today we continue to understand Europe in the 16th century. John hooker, an Elizabethan commentator, regarded the Spaniards as morally inferior, “Because they combined all the cruelty and tyranny… They conquered a naked and submissive people. From these people, they sought only interests, not the creation of any religion or public welfare. They carried out the cruelest tyranny and barbecued the indigenous people to death inhumanely, as shown in their own history 。” At the same time, the Englishman admired “the hard work and hard work of the Spaniards. They overloaded so many ships, continuously provided supplies for their further efforts and actions, and their fearlessness in completing those high-quality and difficult things. Finally, their unremitting colonial determination.” As the Spanish settled in America, it was inevitable that the Portuguese followed suit.

Portugal, vulnerable to Spanish invasion, has maintained its overseas relations with its larger neighbor based on strict laws. As early as 1479, Spain and Portugal signed an agreement to adjust their respective trade scope outside European waters. After discussion, the Pope drew an imaginary longitude extending 100 lig in the Azores: Spain in the West and Portugal in the East. The 1494 Treaty of tord cyrias made this ruling permanent between the two powers, and the treaty drew a line of 370 lig to the west of Cape Verde. The treaty cut a large part of South America to the Portuguese, including most of modern Brazil. They have known this coast since at least 1500. At that time, a Portuguese fleet was on the way to the Indian Ocean, struggling to avoid the adverse wind to the Atlantic Ocean. To their surprise, a continent suddenly appeared to the east of the treaty line, and it was obviously not Africa.

but their resources are strictly limited to exploring Africa and via Asia and the East Indies, it is impossible to invest in the Americas. Their first colony in Brazil was not established until 1532. It was established according to the model of their dependency on Atlantic Islands. The royal government appointed “leaders” to invest in the land donated by the government called donatorio. Most of the first wave of colonization failed until the Portuguese transferred the slavery based sugar cane planting system from Cape Verde and the bifra islands to an area of Brazil they called Pernambuco, profits began to be created and the colonists were able to gain a firm foothold. In Brazil, the real large-scale development began in 1549. At that time, the royal government invested money, sent more than 1000 colonists, and appointed Martin Alfonso de Sosa as governor, who had extensive power. After the 16th century, Brazil’s large-scale import of sugar accelerated and maintained its position as the largest center of the world.

for more than 300 years, Brazil has absorbed more African slaves than anywhere else. In fact, it has become the world of black Americans. Throughout the 16th century, the Portuguese were the de facto monopolists of the Atlantic slave trade. By 1600, nearly 300000 slaves had been transported by sea to the colonies – 25000 to Madeira, 50000 to Europe, 75000 to Cape sao tome, and the rest to America. In fact, by this time, four fifths of slaves had gone to the new world. It is important to recognize that this colonial slave system, organized by the Portuguese and sponsored by the Spanish and designed to provide labor for their mines and sugar cane plantations, has been operating step by step and expanding steadily. Long ago, other European powers had gained a foothold in the new world. However, the huge wealth created by the Spanish from the silver mining in the Americas and the sugar trade between the Spanish and Portuguese attracted adventurers all over Europe.

the Spanish and Portuguese carefully respected each other’s scope of interests. When the two governments united under the Habsburg dynasty in 1580, this relationship was at least further consolidated, while other countries did not have such constraints. Any chance of complying with the Pope’s distribution of Atlantic spoils between Spain and Portugal was destroyed by the religious reforms of the 1520s and 1530s, during which most of the coast of northwest Europe refused to be loyal to Rome. Protestantism has received special support in business groups and port cities in Atlantic France and low-lying countries, in London, and among navigation people in southwest England. In 1561, Sir William Cecil, the Queen’s privy adviser, conducted an investigation into international law in the Atlantic. He unequivocally told the Spanish ambassador that the pope had no power to make such a ruling.

in any case, there has been a tradition for a long time, which has been adhered to by Huguenots in France. They do not recognize the principle advocated by Catholicism: the conventional norms of peace and war are suspended outside an imaginary dividing line across the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. This dividing line is even more ambiguous than the Pope’s initial ruling, and no one knows exactly where it is. However, the theory that “there is no peace beyond that line” (actually a practice) is a common sense of life in the 16th century. In fact, it is very important that, almost from its beginning, the new world has been widely regarded as a hemisphere that does not apply the rules of law, where all one can expect is violence. From the earliest years of the 16th century, fishermen in Brittany, Normandy and France have been working in the high-yield fishing grounds in daese outside Newfoundland. In their abundant catches and rumors about how rich the land is