a liar! There are also archaeological sites not far from Lantian and Qin’an  and Yuanjun Temple cemetery and Laoguantai site in Huaxian County, Shaanxi Province in the early Yangshao culture (5500-4800 BC), Banpo site in Xi’an during Yangshao period (5000-4500 BC), Jiangzhai site in Lintong (4600-3690 BC), beishouling site in Baoji (5150-3790 BC), and the rest are also distributed in Huayin, Weinan, Huaxian and other places. The ruins of Majiayao culture (3300-2050 BC) in the late Yangshao culture exist in Majiayao in Lintao, Gansu Province Lanzhou qinggangcha, Yongchang yuanyangchi, Qinghai Ledu Liuwan and other places. In addition, Mianchi Yangshao in Henan Province, Miaodigou in Shaanxi county, Luoyang wangwan, Xiwang village in Ruicheng, Shanxi Province, Xiyin village in Xia CountyThe site of Wanrong village was found at the same time. Therefore, the ancient state of Huaxu, which existed from the birth of Fuxi to the emergence of Yan and Huang, is equivalent to the middle and late stage of Yangshao culture, about 4600-2700 BC. The region is mainly western Gansu, Weihe River Basin in Shaanxi and one section of the Yellow River Basin.
records : Fuxi “began to make nets and nets to teach fishing”, “raise sacrifices to serve as a kitchen”, replaced
with deeds, made wedding and painted eight diagrams. According to archaeology , there were net pendants, fish hooks, arrows, etc. in the hunting and fishery in Yangshao period. Livestock were raised. There were primitive characters in the form of symbols, there were signs of marital system, and the eight trigrams symbols 7000 years ago had been unearthed. At the same time, from the rotation of Fuxi and Nuwa, it can be inferred that this is the alternating period of matriarchal clan and paternal clan society, and it is just consistent with the archaeological results. Later Dawenkou Culture (4300-2500 BC) and Longshan Culture (2900-2000 BC) were equivalent to the establishment of the Yan and Huang dynasties to the Xia Dynasty. Xia (21st-17th century BC) may correspond to the later Erlitou culture in southern Shanxi and Western Henan (21st-17th century BC). This is consistent with the ancient books that Xia Yu and Xia Qi built their capital in Anyi (mountain county) and Juntai (Kaifeng, Henan) .
of course, we do not think that Huaxu ancient country is already a kingdom with towering palaces and strict hierarchy. Fuxi’s “gods come out first, and things are accomplished”, “moral Association up and down”, “having holy virtue is like the brightness of the sun and moon” , which may be more similar to some intelligent and respected chiefs in modern Africa. Or at best just a king of the Pacific Islands. However, hundreds of houses, central square and tombs of thousands of people have been unearthed in Banpo, Jiangzhai, Majiayao and other places, including pottery burning, textile, leather industry, and even bronze ware, commerce and martyrs . These all need organized people, conveners and noble people. And the ruins surrounded by large trenches 6-8 meters wide and 5-6 meters deep should be a grass-roots ancient town. Moreover, there will be transactions and competition between cities and towns, which will form a country composed of one or more ancient cities.
because the country is still in the embryonic stage at this time and its cruel side has not been fully exposed, it has gone through war and is eager for peace and tranquility, Therefore, the theory of Liezi  in the period when the trend of advocating ancient times was very blazing (Confucius can be one of the representatives): “The state of Huaxu is located in the west of Hezhou and the north of Taizhou. I don’t know the state of Si Qi for tens of millions of miles. It’s just a wandering place. Its state has no teachers, it’s natural; its people have no hobbies, it’s natural. They don’t know happy life, hate death, so there’s no early death; they don’t know their own relatives, and they don’t know strange things, so they don’t love or hate; they don’t know disobedience, they don’t know obedience, so they have no interests; they have nothing to cherish, so they have nothing to cherish stop at nothing. No drowning in water, no heat in fire. The tarts have no pain, and the fingers are comfortable without H itching. Riding empty is like walking solid, sleeping empty is like a bed. Clouds and fog do not cough their eyes, thunder does not disturb their ears, beauty and evil do not slip their hearts, valleys do not take their steps, and God does it. ” So the Yellow Emperor’s sleepwalking state of Huaxu (also talked about huxu twice) evolved into an idealized Utopia. More because of the burning of books and pitching Confucianism, the Chinese culture has lasted for 550 years After the war in, it was devastated again. Therefore, those who pay attention to historical materials began to regard the Yellow Emperor as the ancestor of China in the historical records. As a result, the word “Hua” of China and China was lost in the dust of history.
“when we travel to the poor place of water and sit and watch the clouds rise”, we apply a multidisciplinary and comprehensive method, ride on a small boat woven by ancient books and documents and modern archaeological results, and go upstream along the long river of history, Make some new visits to the origin of China and the reconstruction of
in ancient Chinese history. “Deterrence by ten thousand, China dominates” (Cao Zhi). We believe that with the development of modern science and technology and the continuous progress of archaeology, the ancient history of China will be revealed again. We also earnestly hope that the in-depth research and multi-party cooperation of experts and people from all walks of life will further determine and carry out this work. . Zhu Xiqiang, et al., chronicle of major events in foreign history Shaanxi people’s publishing house (1987). . Scientific American (Science) V258-271(1988-1994). . Encyclopedia of China Archaeology volume . The two dynasties added a comprehensive review of the past dynasties (in the year of Qianlong and Dinghai)  Yuan liaofan, Wang Fengzhou, CO edited by Gangjian World Book Company (1936) . Liezi, Yuelu Publishing House (1989)