A white area ruled by Arabs around 732. After the establishment of the Arab “KDS” civilization, the Arab nation is full of brilliance and vitality. All this has not only made the Arabian Peninsula, the world’s largest peninsula that has been silent in the classical era, one of the most active regions of mankind, but also changed the face of West Asia, South Asia and North Africa, which once gave birth to many classical civilizations such as the two rivers basin, the Ganges basin and the Nile basin, and made the development of human medieval civilizations present a new pattern of mutual planting, And has had a far-reaching impact on the development of human modern civilization.
“the Last Revelation of Allah” — the creation of Islam
the son of the desert – Bedouin
the Arabian Peninsula is bordered by the Persian Gulf in the East, the Red Sea in the West and the Arabian Sea in the south, With an area of about 3.2 million square kilometers, it is the largest peninsula in the world. Most of the interior of the peninsula is dry and hot desert, sometimes mixed with small oasis for nomadism or farming. In southwest Yemen, there is abundant rainfall and relatively developed agricultural civilization. In the centuries before B.C., there had been a white race and a himI state. The western shijaz (Hanzhi) area bordering on the Red Sea is dotted with oases with abundant water and grass, which is suitable for grazing. Most Bedouin people who live on nomadism live here. For a long time, shijaz region has been one of the important commercial routes for commercial trade in the three continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. Some cities have been formed along the road. Among them, Mecca city has become an important commercial town because it has a clear seepage spring, which is convenient for business travelers to drink. In addition, the city also has black meteorites and kelbaigu temple, which are regarded as sacred objects from heaven, so it has become the religious sacrifice center of the peninsula. Yartreb, located north of Mecca, is also a commercial city. Because it is located in an oasis, it is rich in dates, grains and vegetables.
in the first few centuries of A.D., most parts of the Arabian Peninsula were still on the edge of the civilized world. Bedouin people live by water and grass and live on nomadism. However, due to the poor natural environment and fragile economic foundation, camels and dates are the two pillars of Bedouin people’s economic life. The arid desert climate and the pressure of population growth forced some Bedouin people to migrate outward, but most tribes fell into mutual attack and vendetta in order to compete for water, livestock and pastures, which made Bedouin people develop a predatory and belligerent character. In addition, the instability of desert life, adventure and the dispersion and isolation of various tribes make polytheistic nature worship very popular among Bedouin people.
multiple social crises
after the 4th and 5th centuries, the internal and external situation of the Arabian Peninsula fluctuated violently, and the whole society was trapped in an unprecedented comprehensive crisis.
first is the survival crisis. The Byzantine and Persian empires in the North fought a protracted war for hegemony in West Asia. In 525, the Ethiopians of Byzantine allies captured Yemen in the south of the peninsula and destroyed the Arab Kingdom of himia. Later, the Persian army expelled Ethiopians and occupied Yemen. These two invasions completely destroyed the agricultural civilization of southern Arabia, and a large number of people settled there moved north and returned to nomadic or semi nomadic state. Since then, the increasingly fierce war for hegemony among countries has shifted the traditional international business route from the west of the Arabian Peninsula to the Persian Gulf and the two river basins. The Bedouin people living in the shijaz region and taking business as their main income have lost their way of livelihood. Mecca businessmen have suffered heavy economic losses, the majority of the people have lost their means of livelihood and fall into the dilemma of bankruptcy.
followed by social crisis. The deterioration of the living environment has a violent impact on the Arab society which is already on the threshold of the civilized world. With the increase of the gap between the rich and the poor, the internal contradictions of the society are becoming increasingly prominent. When the trade routes of Mecca merchants and nobles were blocked, they transformed a large amount of commercial capital into usury and exploited the poor people. Many poor people are unwilling to become debt slaves or various forms of dependencies. The conflicts and confrontations within the society made the Mecca nobles realize that in order to consolidate their economic interests and social status, maintain social order, expand land and develop trade, a unified and powerful ruling institution must be established. The broad masses of the people also deeply desire to have a fair and reasonable authority to achieve social stability and live a better life.
is a crisis of faith again. The hardships of survival and social unrest have caused all kinds of confusion in the hearts of Arabs. Why do all kinds of natural gods respected for generations not lend a helping hand at such a time of deep suffering? By which gods did the conquerors become so arrogant? After losing faith in polytheistic worship, Bedouins gradually associated their miserable status with the gods in heaven. The traditional belief system of natural polytheism began to loosen and disintegrate, and the belief concepts of monotheism such as Judaism and Christianity in the surrounding areas were introduced into the Arabian Peninsula, which also gave the Bedouin people some enlightenment.
the great prophet
when there are many crises such as survival, society and belief, which painfully perplex Bedouin people, but also pave the historical stage of social change. Conforming to the needs of the times and society, Muhammad resolutely stepped on the historical stage and shouldered the important task of changing the historical destiny.
Muhammad (about 570-632) was born in a declining merchant noble family of Hashim tribe of gulesi tribe in Mecca city. He lost his father and his mother when he was young,Raised by an elderly grandfather. In his early years, he was a herder. Later, he went to other places to do business with his uncle and uncle. He had been to Syria, Palestine and other places. When he was about 25 years old, he was employed by his rich widow herticher to do business for him. He married him in the same year, and his economic situation was improved. His life was quite stable and prosperous. The experience of loneliness and poverty made Muhammad strong willed from childhood, and his complex business experience expanded his vision. His marriage with heticher provided him with stable life security and high social status. All these provided necessary conditions for Muhammad to give full play to his intelligence and lofty ambitions.
Muhammad, who lives in the lower class of Mecca, has a profound experience and understanding of the situation of Arab society and can appreciate the constantly rolling trend in the hearts of most Arab comrades in troubled times. In the long-term business process, he learned the basic teachings of Judaism and Christianity, and was influenced by the newly established “Hanif” monotheistic trend of thought, so he had a strong interest in the relationship between religion and Arab society. Although he is illiterate, he is diligent in observation and thinking in order to solve the problems that perplex the world. He often hid in the Hilla cave on the outskirts of Mecca to meditate, and gradually realized that to save Arabs from alien bullying and social crises, they must first save their souls. On the basis of absorbing the teachings of Judaism and Christianity and following the original beliefs of Bedouin people, Muhammad initially formed his own religious belief system – Islam. Its core idea is to take Allah (Allah), the main god of the ancient Lacey tribe in Mecca, as the only true God and creator in the universe; Those who believe in Allah can rise to heaven after death, otherwise they will fall into hell; Muhammad himself is the messenger chosen by Allah. He preaches the final revelation of Allah to all people: worship Allah alone and abandon polytheistic belief and idol worship. The L word “Islam” originally means obedience, that is, obedience to the will of Allah; Those who believe in Islam are called “Muslims”, which means those who respect Allah and obey the prophet.
in 610, Muhammad began to preach in Mecca. It was initially secret, and its recipients were limited to his close relatives and close friends, lower class civilians and slaves. Later, the missionary work gradually became public, the believers became more and more popular, and some members of the commercial aristocratic family also joined in, which attracted the attention of the Mecca ruling group with the Umayyad family as the core. The expansion of Islam, which worships only one God, will inevitably lead to the relaxation of the traditional polytheistic worship, and the central position of polytheistic worship in Mecca will also be lost, which will endanger the economic and social interests obtained by the Umayyad family by managing the Kaaba temple. The arrogant Umayyad family and other noble giants began to attack Muhammad personally, resist his teachings, and then develop into violent persecution. In 622, after Muhammad’s life was threatened and his family gave up his protection, he was forced to leave and move to the city of yatripu, which is called “resettlement” in the history of Islam. This was a major turning point in Muhammad’s life. Yatrib was renamed “Medina Nabi” due to the arrival of Muhammad, which means “city of the prophet”, or “Medina” for short.