has a history of more than 70 years since the modern study of Ba history in the 1930s. Over the past 70 years, there have been thousands of works on Ba history from the perspective of history, human ethnology and archaeology, including many insightful people. ① This paper does not intend to comment on the gains and losses of the previous research results of Ba history or Ba culture, but attempts to sort out some of the author’s tendencies on the basis of the previous research results. Different people see different people, different people see different wisdom, and throw bricks to attract jade. It is hoped that in the research of Ba history and Ba Culture in the 21st century, it can help the valuable unearthed materials newly obtained by the archaeology of the Three Gorges, With the joint efforts of all researchers committed to the history and archaeological culture of the Ba people, we have clarified some of the mists recorded in the literature and made a breakthrough closer to the original appearance of history.

I. textual research on the origin and development of the Palestinian people

the reasons for different opinions on the study of the origin and development of the Palestinian people are actually caused by different understanding and interpretation of the contents of relevant documents. The main early literature works published by the Institute for the study of Ba people’s history include Shan Hai Jing, Zuo Zhuan, Shiben, Huayang Guozhi Ba Zhi, Shui Jing Zhu, post Han Shu, biography of Nanman and southwest Yi, etc.

according to the different understanding and interpretation of the literature, the current academic circles have put forward a variety of different views on at least the origin of Ba name, the meaning of Ba character, the origin of Ba nationality, the emergence of Ba state, the early activity area of Ba people and so on. Due to space constraints, I will not repeat them here. These different academic arguments are undoubtedly of great benefit to the in-depth exploration of the origin and evolution history of Ba people.

the earliest ancient document to record the deeds of the Ba people is the book of mountains and seas.

according to Shanhaijing and haineijing: “there is a state of Pakistan in the southwest, where salty birds are born. Salty birds are born by Chengli. After Chengli is born, they take photos. After photos, they become Ba people”.

Shanhaijing · Dahuang North Sutra: “there is Pakistan in the southwest, with black snake, green head and eating elephant”.

according to the mountain and sea Sutra and the South Sutra of Hainei, “the Minister of the late Xia Dynasty said that Meng Tu is the God of Ba. People ask for litigation in the place of Meng Tu, and those with blood on their clothes are the ones who hold it. They ask for life and live on the mountain in the west of Dan, and Dan mountain is in the south of Danyang. Danyang is also home.”

there is also a record in today’s Bamboo Annals: “in the eighth year of emperor Qi, the emperor’s envoy Meng Tu Ru Ba came to court”. It is exactly the same as the description of Shanhaijing haineinan Sutra.

when commenting on the above records, scholars of later generations think that Danshan mountain is the Wushan mountain in Wushan County, Chongqing. ②

as for the Ba people “Lin Jun”, there is no direct record in the book of mountains and seas.

according to the mountain and sea Sutra and the great wilderness South Sutra, “there is a country of people. Emperor Shun was born without sex and came down to places. It is called the witch people. The witch people hope to have a surname and eat grain. If they do not perform well, they will be obedient. If they do not plant crops, they will not be strong, and they will eat food. Therefore, birds singing and dancing, birds flying and birds dancing, so

There are all kinds of animals, like a group, love a place, and gather in all kinds of valleys. “Or” witch “is” witch snake “, which is” witch snake “in the book of world written by beginners in the late Qin and Han Dynasties. ③

Shiben is the earliest and most important document basis for holding the view that Ba people originated from western Hubei. “Spekds”, “spkds” and “spekds” are basically different from the “spekds”, “spkds” and “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds” and “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds” and “spekds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “spkds”, “sp.

in the chapter of surnames under the chapter of surnames in the seventh volume of the book of history (supplementary edition of Jiamo in the Qing Dynasty and Qin Dynasty): “Before Lin Jun, he came from Nanjun Manjun of Wuchang Ba County, which originally had five surnames. The Ba family, the fan family, and the Zhi Xi 11 Shu 18 J all came from the Wuluo Zhongli mountain. There are two red and black caves in the mountain. The sons of Ba were born in the red cave, and all the sons of the four surnames were born in the black cave. Without a monarch, all things are ghosts and gods. Lin Jun’s name is Wuxiang, and his surname is ba. Together with the fan family and the Zhi Xi 11 Shu 18 J, all five surnames are fighting for God The sword is on the stone, and the one who can meet the middle is regarded as the king. The Minister of Ba’s son affairs is the only one, and everyone sighs. He also ordered everyone to take an earth boat, carve and draw it, and float in the water. Those who can float about should be regarded as kings. Yu’s surname is Shen, but he is independent in his affairs. Because he stands together, he is the king of Lin. But he took an earth ship from Yishui to Yanyang. The goddess of salt water called Lin Jun said, “this place is vast, fish and salt come out, and I would like to stay together.”. You don’t allow it. The God of salt comes to stay in the twilight. Once he melts the flying insects and flies with the swarm of insects to cover the sun. The world is dark and dark for more than ten days. You don’t know where things are. For seven days and seven nights, you make people manipulate the green thread to leave the God of salt. The God of salt says, “the tassel is appropriate. The cloud is born with women and should go.” the God of salt receives it and tassels it. You stand on the Yang stone and shoot it in response to the green thread. The God of salt is in the middle. When the God of salt dies, the sky is wide open, Lin Jun then lived in Yi city. The four surnames are all ministers, and the world is still the “daughter of Qin”.

the surname of Shiben · Xia · Hou state (Lei Xueqi’s Edition) says: “Ba Jun man originally had five surnames. Before Lin Jun, it came from Wuxian. Lin Jun was named Wuxiang and surnamed ba. Together with fan, s, Xiang and Zheng, they all came from Zhongli mountain in wuliao. There are two caves in the mountain, one red and the other black, like Dan paint. The son of BA was born in chixue, and the son of the four surnames was born in heixue. There is no monarch in the five surnames. They are all ghosts and gods. They all climb the house of Hu h cave and throw swords and stab it. It’s about Those who can win will be regarded as kings. Babbitt’s son Wu Xiang is one of the best, and everyone sighs. They also ordered to take the earth as the ship, carve and draw it, and float in the water. If the ship floats, God thinks it is king. His surname ship can not float, only Lin Jun ship float, because they stand together, is for Lin Jun. But by earth ship, fromYishui reached Yanyang, where a goddess called Lin Jun said, “this place is vast, fish and salt come out, and I would like to stay and live together.”. The God of salt didn’t allow him to come and stay. Once he turned into insects, he flew with all the insects to cover the sun. The world was dark. For more than ten days, he thought about his convenience and left the God of salt by manipulating the green thread. The God of salt said, “the baby is suitable, and the cloud is born with women, so it is suitable to go.” the God of salt received the thread and gave birth to the baby. The king of salt stood on the stone of Yang and shot it in response to the green thread. The God of salt, when the God of salt died, the sky was wide open, So you came to Yi City

. ”

the records of early Ba historical sites (Xia, Shang and Western Zhou dynasties) seen in the above documents belong to legendary history rather than actual history. Therefore, there is high uncertainty and uncertainty in the early history of Ba people.

relatively speaking, the literature records of the late Ba people’s historical sites (Eastern Zhou Dynasty) (such as Zuo Zhuan) mostly belong to the actual record history and have strong credibility.

the historical records of the Ba people originated from the rumor of Shiben in the Western Han Dynasty. According to this rumor, the documents in the Han, Jin and later dynasties have been further developed to varying degrees, so as to deduce a similar mythical story of the origin of the Ba people. However, from the analysis of phenomena such as the absence of the description of “Lin Jun” in the book of mountains and seas and the statement of “before Lin Jun, there is a witch’s birthday” in the book of world, even if the historical development legend of “Lin Jun” Ba people group is close to the fact, they may not be completely equivalent to the “Ba state” or “Ba people” in the book of mountains and seas. Therefore, we believe that Lijun Ba people are not the earliest Ba group in history, but should be a tributary or collateral of the later development of Ba people.

the Chongqing reservoir area of the Three Gorges is not only the area with the most frequent activities of Ba people in documents and legends, but also the area with the most abundant relics of Ba people discovered by archaeological excavation. According to the analysis of archaeological excavation data gradually accumulated in recent years, the author believes that the central activity area of the Ba people in the early stage is still the current Chongqing reservoir area. At least for a long time from the early stage to the late stage, the Ba people took the current Chongqing Reservoir Area as the origin and development base.

according to scattered literature records, the earliest known era of Ba people should be the Xia and Shang Dynasties. If the record in the book of mountains and seas in the front row is correct, it has appeared in Pakistan or Pakistan in the early days of Xia Qi’s founding. Some scholars believe that the oracle bone inscriptions unearthed in the Yin Ruins have the names of “Ba Fang” and “badian”, and their region is between the current Han River and Danjiang River. These Ba people had a great battle with the Yin Dynasty during the period of Yin Wuding. However, most researchers do not accept this formulation and believe that the so-called “Ba” in oracle bones and gold inscriptions so far belongs to a misinterpretation. However, from the records of Zuo Zhuan · nine years of Zhao: “King Wu conquered Shang,… Ba, PU, Chu, Deng, Wu (Zhou) nantuye” and the annals of Huayang · Ba Zhi: “Ba Shi was brave and sharp, singing and dancing was used to Ling Yin people”, “King Wu conquered Yin, granted BA with his Zongji, and the son of the Lord” and other records, there should be no problem with the existence of BA in the Yin and Shang Dynasties. The above literature clues provide an important basis for judging the emergence of Ba people or Ba state in Xia and Shang Dynasties.

are the primitive ancestors who lived in the central activity area of Cubans before the Xia and Shang Dynasties related to the Ba nationality formed in the Xia and Shang Dynasties? This is a very interesting academic issue that needs to be explored. However, no matter whether the conclusion of the study is yes or no, the author believes that the two are different and can not be called Ba people in general. BA is ba. Ba should refer to a BA that has established a big family or established a state by gathering multiple

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and

. The concept of Ba people or Ba nationality should not be the concept of primitive clan, but the concept of early nation. 2、 The concept of Ba culture

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and

was put forward in the 1940s, and its motivation is directly related to the excavation of “Bashu bronze ware”.

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and

in the 1950s, taking the archaeological excavation of the ship coffin buried in Chongqing as an opportunity, the academic community officially kicked off the archaeological research of Ba culture.

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and

since the 1950s, the study of Ba culture based on archaeological materials has become a common practice, and many remarkable achievements have been made, which has laid a good foundation for the in-depth study of Ba Culture in the 21st century. ④

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and

but in previous studies, it is undeniable that there are still some ambiguous or less rigorous problems in the definition of the meaning of Ba culture, the limitation of the times and cultural discrimination.

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,

the archaeological achievements of new China have opened up a broad world for the study of Ba culture. Since the 1990s, with the launching of the Great Three Gorges water control project, the archaeological excavation of the Three Gorges has provided unprecedented opportunities and conditions for the in-depth study of Ba culture.

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the archaeology of the Three Gorges can be said to be the archaeology of the ancient Ba region to a great extent, because the Three Gorges Reservoir area, which is more than 600 kilometers long, basically belongs to the area of ancient Ba cultural activities.

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and

have accumulated a large number of important archaeological materials of Ba Culture in the archaeology of the Three Gorges Reservoir area which has lasted for ten years. These materials undoubtedly have immeasurable or immeasurable academic value for the in-depth study of Ba Culture in the future.

,

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and

the archaeological data obtained in the Three Gorges area can be said to be complete in time. Almost all the links of the times from prehistoric period to Ming and Qing Dynasties are not missing, with rich and colorful cultural connotation and many excellent works.

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,

,

how to correctly use and digest these valuable archaeological materials, explore the deep value of these materials, and make academic research more rigorous and scientific standardization is an important academic task in front of us.

ArchaeologyThe Ba culture of learning refers to the material culture created by the Ba people in a specific time and region. They themselves should be restricted by their space-time range. However, in the current study of Ba Culture in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, there is a tendency to extend the upper limit of Ba culture indefinitely, that is, some pre historical cultures are also included in the ranks of early Ba culture. The author believes that this is not advisable, because the culture of prehistoric Ba region is not equal to Ba culture and should not be called “Ba culture”, The naming rules of prehistoric archaeological culture should be followed, and the naming of typical sites discovered for the first time is appropriate. The upper limit of archaeological Ba culture should be defined in the Xia and Shang Dynasties when the state system appeared, and the lower limit should be the weekend years of

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in the East before the unification of Qin Dynasty. In fact, the culture of Ba area in Qin and Han Dynasties is a cultural fusion with regional color of BA in the culture of Central Plains and Han Dynasty, and it does not belong to the category of Ba culture defined above. 3、 On the Ba cultural sites

excavated in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in recent ten years, a large number of Ba cultural sites from the Xia and Shang Dynasties to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty have been found and confirmed.

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the discovery and distribution of cultural relics in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area during the Xia and Shang Dynasties has always been a problem of special concern in the academic circles. Important sites discovered and excavated in recent years include Yichang Yangjiawan, Zhongbao Island, Zigui changfutuo, GUANZHUANGPING, Badong Guandukou in Hubei reservoir area and Wushan pipazhou, jiangdongzui, Fengjie Xinpu, Yunyang Lijiaba, dongyangzi, Wanxian safe cemetery, zhongbazi, Zhongxian sentry shed mouth and Zhongba in Chongqing reservoir area.

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and

during the Xia and Shang Dynasties, the cultural development of the Three Gorges Reservoir area generally showed a trend of strong Bashu culture and weak Chu culture, which may be directly related to the sphere of influence in the heyday of Bashu. At this time, the archaeological culture in the reservoir area is basically the same as the connotation and characteristics of Bashu cultural sites found in Chengdu, Western Sichuan. There should be a direct inheritance or influence relationship between the two. In addition, the influence of Xia and Shang culture in the Central Plains on the culture of the reservoir area has also left obvious traces.

there are many relics of the Western Zhou Culture found and excavated in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in recent years. Important sites mainly include Zigui Dashaba, Badong leijiaping in Hubei reservoir area, Wushan shuangyantang, Tiaoshi, Yunyang Lijiaba, Wazhadi in Zhongxian County, Fengdu Shidi dam, Fuling Linshi, Zhen’an, Shituo and other sites in Chongqing reservoir area. The culture of the Western Zhou Dynasty in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, in addition to the factors influenced by the culture of the Central Plains, generally speaking, the Western Zhou Culture in the Hubei reservoir area shows a strong color of Chu culture, while the remains of the Western Zhou Dynasty in the Chongqing reservoir area show a strong flavor of Ba culture. It is worth mentioning that a large number of foot wrappers were found in the Western Zhou site of shuangyantang in Wushan, Chongqing. It is inclined to believe that this is the result of the geographical proximity of Wushan area to Western Hubei and the direct influence of Chu culture. The author believes that this view is biased. Objectively speaking, the shape of the Western Zhou Dynasty pottery in shuangyantang is obviously different from the “Chu style pottery”. The “Chu style pottery” is actually a product of the combination of the Central Plains copper culture and Chu pottery culture, while the shuangyantang pottery is obviously a product of the combination of the Central Plains copper culture and Ba pottery culture. They should be the earliest “Ba style pottery” revealed by Archaeology in the gorge area. The author will discuss the problems of “Ba style” and “Chu style” in another article, which will not be discussed here.

the distribution and discovery of the cultural relics of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in the Three Gorges Reservoir area has always been famous. In recent years, the important sites of “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds” and “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds” and “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds” and “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spe Zhongba, Fuling, xiaotianxi, etc. The culture of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in the Three Gorges Reservoir area is basically integrated with the culture of the Central Plains. The characteristics of Chu culture may remain in the Hubei reservoir area, while the traces of Ba culture may be more or less found in the Chongqing reservoir area.

due to the sudden increase in the number of scientific excavation sites, the face and distribution characteristics of Xia, Shang and Western Zhou Culture in the Three Gorges Reservoir area are also gradually clear. From a macro point of view, the archaeological cultural features of Xia, Shang and Western Zhou dynasties in the whole Three Gorges Reservoir area, including Hubei and Chongqing, are relatively consistent. The style characteristics of its cultural connotation mostly have a strong Bashu color, which is obviously similar to the culture of the same period in Western Sichuan. The two should have a more direct origin and development relationship. In addition, the archaeological culture of Xia, Shang and Western Zhou in the reservoir area can see the shadow of Xia, Shang and Western Zhou Culture in the Central Plains and Chu. It is self-evident that there is a certain cultural exchange or influence between them. In addition, the large-scale and abundant unearthed relics of the Western Zhou Dynasty sites such as shuangyantang in Wushan, Chongqing and Lijiaba in Yunyang suggest that there were large-scale urban settlements in the Western Zhou Dynasty in the Chongqing reservoir area. They provide important clues and material materials for exploring the early urban settlements of the ancient Ba people in the Chongqing reservoir area, and help uncover the mystery of the ancient Ba capital Restoring the early history of the Ba people is of great and special significance.

notes

① Lin Xiang: discovery and research of Bashu culture and history in recent 50 years, edited by Li Shaoming, Lin Xiang and Xu Nanzhou, history, nationality, archaeology and culture of Bashu, Bashu publishing house, Chengdu, Sichuan, 1991.

② according to the note in Lu Shi · postscript 13: “the west of Danshan is the burial place of Meng tu. Danshan is now Wushan.” “Wushan county annals Volume 17” said: “Meng Tu temple is at the foot of Wushan mountain in the south of the county”.

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③ Dong Qixiang: a preliminary study on the social nature of Bashu, history, nationality, archaeology and culture of Bashu, edited by Li Shaoming, Lin Xiang and Xu Nanzhou, Bashu publishing house, Chengdu, Sichuan, 1991.

④ same as note ①. 2、 A textual research on Ba Culture in Archaeology

“K”DSPs “

the concept of Ba culture was put forward in the 1940s, and its motivation is directly related to the excavation of” Bashu bronze ware

in the 1950s, taking the archaeological excavation of the ship coffin buried in Chongqing as an opportunity, the academic community officially kicked off the archaeological research of Ba culture.

since the 1950s, the study of Ba culture based on archaeological materials has become a common practice, and many remarkable achievements have been made, which has laid a good foundation for the in-depth study of Ba Culture in the 21st century. ④

“However, in previous studies, it is undeniable that there are still some ambiguous or slightly less rigorous problems such as the definition of the meaning of Palestinian culture, the limitation of the times and cultural screening.

the archaeological achievements of new China have opened up a broad world for the study of Ba culture. 2

“Since the 1990s, with the launching of the Great Three Gorges water control project, the archaeological excavation of the Three Gorges has provided unprecedented good opportunities and conditions for the in-depth study of Ba culture. To a large extent, the archaeology of the Three Gorges can be said to be the archaeology of the ancient Ba region, because in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of more than 600 kilometers, it basically belongs to the area of ancient Ba cultural activities.

so far, a large number of important archaeological materials of Ba culture have been accumulated in the archaeology of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, which has lasted for ten years. These materials undoubtedly have immeasurable or immeasurable academic value for the in-depth study of Ba Culture in the future.

at present, the archaeological data obtained in the Three Gorges area can be said to be complete in time. Almost all links of the times from prehistoric period to Ming and Qing Dynasties are not missing, with rich and colorful cultural connotation and many excellent works.

how to correctly use and digest these valuable archaeological materials, explore the deep value of these materials, and make academic research more rigorous and scientifically standardized is an important academic task in front of us.

Archaeological Ba culture refers to the material culture created by the Ba people in a specific time and region. They themselves should be restricted by their time and space. However, in the current research on the Ba Culture in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, there is a tendency to extend the upper limit of Ba culture indefinitely, that is, some pre historical cultures are also included in the ranks of early Ba culture. The author thinks this is not true It is desirable because the culture of prehistoric Ba region is not equal to Ba culture and should not be called “Ba culture”. It should follow the naming rules of prehistoric archaeological culture and be named after the typical sites found for the first time. The upper limit of archaeological Ba culture should be defined in the Xia and Shang Dynasties when the national system appeared, and the lower limit should be the end of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty before the unification of Qin Dynasty. In fact, the culture of Ba area in Qin and Han Dynasties is a cultural fusion with regional color of BA in the culture of Central Plains and Han Dynasty, and it does not belong to the category of Ba culture defined above.