The birth of Judaism Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion.
There is a long history from the Hebrew people’s worship and belief in the LORD God to the establishment of Judaism, which only respects the Lord as one God.
According to the Old Testament, 4000 years ago, Abraham had hazily believed that there was a more powerful Lord God among the gods, the Lord.
He led the crowd from Mesopotamia to Canaan “according to the instructions of the Lord”.
But at this time, the LORD was only the God of Abraham and his immediate descendants.
Even Abraham’s servants did not directly recognize the Lord as their own God, but just said, “the Lord, the God of my master Abraham”.
Abraham sacrificed his son (mosaic).
In Hebrew art, due to the prohibition of idolatry by the relevant commandments, the characters are very rare.
The painting comes from the paved road of Beth alpha synagogue and depicts Abraham preparing to sacrifice with his son Isaac.
Statue of Moses.
Under the leadership of Moses, the Hebrews successfully escaped from Egypt.
In Jewish tradition, Moses is regarded as the greatest prophet and teacher.
The holy stone reflecting the early primitive religious belief of the Jews was unearthed in Hazor Town, Israel.
If the era of Abraham is the embryonic stage of Judaism, then the era of Moses is the birth of Judaism.
According to legend, Moses and his brother Aaron, with the “help of the LORD God”, led the suffering compatriots to leave Egypt, walk through the Sinai desert and wilderness, and return to Canaan, a beautiful and wide “land flowing with milk and honey”.
However, on the hard way back, the poor natural conditions, the lack of living materials and all kinds of spiritual hardships shook the Hebrew loyalty to the Lord, so that the phenomenon of idol worship appeared again.
Moses wanted to use God to restrain them.
He took them to the foot of Mount Sinai and claimed that the LORD God had called him up to the mountain for jophaz the Hebrew and asked all Hebrews to fast for three days until he returned to jophaz the Lord.
When Moses saw some people offering golden calves, he angrily broke the stone slab engraved with the “Ten Commandments”.
After that, Moses came to the top of Sinai to abstain from food and meditation for 40 days and nights.
When the people at the foot of the mountain saw that Moses was not going down the mountain, they thought he had an accident, so they took out gold jewelry and forged a golden calf.
People called the golden bull the God who led them out of Egypt, built altars, worshipped, killed animals and sacrificed.
After Moses went down the mountain, he found this treason.
He was so angry that people melted the golden calf, and ordered the Levi tribe loyal to him to execute more than 3000 traitors.
Then Moses went up Mount Sinai to ask God for “sin for the people”.
After another 40 days, Moses went down the mountain with two stone tablets in red light and announced to the people that the Ten Commandments engraved on the stone tablets were the Ten Commandments agreed between God and the Hebrews, namely: “the ten commandments of Moses”.
After announcing the ten commandments, Moses also announced a series of religious ordinances and decrees to the Hebrews in the name of the revelation of the Lord, promulgated the implementation rules of religious rituals such as the construction of the tent of meeting, the ark, the lampstand and the altar, as well as the sacrifices and sacrifices, defined the full-time priest system in which adult men of the Levite tribe served as priests, and determined the passover Some important religious festivals such as Pentecost and tabernacle day.
Murals of the synagogue of dura orops (3rd century A.D.). The picture depicts Aaron, Moses’ brother, the earliest high priest of the Hebrews.
Moses determined the Hebrew religious creeds and ethical norms in the form of religious laws.
In fact, he also formulated some of the most basic teachings and rules of Judaism.
Judaism, the earliest monotheism of mankind, was “born” in the Sinai desert through Moses.
The Lord rose from the original tribal god in Abraham’s time to the national God of all Hebrews.
Moses clearly called the Lord “the God of Israel”.
The most brilliant historical achievement of Solomon in the great temple of the Lord is the great temple he built for the LORD God of Judaism in Jerusalem for seven years.
In order to complete this luxurious and huge construction project, Solomon requisitioned 30000 workers from the people all over the country every quarter, of which every 10000 people went to build a temple in a foreign mountain area of Lebanon for one month to cut down trees, and engaged in labor in the country for the other two months.
In addition, there are 150000 foreign prisoners working day and night on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.
King Hiram I of tyre not only provided a large number of cedar, pine and other building materials for the project, but also sent many skilled craftsmen to help.
In 935 BC, this magnificent building was finally completed.
The temple was built in accordance with the prevailing styles in Palestine and Syria at that time.
The temple sits on a rectangular hill facing east and west of Jerusalem.
There is an oval stone wall outside, with a tall main hall and several side halls built inside.
The main hall is about 9 feet long and 3 feet wide.
The hall is divided into three parts: the entrance hall and the opposite hall.
The ark of the covenant was placed in the innermost sanctuary of the temple.
The walls, ceiling, doors and windows, holding columns, sacrificial vessels and palace lanterns in the hall are coated with a thick layer of gold powder, which looks resplendent.
There are also two artifacts related to the temple: Copper sea and copper column, which not only reflects the magnificent scale of the Jewish temple, but also shows that Jewish craftsmen had mastered superb metal smelting and casting technology at that time.
In Jewish history, this temple is called the “first temple”.
After the completion of the temple, Solomon personally presided over the grand ceremony of placing the covenant frame in the temple during the tabernacle Festival this year.
He prayed piously to the Lord, “I have built a house for your residence and your permanent residence.
” The completion of the temple of the LORD made the city of Solomon famous.
Tourists and merchants from neighboring countries came in an endless stream.
With this magnificent temple as the worship center, Judaism has an unprecedented status in the eyes of the Hebrews.
Since then, Jerusalem has become an important holy land of Judaism and the spiritual center of the Hebrew nation.
The temple was rebuilt in 537 BC.
The king of Israel was Josiah.
He was a devout religious believer.
He abides by the law and tries to do everything in accordance with the will of the Lord.
Therefore, he is loved by the people.
However, in the peaceful and prosperous era under his rule, many people began to corrupt and promiscuous, and even the elders and priests of the people were lawless.
At that time, some strong enemies of the Gentiles had long been eyeing Israel, and the Jewish kingdom was in great crisis.
Jerusalem centered on the temple, but Josiah has not seen this clearly.
In the eighteenth year of his reign, he held a grand ceremony according to the procedure of the law of MosesA ceremony to celebrate the Passover (the 14th day of the first month).
He offered a large number of sacrifices such as cattle and sheep, which was the most solemn among the kings of Israel since Samuel’s time.
Soon thereafter, Israel began to decline.
Nico, king of Egypt, was now setting up an army against the king of Assyria on the Euphrates.
Josiah wanted to stop him.
Nico replied, “I have no offense to you, king of Judea.
Now the Lord is with us.
Please don’t oppose the Lord.
” Later, Josiah led a large army to fight with the Egyptians and soon died in the battle.
Finally, the Israelites were defeated by Egypt and were forced to pay tribute to Egypt.
After Josiah’s death, his son Jehoahaz ascended the throne.
Only three months later, he was deposed by the king of Egypt and made Jehoiakim, another son of Josiah, king.
Jehoiakim was 25 years old.
Immediately after he ascended the throne, he ordered to arrest the ministers in the court and imprison his brothers.
He also did all the corruption and degeneration himself.
Soon, when the king of Babylon saw Nebuchadnezzar attacking Israel, he took Jehoiakim and sent him to Babylon.
He also took many artifacts from the temple.
Jehoiachin, the son of Jehoiakim, took over the throne.
Three months later, he was also carried away by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, and the temple was robbed again.
Then the king of Babylon made Zedekiah, Joachim’s uncle, king.
He forced Zedekiah to swear loyalty to him in the name of the Lord.
However, Zedekiah betrayed him soon.
During the 11 years of Zedekiah’s reign, the people under his rule lived an extremely corrupt life, and the priests and elders of the temple even degenerated more than ordinary believers.
The temple was seriously desecrated.
Finally one day, the king of Babylon was shocked and angry.
He led his army into Jerusalem, killed all the young people, and took away all the king’s property, the holy vessels in the temple and the holy ark of the Lord.
The temple of peace will be razed to the ground.
Zedekiah’s eyes were gouged out, and the survivors were taken to Babylon and enslaved for 70 years until the rise of the Persian Empire.
The Hebrews finally paid for their absurdity.
It is said that the prophet Jeremiah said, “this land will be abandoned for 70 years to make up for the seven-year rest that has not been observed in the past.
” Exactly 70 years later, the Persian Empire was established, and the situation of the Hebrews improved because its emperor respected the God of Israel.
As soon as Cyrus, the Persian Emperor, ascended the throne, he issued an edict to let the Hebrews return to Jerusalem, rebuild the temple of the Lord of Israel, and return a total of 5469 sacred vessels robbed by the king of Babylon from the temple to Israel.
After hearing the news, the Hebrews immediately rushed back to Jerusalem from all over the country, with a total of more than 40000 people preparing to rebuild the temple.
But Cyrus soon died and adaxerxes ascended the throne.
At this time, the temple had just begun, and the construction of silver coins with the design of the second temple in the first century A.D. began.
Some local pagans wanted to participate in the reconstruction, but they were refused, so they made trouble.
Persian officials and the governors of greater Syria and Phoenicia also complained to the Emperor: “The city of Jerusalem has been a city of evil and rebellion since ancient times.
The Hebrews have always used the city as a base for rebellion and war, causing trouble to successive emperors and destroying the city itself.
Now the Hebrews returning from various countries have begun to rebuild the city and temple.
Once completed, they will stop paying taxes and rebel against the court.
” After hearing this, the emperor checked the records of previous dynasties and found that this was indeed the case, so he ordered to stop the reconstruction project.
It was not until the second year after Darius ascended the throne that things took a turn for the better.
Restoration of the second temple, a temple built by Jews in the capital to celebrate their becoming the “elector” of the only true God.
It is said that the prophets Haggai and Zechariah began to plan to rebuild the temple.
After hearing the news, the emperor’s three Jewish bodyguards always wanted to persuade the emperor to change his order.
It happened that Daliu held a grand banquet to entertain all courtiers, royal families and all commanders, governors and governors of 127 provinces.
The emperor liked to debate and often held grand debate meetings.
Many ministers in the court were appreciated by him for their eloquence.
For each large-scale banquet, it is inevitable to hold a pre-trial debate, and the emperor will judge the outcome.
The topic of this debate is: what is the most powerful thing in the world? The winner will drink a gold cup, sleep in a gold bed, wear a gold necklace, sit in a gold chariot, become the king’s counselor and get the title of Prince.
After some discussion, the three young people wrote down the answer, sealed it and put it under the emperor’s pillow.
The next day the emperor got up, and the answers of the three people were sent first.
So the emperor summoned everyone to the parliament hall and began to preside over the debate.
He called three bodyguards in and said, “I’ve seen your answers.
Now explain your answers.
We’re all ears.
” Pottery ape sarcophagus covers excavated from Dale elbarakh from the 14th to 13th centuries BC have faces that look like Egyptians.
A young man stood up first, He said: “Gentlemen, I think wine is the most powerful thing in the world.
Because it can disturb the mood of everyone who drinks alcohol, and it has the same effect on everyone, rich or poor, high or low.
It makes everyone feel carefree and forget everything with great joy.
it makes everyone feel rich and despise kingship and officials.
it also makes people forget their neighbors, turn against each other and draw their swords Fight.
As soon as the wine wakes up, it completely forgets its behavior.
Since wine can manipulate people in this way, it is certainly the most powerful thing in the world.
” Its reply received a burst of warm applause, and many people agreed.
The second bodyguard stood up, Said: “Ladies and gentlemen, I think there is no stronger person in the world than man.
Man is the head of all spirits.
He rules the earth and the sea.
The emperor is the strongest of all people and their master.
People should obey the emperor.
Therefore, the emperor is the most powerful in the world.
Under the command of the emperor’s scepter, people fight bravely to kill the enemy, destroy cities, level mountains and plains, and no one dares to retreat.
Farmers should take their land When the harvest is returned to a shepherd looking for his lost lamb, the emperor will pay tribute, and the citizens will pay taxes to the emperor according to the regulations.
Whoever the emperor let die must die.
He ordered the destruction of crops and people had to do the same.
No matter who is a minister or a general with unparalleled martial arts, he must obey the emperor.
In the emperor’s daily life, there were a large number of bodyguards who guarded him tremblingly and dared not go against his will.
Since everyone must obey the emperor, of course there is no one stronger than him in the world.
” His words also drew applause, and even the Emperor himself smiled and nodded in praise.
Then the last bodyguard stood up and calledSaul barber, who was brave, intelligent and astute, said calmly, “gentlemen, I think women and truth are the most powerful.
” There was a commotion, and someone shouted, “that’s nonsense.
Are women stronger than men?” Saul barber said: “Yes, women brought all men, including emperors, into the world and brought them up.
Men wear clothes made by women, and women bring glory to men.
Without women, men can’t live.
Although wine is strong, it comes from vineyards, vineyards are planted by men, and men are raised by women.
Men can try their best to accumulate their wealth, but when he When they see a beautiful and beautiful woman, they will be stunned.
They will not hesitate to abandon their wealth for the favor of women.
A man will leave his father, bid farewell to his motherland, marry a woman, forget everything and spend the rest of his life with his wife.
Therefore, women are the masters of men.
Don’t you give all your hard work to your wife? A man will wander around, fight, rob, steal, cross rivers and seas, climb mountains and valleys, fight with wild animals to the death, and finally take his booty home to the woman he loves.
Men love their wives more than their parents.
Some people are fascinated by women and become women’s slaves.
Some people were executed and lost their lives for women and even crimes.
Am I right? ” Everyone laughed.
Zorubbab continued: “The emperor’s power is powerful, and no one dares to offend him.
But once I saw him sitting with his concubine apemi.
She took the crown from the emperor’s head, put it on her head, and hit the emperor’s mouth with her hand, while her majesty just looked at her with her mouth open.
When she smiled, her majesty smiled back.
when she was angry, he flattered her and teased her until she was in a good mood to become better.
Ladies and gentlemen, since women are so capable, the strongest in the world is women.
” The emperor and his ministers looked at each other, unable to laugh or cry.
Soro barber paused, Then he said: “Women are really powerful, but truth is greater and more powerful than everything else.
People in the world respect truth, and all things obey truth.
Because truth is not unjust at all.
Injustice exists in wine, emperors, women, all mankind and all other things, and will eventually die out.
However, truth is eternal, and truth always exists.
Truth is unbiased Protect, never do evil things, it is always just, it is strong, noble and dignified forever.
Let all things praise the truth! ” As soon as his voice fell, all the people cheered.
Many people came forward and lifted up Zerubbabel and shouted, “truth is great! It is the most powerful!” Then the emperor smiled and said, “good boy, you have won.
You will be the prince of the Empire and my trusted counselor.
What else do you want?” Tuzorubbab, the restoration of the second temple, said, “Your Majesty, allow me to remind you of the oath you made on the day you became king: you promised to rebuild Jerusalem, rebuild the temple and return the treasures of the temple.
Moreover, the emperor Cyrus also made such a promise.
Your majesty is the most generous, and I beg you to fulfill your promise with the emperor Cyrus.
” The emperor said, “the temple was rebuilt once before, but it was soon ordered to stop by the former Emperor adaxerxes.
Since the ancient emperor had promised, I’ll send someone to check it immediately.
” He immediately ordered his attendants to check the palace archives, and soon found the following records: “in the first year of the ancient emperor, he issued an edict to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem as a place of sacrifice.
All the expenses shall be paid by the state treasury, and all the sacred objects stolen by the king of Babylon must be returned to the original place of the temple.
” Then King Darius stood up and kissed Zerubbabel.
Then the emperor ordered the reconstruction of Jerusalem and the temple and the return of all sacred vessels.
He recognized the freedom of all Hebrews, gave them a permit to return to their hometown, and ordered the local pagans to hand over the land they had taken from the Hebrews at that time.
He appointed Zerubbabel governor of Judea and sent heavy troops to escort him and the exiles to their homeland.
He ordered the governor of greater Syria and Phoenicia to lead local officials to evacuate Jerusalem and let the Hebrew people govern.
Finally, he set aside a large sum of money for the reconstruction of the temple, and those who disobeyed his orders would be hanged.
Zerubbabel fell to the ground and shouted thanks to God.
Then, Lord of wisdom, I can’t help cheering for you in the hall of wisdom, my servant and the source of wisdom.
Then, thank you, O Lord of wisdom, for leaving the hall of wisdom He took the imperial edict and went to Babylon to tell the good news to his Jewish compatriots.
They reveled in music for seven days.
Subsequently, he led his compatriots of all ethnic groups to return to Jerusalem safely under the escort of the Royal brigade cavalry.
After all the Hebrews who returned from exile settled in their hometown, they began the large-scale reconstruction of the temple with the permission of the emperor.
With the encouragement of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, the craftsmen successfully built the temple and finally built the “Second Temple” in 516 BC.
Compared with the “first temple”, this temple is much smaller and far less magnificent than Solomon’s temple.
However, after many hardships, the Jewish nation is much more mature in spirit than before.
On the 14th of the first month, they held a solemn ceremony to celebrate the Passover and offered a large number of sacrifices.
This is another truly grand celebration since the Passover in the eighteenth year of King Josiah.
The story of the Wailing Wall on November 9, AD 70, Jerusalem fell under the attack of the powerful Roman Legion.
The Roman army led by Titus flattened the Jewish wailing wall in Jerusalem more than 500 years ago.
Above it is the Islamic rock dome mosque.
The era of the second temple in Jewish history came to an end, and Abu Dhabi became a day engraved with the tragic experience of Jews.
For nearly 2000 years, Jews have been commemorating the destruction of the second temple on this day.
Although the magnificent Jewish Temple no longer exists, Jews still regard the ruins of the temple as a sacred place.
During the Roman rule, some Jews risked their lives and quietly came here at night to chant scriptures and pray, even though they faced only the ruins, rubble and rubble left by the destruction of the temple.
Later, when the Roman restrictions were slightly relaxed, some JewsA great thinker still remembered by people today.
However, they left behind a great book for which the whole world is deeply moved – the Old Testament.
Although it is not a philosophical work, it is permeated with great Hebrew philosophy.
Some propositions put forward in the Old Testament have philosophical meaning, and can even be said to put forward philosophical propositions in religious language.
The beginning of the Old Testament is different from the legends of the gods of other nations.
There is no trace of the stories of the gods related to the regular changes of the sun, moon and year and the repeated natural cycle.
There is only one supreme God, a God who holds the world in spirit, and a God closely related to human spiritual morality, secular life and historical process.
Although the Lord has the supreme power to control nature, because he is to guide the Hebrews to implement his will, he does not aim to worship the mysterious power hidden behind nature, but to understand the divine will through nature.
The five books of Moses is the ideological basis of the Old Testament, and the world outlook of monotheism runs through it.
This leads to a series of philosophical problems, such as God’s will and man’s freedom, God’s law and man’s desire, man’s sin and redemption.
During the Hellenization period, Hebrews came into contact with Greek philosophy.
Hebrew scholars began to care about Greek wisdom, rationality and logic.
They tried to use Greek philosophy to defend the teachings of Judaism.
Wisdom is the main topic of Greek philosophy.
Hebrew scholars showed great enthusiasm for the sanctity of wisdom.
In the wisdom of Solomon, wisdom is praised as “the true knowledge of natural forces” and can make people know “things that have not been known”, expressing the sincere feeling that “the wisdom that shapes all beings is my teacher”.
Philo, a Hebrew philosopher, intellectualized God and described him as the supreme, perfect, good and knowledgeable Creator with the character of justice, kindness, kindness and wisdom.
Hebrew philosophy in the Middle Ages was deeply influenced by Aristotle’s philosophy.
Aristotle’s philosophy is important to Christianity, Islam and Judaism.
There are two reasons: first, Aristotle’s philosophy can provide a philosophical basis for Natural Science in the middle ages.
The scientific research of explaining various laws of nature in the most abstract form benefits from the thinking mode of Aristotle’s philosophy.
Moreover, the discussion of various natural sciences finally leads to the most essential existence of the world, which can only be explained by philosophy.
Second, Aristotle’s philosophy believes that things need external driving force or “primitive driver” to enter reality from potential state.
This view is of great help to monotheistic worship.
God is the supreme primitive promoter of the existence and activities of the world.
If the Hebrew scholars in the Hellenistic period first came into contact with Greek philosophy and failed to really understand its essence, after nearly a thousand years of study, pondering and interpretation, the Hebrew philosophers’ understanding of Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle’s philosophy, has entered a new period.
Maimonid did not follow the footsteps of his predecessors in Jewish philosophy, but drew nourishment from Aristotle’s philosophy to make Jewish philosophy a system.
He believed that the Jewish religion could not be modified to accommodate Aristotle’s philosophy.
On the contrary, it should be Aristotle’s philosophy.
That is, Aristotle’s philosophy should consider some ideas about ultimate reality and human behavior put forward by moral monotheism, which has not been considered before.
“Creation” is one of the cornerstones of religious philosophy.
God can create something from nothing, which is certainly not in line with the natural law emphasized by Aristotle’s philosophy.
Maimonide stressed: it is helpful to understand the natural order through logical reasoning, but it is not enough to understand the world as an interconnected whole.
People can not deny the eternity of the universe, nor can God create the world.
Hebrew people’s understanding is constantly developing, especially after the rise of the Modern Jewish enlightenment reform, Hebrew philosophy has made great progress.