Aristotle (384 bc-322 BC) was the most knowledgeable scholar in ancient Greece and a famous philosopher and thinker.
He made a comprehensive summary of the vigorous development of science and culture during the prosperity of slavery in ancient Greek city states.
He is the epitome of science and culture in ancient Greece.
His works have the same authority as the Bible in the medieval European Christian Church.
He had an indelible influence on the development of European Philosophy and science.
“If one really wants to work in philosophy, nothing is worth doing more than telling Aristotle,” he said Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Thrace, northern Greece, and came from a medical family.
His father nicomarcos was the royal doctor of apenta, king of Macedonia.
Her mother, festis, a native of EuPIA, became her son’s last refuge in kalkis’s house.
Aristotle lost his father in his early years and was guarded by his sister arimneste and his brother-in-law procenos.
They were very concerned about the education of their lonely brother and took him to Athens, the cultural center at that time, and entered the philosophy school run by Plato.
In addition to his sister, Aristotle also had a younger brother, arimu nestos, who died at an early age.
Aristotle has always had infinite love and compassion for his unfortunate young brother.
In his will, he also urged not to forget to set up a bust for his young brother who died early and had no children as a souvenir.
In 367 BC, Aristotle, who was eager for knowledge, came to Athens at the age of 17.
At that time, Athens was the center of Greece in terms of cultural structure.
There are two famous schools, the rhetoric school founded by Yi and the philosophy school founded by Plato.
The two schools compete and slander each other, but they are all for the common goal of cultivating talents engaged in social and political activities and managing the country in all Greek city states.
Esugrati emphasized practicality, while Plato paid attention to the education of theoretical literacy.
Aristotle entered Plato’s philosophy school.
After 10 years of basic mathematical training, the students have become accustomed to observing problems from the perspective of eternal existence.
Their hearts have entered the realm of philosophy and entered a higher level – the study of dialectics, a highly abstract concept and speculative training.
In the school, Aristotle received the attention of teachers and won the respect of students.
Because of his superb study and outstanding performance, he was praised by Plato as “the elite of the school”.
Aristotle was not satisfied with his teacher’s theory.
He said, “I love teachers, but I love truth more.
” In 347 BC, Plato died, and Aristotle left Athens because he did not become the successor of Plato’s Academy.
He came to the city of artania in the northern region of missea and lived in the palace of the tyrant of the city.
The tyrant was Hermia, his classmate and friend at Plato’s school.
Hermia studied in agameme and yearned for Plato’s ideal of “philosopher is king” or “king is philosopher”.
When he was really autocratic, he invited four philosophers from agamem, one of whom was Aristotle.
The four philosophers did not seem to be involved in political affairs, but just discussed philosophy together.
Hermia married his niece bithia to Aristotle and gave birth to a daughter also named bithia.
Aristotle’s wife died in his early years.
Later, he lived with a sitagira woman, gave birth to a son and took the same name as his grandfather, nicomarcos.
In order to repay his sister and brother-in-law for their upbringing, he also adopted his nephew nigano as his son and asked him to marry his daughter bithia as soon as possible in his will.
During this period, Aristotle began to criticize Plato’s philosophy and gradually formed his own independent opinions.
Three years later, the iron hooves of the Persian army broke through this quiet life.
Artania was conquered by the Persians, and Hermia was also murdered by the Persian king atalzez.
Aristotle had to stay away from medeleni.
He deeply felt the kindness of Hermia and set up a monument and inscription for him to commemorate.
In mideleny, he met theo frast, who worked together for the next 25 years and was the heir to his college.
The two companions roam, forming an inseparable whole.
It is said that 70% of the existing works of Aristotle are written by theophrast, which shows how close their cooperation is.
In 343 BC, the son of the king of Macedonia had reached the age of 13 and had reached the age of education.
Philip II sought Aristotle and asked him to be the mentor of the future empire builder.
He was ordered to be accompanied by theofrast’s family to Pura.
Aristotle was a young scholar at that time.
It was not easy to get this honor.
In October 335 BC, shortly after Alexander, the 21-year-old young king of Macedonia, ascended the throne, he moved quickly to the city of Thebes to put an end to the rebellion.
With the help of Aristotle, Greek culture was preserved without being trampled.
After Macedonia took full control of the situation, Aristotle and theophrast, who were already in their fifties, returned to Athens.
The first thing to do was to set up a forum in Luc ó n.
This period was the real peak of Aristotle’s life.
Alexander provided sufficient scientific research funds and a considerable number of slaves to serve Aristotle.
According to records, Alexander sent someone to collect and send it to the teacher for research every time he got rare birds and animals and exotic flowers and grass.
Aristotle deepened his experience and increased his knowledge during his wandering period.
He has accumulated a considerable number of materials on hand, and his opinions have gradually deviated from Plato’s fixed model, embarked on the road of independent exploration, and established the study style of “carefree school”.
At this time, although Aristotle was half a hundred years old, as a teacher and thinker, he was still energetic and sharp minded.
It was a golden harvest season.
Aristotle devoted himself to work with unimaginable perseverance.
In Luc ó n, he led the senior students to walk in the morning and explore those special problems.
In the afternoon, he taught basic subjects to the majority of junior students, including some listeners, on the corridor of the playground.
In addition, he also prepared a large number of handouts or teaching outlines.
Arid is knowledgeable and has written a wide range of works.
There are 400 works and thousands of works, but there are only 47.
These existing works have been verified, collated, compiled and sorted out by later generations, among which it is inevitable to spread errors and omissions.
However, most of the materials are credible and can be used as the basic basis for our study of Aristotle.
In western academiaSince ancient times, there has been a traditional classification of his academic works: one is the popular reading in the form of dialogue written for the general public.
The other is the more profound lecture notes and notes written for students in the school park.
Most of the former has been lost, and the latter is the works that remain today.
According to the opinions of most researchers, Aristotle’s existing works are generally divided into five parts: (1) natural science, mainly including astronomy, meteorology, botany, zoology and on the soul.
（2） Philosophy, mainly including metaphysics and physics.
（3） Political ethics, mainly including nicoma ethics, politics and so on.
（4） Aesthetics, mainly including poetics and embellishment.
（5） Logic, mainly including instrumental theory, etc.
The philosophy advocated by Aristotle’s “carefree school” respects facts and experience.
They accumulate as complete materials as possible and summarize the experience of different aspects, making his philosophy an all inclusive treasure house.
Aristotle’s philosophy is a collection of ideas composed of multi-level, multi angle, repeated and even contradictory concepts by stacking method, so it is often “trapped in childish chaos, pitiful and helpless chaos”.
In this sense, the philosophy of “carefree school” is not a systematic philosophy.
In July 323 BC, Alexander died suddenly in Babylon at the age of 33.
A wave of resistance against the tyranny of Macedonia broke out in Athens.
The city gate caught fire and affected the fish in the pond.
Aristotle was implicated and charged with the crime of “disrespect to the gods” because he was a teacher of Alexander and had a close relationship with the governor of Macedonia, andibatro.
He had to hand over the school to his disciple theophrast, escape from Athens, live alone in the old house left by his mother, and completely return to himself.
The following year, in the autumn of 322 BC, Aristotle died at the age of 62.
Aristotle’s broad ideological system had a complex and far-reaching impact on later generations.
Many of his theories were used by religious theology, and even developed into the orthodoxy of Scholasticism in the middle ages.
On the other hand, his thought inspired and influenced almost all philosophers in later generations.
Because of Aristotle’s summative contribution to the early ideological achievements of mankind, people have always recognized him as the greatest encyclopedic thinker in ancient times.