Section 8 African black dance art 1.
Characteristics of African black dance art African dance is all over the African continent, from the Sahara desert to the Gulf of Guinea, from the vast forests to the thorny bushes.
As long as there are religious ceremonies and festivals on this land of Africa, there must be music and dance activities.
Music and dance activities are an important part of African black life.
When you come to the African continent, you will see not only the bright sunshine and tall and green tropical plants, but also those intoxicating jungle horns and thrilling African dances.
Africans are hospitable and curious about all outsiders.
Michelle YUYO, a French professional photographer, took his wife with two cameras and drove an SUV to Africa to collect wind.
When they came to a village far away from Cameroon, all black women in the village immediately surrounded Michelle’s wife, white women.
Black women “showed a state of stupor and absurdity, squatting in a circle in front of her, their decorative lips muttering, and words of admiration and praise gushed out with the sound of metal impact”.
The hospitable African blacks danced a religious sacrificial dance “tree dance” for them.
Michelle described the process of the dance: those who were ready to join the dance came one after another,.
The whole fari tribe spread out a long line along the foot of the mountain and danced “tree dance” around the big tree.
People near the village are all padlocked and come to watch Long and slow, the dance began to show organized norms.
Each dancer has stood in a designated position.
In these collective ceremonies, each independent person can become a star to show off his or her talent.
This scene is very rare.
Only a large number of mask dancers – no one knows who is dancing under them – occupy the leading position, but like all others, they must obey the whole dance process and rhythm, all of which are dominated by music and step by step.
From Michelle’s introduction, we can see that “tree dance” is a mask dance.
Mask dance plays an important role in African dance.
Mask dance originated from religious sacrifice.
There are many dance images wearing masks on the murals.
Mask dance is a traditional dance of Africans.
All sacrificial dances in the Sahara region generally carry masks.
There are different types of masks, which are classified according to the role of worship.
Some scholars have investigated and analyzed the masks used in African dance, Think: “They are associated with those engaged in farming.
Among ancient humans in Africa, the earliest invention and use of masks seemed to be related to the ritual of cleansing.
There was no ambivalent attitude of love and hate towards nature at that time.
People felt that nature was fundamentally friendly.
But farming was an invasion of nature, and such invasion should pay a price .
However, no matter what method is adopted to compensate and atone, people can not be free from natural punishment.
Therefore, the customs and practices in the “masked society” coincide with the emergence of the God of death.
These customs and practices are aimed at cleaning the earth and defiling those who desecrate her.
” This is a textual research on the cultural and psychological factors of Africans.
When the Western colonial powers did not enter the African continent, it can be said that Africa is a closed and isolated primitive society.
People living in primitive, uncivilized and underdeveloped science and technology have ignorant ideas, and their local or national dance style is also rich.
It is permeated with the beauty of natural harmony, Highlight its strong rhythm and unrestrained dance characteristics.
Dance belongs to visual art.
It takes human action as the material carrier and is an emotional art.
Dance action is the direct carrier of emotion.
Dance action system is a set of symbol system.
It is an art completed twice.
It depends on the actor’s second creation to complete it finally.
African black dance also follows this artistic law, French scholar Mary franconi Cristo introduced the charming black dance: “Some of the dances performed by Miss Barker, with her waist bent inward, her hips raised, her arms intertwined and raised, her male logo gestures and rich facial expressions, all show the charm of the black’s tall body.
The sense of sculpture of this race and the madness of African sex hold our heartstrings.
This is no longer what we think we see funny ‘dancing girl ‘, but’ black Venus’ haunting Baudelaire’s mind.
” This dance, which is greatly praised by the French, seems to have been performed through the performer’s secondary creation, and the black primitive dance has become a beautiful work of art through the performer’s secondary creation.
African black dance has a unique style, and the dances of different tribes in Africa have different styles (due to their history, ethnic origin and the degree of accepting the influence of foreign culture).
However, the close natural living environment and economic conditions determine the common characteristics of African black dance, some of which can be traced back to ancient times, Some can be traced back to the era of medieval African civilization, and some can be traced back to the invasion of western colonists.
Over the years, a wide range of life fields and a variety of lifestyles have gradually formed a wide variety of African black dance styles.
Although African black dances vary from place to place, they have great common characteristics, which constitute the basic characteristics of African black dance.
African black dance is also characterized by strong and clear rhythm and freedom.
African blacks are very sensitive to rhythm: “rowers sing with the movement of oars.
The porter sings while walking, and the housewife sings while pounding rice.
” Introduction to Ning Sao: “The Sotos especially like the rhythm of music, and the stronger the rhythm, the more they like it.
Women wear metal rings that make a sound.
They often gather together to grind their wheat with their hands and sing along with the regular movement of their arms.
These songs are very harmonious with the rhythmic sound of their rings.
When dancing, the Sotos use Beat your hands and feet, and wear some special bells to enhance the rhythm of the music.
” In Africa, lullaby, love song, soldier song, sacrifice song and labor production song all have a strong sense of rhythm.
These rhythms originate from dance movements.
Human body movements are closely linked to the sound beat, percussion in African music,As well as melody, variation and other music changes are also closely around the dance movement.
Because percussion instruments are closer to language pronunciation and oral meaning than other instruments, Africans use percussion instruments more frequently in dance, such as all kinds of scrapers, hammers, percussion and percussive body singing instruments.
In addition, they also use the sound produced by the human body, such as clapping hands, stamping feet, flicking fingers and clapping thighs, Imitate the sounds of nature and musical instruments to accompany the dance.
The “Adu wa dance” of the ghajia people, the war dance of the Fu Bei people in northern Cameroon, the “Hula Dances” of the Bedi people, the hunting dance of the Central African and East African pygmy people, the triumphant dance of Burundi’s Mu Inga region, the game dance of Congo’s Tekai people, the Uganda’s “arhat dance” and “South Carolina”.
In the rain making ritual dance in East Africa and various dances in Senegal, happy blacks like to use the sound generated by the human body as the accompaniment instrument.
They like to wear all kinds of bells or buzzers when dancing.
In the dance of African blacks, the rhythm of percussion instruments determines the rhythm of the dance and the style characteristics of the dance.
The rhythm was produced in the labor production process of the primitive ancestors.
The body movements of the labor producers were accompanied by corresponding shouts and chants.
In addition, the ornaments worn by them collided with each other to make rhythmic sounds, which added a pleasant atmosphere to the labor life of the ancestors.
Pleasure makes people beautiful, and beautiful things are naturally easy to be accepted.
According to a certain rhythm of labor, people do not feel tired.
Over time, rhythm has become a common favorite of Africans.
“All local dances, especially black dances, are based on the direct expression of rhythm.
Each such dance is first a staccato made by the feet with the beat.
When hitting continuously, it is loved by people because it is quickly and simply disconnected.
” African blacks’ sensitivity to rhythm can not be compared with the dance art of any country.
It seems that black people have a natural sense of rhythm.
Their ability to feel music, the softness and delicacy of body movements and the characteristics of relaxation and extension are also unique.
What embodies the artistic characteristics of African black dance is inspiration.
There are various forms of African drum performances, including wooden drum, water drum, war drum, pottery drum, gourd drum and so on.
African drums have a wide variety of shapes and sizes.
Small drums can be held by hand, and large drums should be beaten by people standing on stools.
There are also some decorations around the drum, such as metal sheets or small bells.
Some drums contain some beans or beads to make the drum sound not monotonous.
Among many African drums, the widely used drum is “dam dam”.
It is a medium-sized drum with one side covered with a drum skin.
It is usually used to convey information.
It is an accompaniment instrument for dance performance at festivals and ceremonies.
Inspiration is the most valued dance in Africa.
It is performed when the king celebrates, inspects, welcomes guests and holds large-scale celebrations.
“In the Republic of Burundi, drum music is usually combined with dance: more than 10 performers dressed in red, white or green, white and colored robes, wearing belts, and wearing colorful chain ornaments on the chest and arms, striking the top and knocking on the sides, forming 1.
Then the actors took the big drum and placed it in front of them, while the drum was set by the actor.
Take turns to come forward and play.
They sometimes jump in the air, sometimes spin dance, and sing.
The strong rhythm, the dense drums and the lively and Carnival scenes are earth shaking and very exciting.
” The water drum in West Africa is a long gourd drum floating in a water container.
People knock it with their hands or small sticks, and the sound is gloomy and distant.
A drum played by Ghanaians for dance is called “Fang tangfran”.
The sound is deep and far-reaching, and Ghanaian dance is also famous for it.
War drums are often used in Uganda.
They are used in any festival in Uganda.
Uganda war drums originated from calling on people to hunt and fight, and later became an indispensable prop for religious ceremonies.
There is also a dance in Ghana called “asafu dance”, which is also accompanied by drums.
Dancers dance and sing with the sound of drums, and the dance atmosphere is very warm.
In short, African black dance is inseparable from drum, which makes African dance show the characteristics of strong rhythm and unrestrained.
Second, the types of African black dance art.
The types of African black dance art are mainly reflected in these aspects: religious dance, imitation dance, symbolic dance and mass dance.1. Religious dance African black dance has a strong religious color.
It is often carried out in religious sacrificial ceremonies, such as praying for gods, offering sacrifices to ancestors, praying for agricultural harvest and population prosperity.
This kind of dance often appears in the form of mask dance.
It includes Worship Dance, exorcism dance, funeral dance, rain dance, mantra dance, pray for the success of fishing and hunting dance, etc.
These dances include both solo and group dances.
For example, the yavi dance of the Ghanaians, the ABO dance of the bronse, the tigali dance of northern Africa, the aduwa dance of the Ashanti, and the fangtangfran dance of the Akon are all religious dances performed during sacrifice.
Funeral dance in Uganda is performed with masks on.
Dancers wear masks and their bodies are painted in various colors.
When African tassau people perform funeral dance, they paint red on their face, wear monkey skin, wear glass beads, shells and other decorations on their chest, wear a bracelet of shell string on their left wrist, tie a oxtail whip on their right wrist, and dance with a long stick tied to an iron bell.
When people are sick, they should also dance the dance of eliminating diseases and disasters.
For example, mukiri dance is a widely spread exorcism dance.
If someone is ill, people will keep the patient in the hut for two or three months.
During this period, every Saturday, people will light a bonfire and dance in front of the hut to ward off evil spirits.
After the patient is well, he will dance with the villagers.
In Tanzania, there is a mask or dance, such as wearing a mask to ward off evil spirits.
Enrien Gotti dance is a dance performed by performers with their feet on stilts.
The dance of eliminating diseases and disasters is similar to a kind of witchcraft dance.
The performers are like wizards.
After they jump up, they often tremble and go crazy.2. Imitation Dance African dance is mostly the imitation of farming, hunting and war activities.
For example, the kunbula MBO dance in Congo is a dance of hunting animals.
Ekongo is a dance of war.
The performers only wear triangular shorts and are divided into two teams to do all kinds of fighting movements.
The dance is fierce and justStrong.
Explorer Stanley described the war dance in Congo as follows: “Each row consists of 33 people.
The 33 rows jump up at the same time and crawl on the ground at the same time.
A thousand heads seem to be one head.
At first, they rise up at the same time and show their high spirit, and then they fall down at the same time and make a sad hum.
When the dancing soldiers fall to the ground with their heads down and cry like a cry, we My heart contracted with unspeakable sadness.
We seem to have experienced a tragic defeat, looting and killing.
We seem to hear the groans of the wounded and see orphans and widows crying in the destroyed huts and deserted fields.
” This is a simulated war dance.
Its reality seems to make people experience a war.
African imitation dances are very realistic.
For example, in the rain dance, Africans sprinkle a ladle of water on the ground.
Next, people use dance steps to simulate the sound of slowly falling raindrops, use fast dance steps to simulate the enlargement of raindrops, and use women’s dance skirts to rotate and fly to dynamically Express the appearance of pouring rain.3. Symbolic dance in Africa.
Symbolic dance includes people’s certain wishes, such as praying for harvest, rainfall, successful hunting and seeking children and grandchildren.
“For example, dancing at the inkwal festival in Eswatini.
There is a dance to jump for the new power of the chieftain.
The chieftain warriors first came out and threw the new green gourd into the air and passed it to each other.
At some point, the chief joined the dance.
He threw the gourd upwards again and again to show his skill and strength.
It is regarded as a container for storing power, which will be transmitted to the chief.
Therefore, the gourd should not fall to the ground.
Because as soon as it falls to the ground, the vitality inside will be sucked into the ground and cannot be input into the elder’s body.
” The gourd has become a symbol here and a sacred object thrown by people.
Because it has a religious concept and is a symbol of magical power.
Some dance artists have absorbed the symbolic expression methods in traditional dance and enriched their artistic expression, For example: “In some dances created by the famous Senegalese artist germena akoni, a male dancer stands upright on the side, with a straight chest and a concave waist.
Her arms are bent, her elbows are back, her hands are flat, and her palms are facing the ground, which symbolizes the ‘palm tree’.
A female dancer stands on the right side, her legs are slightly bent, her chest is straight, her waist is concave, her face is facing the sky, and her arms are backward Square and straight, hands flat and palms facing the ground symbolize a ‘Guinea hen’.
A female dancer kneels on the side, her body is straight, her eyes are facing the front, her arms are bent, her elbows are back, her hands are flat and her palms are upward, which symbolizes the ‘Ashanti puppet’.
” African dance has experienced a process from realism to symbolism to abstraction.
The mourning dance of akbia in southern Sudan is the representative of abstract dance.
Professor Ning Sao introduced: “At dawn, 30 tribal women lined up in a single line and walked around the mango tree.
They were wearing clothes made of creeping plants in the forest and painted with mud.
They walked slowly, shaking their bodies and dragging their feet forward.
The women were absorbed in mourning.
The dance lasted seven days and nights.
They were accompanying the dead through the world of ghosts and gods The first difficult journey.
” In Africa, some symbolic or abstract dances are for sacrificing the dead, while others are completely social dances, which are recreational activities for people after dinner.4. Mass dance mass dance in Africa is a collective activity in which people vent their surplus energy and entertain through rhythmic sports.
Almost everyone in Africa can sing and dance, and song and dance activities are an important part of African life.
Each tribe has its own traditional dance.
When dancing, people dance and express their feelings under the influence of music and drums.
Music controls the rhythm of the dance.
Drummers watch the dancers’ movements and adjust the rhythm to match the dance movements at any time.
People express their emotions such as happiness, anger, sadness, fear and anxiety in dance.
Sometimes, people sit around the campfire and tell the history of the tribe in the music.
Then, women play musical instruments and men dance.
Achari dance is a kind of dance that boys and girls like to dance.
They cover their lower bodies with a small piece of cloth, put feathers on their heads, and sing and dance with an instrument made of gourd.
The dance atmosphere is very warm.
Africans have been influenced by dance since childhood.
When they are still toddlers, they can learn to dance around a campfire and on drums under the guidance of their parents.
Everyone in Africa can dance.
When people hear the drum, they come from all directions and dance in a circle.
The unrestrained and enthusiastic dance of Africans can be seen everywhere in the jungle and plateau, and the shocking drum sound can be heard.
The general characteristics of African dance are: rough, exaggerated, warm and unrestrained.
It is characterized by jumping up and down, jumping and kicking in the air and twisting its hips.
The southern dance crotch moves flexibly and freely, while the northern dance moves mostly focus on the chest, arms and head, with strong and powerful movements.
In addition, stilt dance and snake dance are skilled performances.
African dance forms are mostly semicircle, circle or group dance arranged in rows.
In group dancing, one or several people will dance in the middle of the circle, and then men and women exchange to perform in the middle in turn.
There are also forms of dancing in pairs.
After the independence of African countries, traditional dance has developed greatly.
In the 1960s, more than ten professional dance troupes were established.
The Ugandan Dance Troupe called “the beating heart of Africa” performed in many European and American countries, making people understand the style of African dance.
In Senegal, the artist germena ako rearranged the African folk dance system with Western classical and modern dance creation techniques, creating a series of new African dances.
Her African dance is passionate and unrestrained, with distinctive rhythm, wide range of movements, strong skills, vivid dance shapes and wide influence.