The Middle Ages in Western Europe was a particularly “dark era”.
The Christian Church became the spiritual pillar of the feudal society at that time.
It established a strict hierarchy and regarded God as the absolute authority.
Literature, art and philosophy must be in accordance with the teachings of the Christian Classic Bible.
No one can violate it, otherwise the religious court will punish him or even impose the death penalty.
Dark rule of the church: the Bible says that human ancestors were Adam and Eve.
Because they violated God’s prohibition and stole the forbidden fruit of the paradise, they committed a great sin.
As their descendants, human beings should make atonement from generation to generation, suffer all their lives, and have no desire to enter heaven in the afterlife.
Under the control of the church, literature and art in the middle ages were dead, and there was no progress in science and technology.
In ancient Greece and Rome, the achievements of literature and art were very high, and people could freely publish various academic ideas, which was in sharp contrast to the middle ages of the “dark era”.
At the end of the 14th century, due to the invasion of the Ottoman Empire, many scholars in Eastern Rome fled to Western Europe with a large number of ancient Greek and Roman art treasures and literature, history, philosophy and other books.
Later, some scholars from Eastern Rome set up a school called “Greek College” in Florence, Italy, to teach Greece’s brilliant history, civilization and culture.
From then on, Western Europeans found that everything in ancient Greece was so beautiful and everything in the Middle Ages was so ugly.
Many Western European scholars asked to restore the culture and art of ancient Greece and Rome.
This demand is like a spring breeze, which slowly blows all over Western Europe, setting off a surging wave of “Greek fever”.
This is the so-called “Renaissance” in history.
“The father of humanism”: the Renaissance took place in Italy.
Italy is the successor of ancient Rome geographically and culturally.
In a sense, Roman culture is Italian culture, and Latin is also the ancestral language of Italy.
Italy has always been in a leading position in the social development of Europe.
Reviving ancient art is to carry forward the excellent traditions of ancient times, and it is also a glorious thing to explore the art of ancestors.
The “Renaissance” was nominally for the restoration of classical literature and art.
In fact, the emerging bourgeoisie used this name to develop science and technology.
It required to get rid of the shackles of feudalism in ideology, care for people, respect people, take people as the center of everything, give people personal freedom and personal freedom, and strongly opposed the feudal doctrine of God as the center, It opposes the saying that people are guilty at birth.
It holds that people are great, people should enjoy the happiness of life, and people should control their own destiny.
However, this kind of thought is the human centered “humanism” thought, which was the progressive thought at that time.
The famous Italian poet and scholar portlac (1304 ~ 1374) first put forward this progressive thought of fighting against the Christian Church.
Therefore, he is regarded as the pioneer of the Renaissance and known as the “father of humanism” “Land offering by Constantine”: in the process of the rise of the Renaissance movement, the debate on the authenticity of the document “land offering by Constantine” further promoted the development of the Renaissance.
The Pope of Christianity is the leader of religion and is called “father”.
He also has a large territory, forming a “Papal State”.
The Pope is the “emperor” of this “state”, and his power is higher than that of the monarchs of European countries.
In 750 ad, the French king “dwarf” Pippin dedicated a large area of central Italy to the Pope, which formed this “Papal State”.
However, the Pope believed that the prestige of the king of France was too small, and only the ancient Roman emperor could represent the whole of Europe.
Therefore, the Pope forged a document, claiming that the “Papal State” was presented by the Constantinople emperor of the Roman Empire in the early 4th century, and that the whole Roman Empire belonged to the Pope.
According to this reasoning, the whole of Europe should obey the Pope.
Since then, successive popes have regarded a forged document as a proof of their supreme power.
By the 15th century, there was a gifted Italian historian Valla, who was proficient in ancient languages.
After research, he found that the documents of “offering soil by Constantine” were written in Latin in the 8th century, while Constantine the great was from the 4th century.
How could he write documents in Latin in the 8th century, that is, hundreds of years later? Walla debunked the Pope’s deceptive trick and exposed the Pope’s “sacred” mask.
Constantine’s offering of earth is a document symbolizing the power of the Pope.
These documents are false.
How can the power of the Pope be supreme? As a result, the edifice of medieval Christian rule was crumbling.
The concepts of absolute authority advocated by Christianity have also been impacted, and the people-centered humanistic thought has won a great victory.
In this way, people’s minds are finally liberated from the spiritual shackles of the church, and people can finally give full play to their intelligence and wisdom.
On the basis of learning ancient Greek culture, people inject their own thoughts and feelings and create many brilliant art works.
Florence: at that time, the biggest center of the Renaissance was Florence in Italy.
Florentine artists have made great achievements in architecture, painting and sculpture.
The central dome of Florence cathedral built by the architect brullemins is 20 stories high.
Against the background of the surrounding buildings, it looks incomparably magnificent and magnificent, no less than other churches in the middle ages.
Donatello’s works of art are famous for their vividness, among which the military horse statue carved for the square in the city of Padua is the most praised.
This sculpture is full of vitality and shows the bravery and majesty of soldiers.
It is a perfect art treasure and a masterpiece that makes Italians proud and excited.
The development of science and Art: Leonardo da Vinci is both an artist and a scientist.
He is a versatile and learned cultural giant.
His masterpiece Mona Lisa is still in the Louvre Museum in France.
Through the portrait of a young woman, Da Vinci shows the rich and delicate inner world of the characters.
Her beautiful, dignified and heartfelt smile suddenly gave people a soft and warm feeling.
When approaching the portrait, she seems to be mocking.
Her smile makes people imaginative and reverie.
Leonardo da Vinci’s painting the last supper is known as “human painting”.