Section IV ancient Greek Dance art as mentioned above, the beautiful natural climate of Greece gave birth to Greek history, Greek philosophy, Greek aesthetics, Greek epic, Greek architecture and sculpture, as well as Greek Dance culture.
Greek Dance culture has been combined with religion from the beginning, but it is different from ancient Egypt.
The dance culture of ancient Egypt has a strong religious totem color, while the dance culture of ancient Greece is different.
It is a spiritual sustenance found in the happy religious sacrificial dance activities and a way to explore the relationship between man and the universe.
Ancient Greece has excellent aesthetics, philosophy, culture and art, as well as excellent dance.
Ancient Greek Dance is combined with music.
Therefore, to understand ancient Greek Dance, we should start with music, minstrel and chorus.
This will be described in the second part of Greek Dance.
Before understanding ancient Greek Dance, we should first understand the early dance art of ancient Greece and the dance form of Crete. I. Crete dance located in the center of the Mediterranean, Crete was influenced by Mesopotamian and ancient Egyptian Civilizations as early as 3000 BC.
At the same time, its special geographical location, such as Crete surrounded by the sea, has become a natural barrier to protect national cultural traditions.
Crete is peaceful and quiet.
Such an environment makes the people of Crete invest in maritime trade early.
With the rapid development of maritime trade, the people of Crete entered the Bronze Age in 2000 BC, the earliest slavery countries in the Mediterranean emerged, and magnificent royal palaces were established.
Women have the same free and equal social status as men.
They can squeeze into the bullring to watch bullfighting performances, participate in battles, go to sea for trade and so on.
They live a very natural and romantic life.
On some of the remaining cultural relics, you can see the relaxed and happy life of Cretan people, such as farmers carrying hoes, gladiators, young women dancing, etc.
Before the Mycenaean occupation of the Greek peninsula in 1450 B.C., the people of Crete always lived in a rich and relaxed living environment, which gave birth to the dance culture of the people of Crete.
The dance of Crete can be divided into four categories: the first category is weapon dance, which is a dance for men holding various weapons.
It is an activity of military training for maritime trade.
The second type is women’s circle dance, which is smooth and soft.
The third type is mask dance, in which dancers wear various animal masks and headwear.
The fourth category is miscellaneous dance, including somersaults, backward bending and other movements.
These four kinds of dances show that Crete was the first developed dance culture phenomenon to enter the civilized stage from the barbaric stage.
Crete ended its primitive life before 3000 BC, and the dance of this period has got rid of its primitive style.
From the first kind of dance, men’s weapon dance is a kind of war fighting martial dance.
At that time, it had very important practical value.
The people of Crete were a marine nation.
The special living conditions determined the cultural characteristics of the people of Crete.
The narrow land could not make Crete a large agricultural country, but the vast ocean provided a world for the people of Crete to carry out maritime trade.
The refined pottery of the eastern part of Egypt and the western part of the Mediterranean island are exchanged with the handicrafts of the eastern part of the Mediterranean island.
Commodity trade has brought wealth and wealth to the people of Crete, and their rich life has been invaded by barbaric and hungry nomads.
In order to protect merchant ships and land, the people of Crete began armed training, and the training life of weapons with armor is reflected in the dance of Crete.
The weapon dance of Crete was later inherited by the Spartans.
The second kind of women’s circle dance.
The circle dance in Crete is also the same as the national dance in other parts of the world.
It is the inheritance of the most primitive dance of mankind – ring dance.
The dance still has the original enthusiasm and simple style.
The difference is that the circle dance on Crete is to obtain a kind of spiritual power through dance, so as to achieve the purpose of dialogue with God, so as to stabilize the social relationship between people.
Circle dance is also the ring dance in the primitive era.
People’s ring dance can reflect a spirit of collectivism.
“The statue of Crete shows us the ring dance around the lyre player, the paired dance associated with religious etiquette, and the slightly shaking dance performed by a group of women in front of a large audience”.
This form of “ring dance” spread to Greece.
The “ring dance” produced in Greece describes how the “ring dance” of Crete was introduced into Greece: “in the story of Theseus, there is a record that when he led the young men and women he rescued back to Athens from Crete, they danced the ring dance with crane steps on the island of tyre.
Later, the dance was retained on the island for a long time.
” Kurt Sachs, a world dance historian, also believes that the “ring dance” on Crete seems to have something to do with China.
He said that in ancient China, living people were often used as burial objects for kings.
In 500 BC, the daughter of King Helu of Wu died.
King Wu built a tomb for his daughter.
At the funeral, King Wu ordered to perform White Crane Dance and let young men and women enter the tomb with the dance, and then close the door of the tomb. Mr. Kurt believes that both Chinese Crane Dance and Greek Dance are ring dances, including religious thoughts such as praying for rain, reproduction, regeneration and praying for the growth of all things.
The women’s circle dance in the Bronze Age of Crete has a stable and slow form, a small range of dance movements, and a relaxed and pleasant dance posture, which reflects the rich character quality and leisurely life mentality of Crete.
The third type is mask dance, which is also a common phenomenon of primitive ancestors’ dance in early societies all over the world.
Mask dance is closely related to religious belief.
The mask dance in Crete is mainly animal masks.
Wearing an animal mask and dancing shows that the ancestors imagined a religious thinking concept to obtain the power beyond nature in the face of the power of nature.
There are also many images of challenging nature and conquering animals in paintings.
For example, the golden cup relief in the 15th century BC depicts the scene of a cow fighting with a hunter while another cow is fleeing in a hurry and people catching bison.
This is a reflection of the life of the primitive ancestors in the hunting stage.
The hunting dance of the primitive ancestors was directly inherited to the Crete people in the early civilized society.
They also have dances that wear animal masks and simulate animal movements.
The difference is that the primitive hunting dance is utilitarian, while the mask dance of the Crete people is a purely entertaining danceTechnique.
The fourth category is miscellaneous dance.
Miscellaneous dance is a dance that Cretan people directly accept the influence of ancient Egyptian dance, such as bending back, jumping, spinning in the air, one handed handstand, holding the top, etc.
These are the dance techniques commonly loved by Cretan people.
These dance techniques not only exercise the flexibility of the body, will and limbs of the marine nation, but also show the dance characteristics of the happy mentality of the people of Crete. II. Ancient Greek Dance ancient Greeks learned how to build temples, palaces, reliefs and sculptures from ancient Egyptians through Crete people, and also learned the art of ancient Egyptian dance.
But it did not copy it intact.
It digested and transformed foreign things.
The economic foundation determines the superstructure, and the existence of reality determines the essence of culture.
Ancient Greece did not have the fertile land brought by the Nile basin, the Tigris River and the Euphrates River Basin, and did not have large-scale agricultural production activities, but they were rich in mineral resources and dense forests, which enabled it to develop in mining, metallurgy and shipbuilding.
In addition, it was located in the center of the Mediterranean, with ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia The trade exchanges between the Aegean Sea and other ancient civilized countries have made the ancient Greek country prosperous and strong rapidly.
When the material is rich, people have the energy to engage in art, philosophy, aesthetics, literature and other activities.
Under the strong influence of philosophy, aesthetics and literature, ancient Greek Dance showed a distinctive style.
Ancient Greek Dance is an art that overlaps and overlaps ancient Greek mythology and philosophy.
Its dance is divided into Homeric style, Spartan style and Athenian style.1. Homeric dance Homeric dance is mainly preserved in Homer’s epics Iliad and Odyssey.
These two works are widely spread through singing.
Ancient Greek poetry singing was always combined with music and dance.
In Sparta and Athens, the two major city states of ancient Greece, Homer’s epic singing is considered to be a national art.
The artistic value of Homer’s epic lies not only in its performance singing poetry, but also in its reflection of the people’s music and dance life under the historical conditions at that time.
As stated in Chapter 8 of Odyssey: “We have always loved banquets, harps, dances, as well as all kinds of clothes, warm baths, love and beds.
King agino, a prominent man, is very happy to hear such a good musician sing praises.
His voice is the same as the God of heaven, and I think there is no greater enjoyment than this.
now everyone is happy to sit in the hall for banquets in order, listen to songs, and listen to the music in front of us The table is full of wheat cakes and delicacies, and the waiter pours out the wine and fills the wine glass in front of everyone.
This is the happiest thing.
” It can be seen from the poetry of odyssey that people’s entertainment activities were mostly held at banquets and banquets.
The ancient Greeks believed that the world was beautiful and life was happy, which may also be related to the actual living standard at that time.
In Homer’s time, the musical instruments of ancient Greece had a great development than those of Crete and maiwani.
For example, on the “shadow” pottery in the 7th century BC, there is a lyre with seven strings and played with a pick.
At the end of the first volume of the epic poem “Iliad”, it is said that the formanks played by Apollo is this piano.
This seven stringed instrument was often accompanied by singing and dancing in Homer’s time.
“On the shield of Achilles, a painting depicts young people dancing to the accompaniment of the Aphrodite and the formenx”.
In Volume 13 of the Iliad, “poludamas says that one person can dance and the other can play kitaris and sing.
” The poetry and music activities of the ancient Greeks in Homer’s era were always carried out together with dance, which was similar to the trinity of poetry, music and dance in ancient China.
Perhaps ancient human society has experienced such a stage of development.
In Homer’s time, music and poetry were often combined, and they were often combined with chorus, and the word chorus was often the same concept as group dance.
The group dance is described in Homer’s epic: “young people dance happily in groups.
They dance alone or with girls, at wedding ceremonies, at grape harvest festivals, or simply to vent the energy of youth.
” It seems that Homer’s group dance is like the European folk collective dance in the ballet works we see today.
It is so hot, warm and passionate.
It is a friendship dance loved by young men and women.2. Spartan dance Spartan dance is a martial dance for fighting training of human body.
Dance is a direct inheritance of Crete weapon dance.
Spartan dance is called “red dance” in Greece.
Boys began to learn this dance at the age of 5.
It is an imitation dance, mainly imitating the process and posture of soldiers’ defense and combat.
However, this military training posture is an artistically processed dance posture with music accompaniment.
Greek philosophers believe that “the best dancer is the best soldier”.
In Spartan barracks, training soldiers’ physique and bravery and agility with dance has become an important project.
There is a special classroom to teach martial arts and dance, which trains soldiers to fight with bare hands and clean feet with dance, simulates battle scenes with dance, trains battle formation, trains soldiers to fly over eaves and walls and jump various obstacles.
In battle, dance is not only the beginning of the battle, but also a part of the battle.
The battle commanders are also dance teachers.
They believe that being strong and brave is an indispensable quality for soldiers.
They use cruel training to temper their will and combat ability.3. Athenian dance is completely different from Spartan dance.
Athens is located in a plain with few high mountains.
It is rich in mineral resources and natural ports.
Its commerce and culture are very developed.
Coupled with the democratization of the political system, the music and dance culture has been greatly developed.
Athenian dance is divided into Helios spiritual dance and Dionysian spiritual dance.
The spirit dance of the sun god is mainly manifested in the God o dance, including the eurynomo dance, which praises the goddess of all things for human reproduction, the dance of worshiping Apollo, the sun god, and the dance of the three goddesses, as well as the “Piance dance” dedicated to the sun god, the God of medical treatment, and the “haipo chemata dance” dedicated to the sun god.
Eurynomoh is an important god in ancient Greek myths and legends.
The ancient Greeks believed that she was the God of creation and the great God of dance.
The ancient Greek creation myth said: “the naked body of eurynome, the goddess of all things, came from chaos, but she couldn’t find oneHands, wait.
In this firmly connected chain, they move under the command of a male or female lead dancer, slow and calm, do not shake back and forth, and do not distort any image.
Their left foot crosses the right foot, the right foot crosses the right side, and the left foot follows.
Then, the right foot retreats obliquely to the rear of the right side, the left foot extends back across the right foot, and then the right foot crosses forward to the right side obliquely.
Four women form the end of the chain.
They don’t dance.
They just sing in unison or in pairs.
” Gestures, postures and actions are an integral part of pantomime performance, which are mostly used in ancient Greek tragedy or comedy performance.
Greek gesture movements are similar to those in India, including “putting one hand in front of the head to express sorrow and distress.
extending both arms straight into the air to express respect.
fencers sprint forward with their hands, and hundreds of other arm movements”.
The gesture movement is an inheritance of the emotion exchange of early primitive ancestors’ gestures.
The ancient Greek nation is a nation that is good at performing stage plays.
This nation has created human spiritual and cultural tragedies and comedies.
The ancient Greeks had the gift of making gestures and changing facial expressions, which was displayed in tragedy and comedy.
In short, in ancient Greece, whether religious dance, dramatic dance or simulated dance, the basic performance forms of dance include group ring dance, column dance, semi circle dance and straight-line dance, and the expression forms of dance are simple and clear.