In the history of

, the Ming and Qing governments of China maintained suzerain vassal relations with Ryukyu, but in the 1870s, Japan, which pursued the policy of foreign expansion, sent troops to Ryukyu and turned it into Okinawa County in 1879. After Japan’s defeat and surrender in 1945, China issued a strong call to recover Ryukyu for this land with deep ties with China, but it was a pity that it could not be realized for various reasons.

schematic diagram of the location of the Ryukyu Islands (data map)

Ryukyu Islands are located on the Pacific Ocean and in the East China Sea, winding from northeast to southwest between Kagoshima and Kagoshima in Kyushu, Japan. Historically, China’s Ming and Qing governments maintained suzerain vassal relations with Ryukyu, but in the 1870s, Japan, which pursued the policy of foreign expansion, sent troops to Ryukyu and turned it into Okinawa County in 1879. After Japan’s defeat and surrender in 1945, China issued a strong call to recover Ryukyu for this land with deep ties with China, but it was a pity that it could not be realized for various reasons.

the United States had the idea of monopolization

during the Second World War, the Ryukyu Islands had about 700000 people, shrapnel islands were scattered, and their strategic position was very important. In 1942, some people in American public opinion suggested that the United States would occupy Ryukyu, Taiwan and other Western Pacific Islands militarily after the war. In November 1943, he went to Cairo, Egypt to attend the China US UK summit. According to the US diplomatic archives, during the meeting, the US President supported China’s recovery of Taiwan and mentioned the Ryukyu issue with Chiang Kai Shek. “Chiang Kai Shek replied that China is willing to jointly occupy Ryukyu with the United States and jointly manage the place with the United States in accordance with the trusteeship system of international organizations”. Chiang Kai Shek later explained: “however, Ryukyu can be entrusted by international institutions to be jointly managed by China and the United States. Yu proposed that, first, to reassure the heart of the United States, second, Ryukyu belonged to Japan before the Sino Japanese War, and third, it is better to be jointly managed by the United States than to be owned by China.”

at that time, some elites in Chinese geography were also concerned about the fate of Taiwan and Ryukyu. Hu Huanyong, a geographer, edited the book “Taiwan and Ryukyu” in Chongqing at the end of 1944, “Taiwan and Ryukyu must be recovered, not only because they used to be China’s territory, but also because there are six million Chinese compatriots who urgently need to be liberated. Especially important, in its military situation for China, China is located on the West Bank of the Pacific Ocean. If Taiwan and Ryukyu cannot be recovered one day, China’s maritime activities cannot go beyond the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea one day.”

however, due to the gradual escalation of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union, the issue of the Japan peace treaty could not be discussed, and the Ryukyu issue could not be put on the agenda for a long time. On July 16, 1947, the U.S. government suddenly sent a letter to the countries of the Far East Committee, proposing to hold a peace meeting with Japan in the United States on August 19, with the participation of 11 countries of the Far East Committee. This has promoted the Chinese government’s preparations for the peace treaty with Japan.

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Ryukyu Islands location map (data map)

Ryukyu Islands are located on the Pacific Ocean and in the East China Sea, winding from northeast to southwest between Kagoshima and Taiwan Island in Kyushu, Japan. Historically, China’s Ming and Qing governments maintained suzerain vassal relations with Ryukyu, but in the 1870s, Japan, which pursued the policy of foreign expansion, sent troops to Ryukyu and turned it into Okinawa County in 1879. After Japan’s defeat and surrender in 1945, China issued a strong call to recover Ryukyu for this land with deep ties with China, but it was a pity that it could not be realized for various reasons.

the United States had the idea of monopolization

during the Second World War, the Ryukyu Islands had about 700000 people, shrapnel islands were scattered, and their strategic position was very important. In 1942, some people in American public opinion suggested that the United States would occupy Ryukyu, Taiwan and other Western Pacific Islands militarily after the war. In November 1943, Chiang Kai Shek went to Cairo, Egypt to attend the summit of China, the United States and Britain. According to the US diplomatic archives, during the meeting, US President Roosevelt supported China’s recovery of Taiwan and mentioned the Ryukyu issue with Chiang Kai Shek. “Chiang Kai Shek replied that China is willing to jointly occupy Ryukyu with the United States and jointly manage the place with the United States in accordance with the trusteeship system of international organizations”. Chiang Kai Shek later explained: “however, Ryukyu can be entrusted by international institutions to be jointly managed by China and the United States. Yu proposed that, first, to reassure the heart of the United States, second, Ryukyu belonged to Japan before the Sino Japanese War, and third, it is better to be jointly managed by the United States than to be owned by China.”

at that time, some elites in Chinese geography were also concerned about the fate of Taiwan and Ryukyu. Hu Huanyong, a geographer, edited the book “Taiwan and Ryukyu” in Chongqing at the end of 1944, “Taiwan and Ryukyu must be recovered, not only because they used to be China’s territory, but also because there are six million Chinese compatriots who urgently need to be liberated. Especially important, in its military situation for China, China is located on the West Bank of the Pacific Ocean. If Taiwan and Ryukyu cannot be recovered one day, China’s maritime activities cannot go beyond the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea one day.”

however, due to the cold war between the United States and the Soviet UnionGradually escalated, the issue of the peace treaty with Japan could not be discussed, and the Ryukyu issue could not be put on the agenda for a long time. On July 16, 1947, the U.S. government suddenly sent a letter to the countries of the Far East Committee, proposing to hold a peace meeting with Japan in the United States on August 19, with the participation of 11 countries of the Far East Committee. This has promoted the Chinese government’s preparations for the peace treaty with Japan.

extended reading:

inventory of the residence of the gang of four

Song Meiling has a delicate relationship with Jingguo

a woman more powerful than Cixi

Zone 51: the top secret military base of the United States

Qiao Guanhua’s tragedy in his later years

Zhou Enlai publicly obeyed Mao Zedong’s

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The intellectual elites of the gang of four,

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and

called for the recovery of Ryukyu

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and

. In order to popularize Ryukyu common sense and guide public attention, on June 23, 1947, the literary and historical weekly of Nanjing Central Daily published the “special number of Ryukyu history”, the article “the relationship between Ryukyu and China’s history” by historian Ding Shicun, and the article “Ryukyu examination” by Liang Jiabin, CEN Zhongmian’s article “notes and tables of Yao Wendong’s Ryukyu Chronicles”. These three articles use conclusive historical materials to demonstrate the historical connection between Ryukyu and China. The editor pointed out: “in the fifth year of the Qing Dynasty, 1879 ad, taking advantage of the numerous events in our country, the Japanese forced Ryukyu to invade for a long time, and also created documents to separate from our country, insisting that Ryukyu in the Sui Dynasty was Taiwan. Up to now, the aggressors have eaten their own fruit, but it was only a year after unconditional surrender, and their ambition sprouted again. They actually claimed to return to Ryukyu and immigrate to Taiwan. This is special “Ryukyu history” calls on the Chinese people to be vigilant. ”

in the face of the U.S. military occupation of Ryukyu and the upcoming peace conference against Japan, China’s military, political and intellectual circles have spoken frequently. The Department of geography of Nanjing Central University has gathered a group of famous geographers, such as Hu Huanyong, Zhang Qiyun, Sha Xuejun, Li Xudan and so on. They all tend to include Ryukyu in the territory of China. On September 5, 1947, Tianjin Ta Kung Pao published the paper “the Ryukyu issue in the peace treaty with Japan” published by Zhang Qiyun on behalf of the Chinese geographical society, “the military value of the Ryukyu Islands is better than the economic value”. After the war, the United States took Ryukyu as a military base and stationed heavy troops, “advocating that the islands belong to the United States forever”. As for the disposal of Ryukyu, it is suggested that “we hope the allies can support China’s legitimate demand for the recovery of lost land”. As for the military situation of Ryukyu, “it is for the use of international forces under the principle of taking into account China’s sovereignty.”

the national government also launched a discussion. In September 1947, the Ministry of foreign affairs invited a group of senior party and government officials, experts and scholars to hold three symposiums on the draft of the peace treaty with Japan. There are basically three opinions on the attribution of Ryukyu. Geographers Zhang Qiyun, Hu Huanyong and others advocated that Ryukyu should belong to China from the perspective of national defense security and China’s rejuvenation. Wan can, Wang Yunsheng and others believe that it seems illegal to return Ryukyu to China. They can advocate that it should be entrusted by China and become a buffer zone. Other experts and scholars advocate trusteeship by the United Nations.

extended reading:

inventory of the residence of the gang of four

Song Meiling has a delicate relationship with Jingguo

a woman more powerful than Cixi

Zone 51: the top secret military base of the United States

Qiao Guanhua’s tragedy in his later years

Zhou Enlai publicly obeyed Mao Zedong’s

Clinton teased Obama who was the first to catch

“Gang of four”,

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,

,

Ryukyu revolutionary comrades will create momentum

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on October 18, 1947, Zhang Qun, premier of the national government, made a report on military and political aspects at the Standing Committee of the National Council for political participation: “I believe that the solution to the future of the Ryukyu Islands is nothing more than China’s recovery, Sino US joint management, or United Nations Trusteeship. The government is paying close attention to this issue and must oppose the return of the islands to Japan in any case.” As far as Zhang Qun himself is concerned, he tends to return Ryukyu to China.

in fact, the Chiang Kai Shek regime is also closely observing and has the idea of recovering Ryukyu. To this end, the KMT Central Committee secretly supported the Ryukyu revolutionary comrades’ Association in Taiwan to carry out its work, create the momentum of the Ryukyu people’s demand for return to the Chinese motherland, put pressure on the United States and international public opinion, and increase China’s voice in the upcoming peace conference with Japan. On August 14, 1947, Xi Youming, President of Ryukyu revolutionary comrades’ Association, delivered a speech in Taiwan: “Ryukyu’s history, customs, culture and even race are willing to enter China’s territory. From the perspective of national defense, Ryukyu and Taiwan are only a strip of water apart, lips and teeth depend on each other, which should be a must for China.”

however, with the sudden change in China’s domestic situation, in view of the precarious Kuomintang regime, the US position on the attribution of Ryukyu tends to be tough and no longer takes into account the opinions of Chiang Kai Shek regime. In September 1951, the peace conference with Japan was held in San Francisco. The United States led the signing of the peace treaty and began the long-term military occupation of Ryukyu groupDiaoyu Island. It is worth mentioning that the recovery of the Diaoyu Islands is closely related to the ownership of Ryukyu. Diaoyu Island was occupied by Japan in 1895 and listed under Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. From 1945 to 1949, books published in Chinese mainland on Ryukyu Islands were temporarily attached to the Ryukyu Islands according to the information released by Japanese. The purpose of writing these books is to recover the whole Ryukyu, including the Diaoyu Island to the west of the Ryukyu Islands. At the San Francisco Conference of

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and

, the concerns of the Chinese people about the future of Ryukyu were not fully reflected and respected, and the ownership of Ryukyu Islands and Diaoyu Islands was pending, which also laid the groundwork for the future East China Sea dispute between China and Japan. Since the Chinese people on both sides of the Strait did not participate in the San Francisco Peace Conference, the peace treaty is not binding on both sides of the Strait. After that, the Chiang Kai Shek regime in Taiwan insisted that Ryukyu belonged to China and was temporarily under the control of the US military. It has always opposed the idea and move of the United States to hand over Ryukyu to Japan. When the news that the United States would hand over the Ryukyu Islands and Diaoyu Islands to Japan in 1969 came to light, the global Chinese fishing protection movement came into being.

extended reading:

inventory of the residence of the gang of four

Song Meiling has a delicate relationship with Jingguo

a woman more powerful than Cixi

Zone 51: the top secret military base of the United States

Qiao Guanhua’s tragedy in his later years

Zhou Enlai publicly obeyed Mao Zedong’s

Clinton teased Obama who was the first to catch

“Gang of four”