Section III ancient Greek painting ancient Greece is the birthplace of European civilization.
It is located in the eastern Mediterranean, including the Greek peninsula, the Aegean islands and the western coast of Asia Minor.
At the end of the fourth century BC, its sphere of influence once reached western India in the East, Egypt and North African countries in the south, southern Italy in the West and the North Sea in the north.
The history of ancient Greece can be traced back to Crete Mycenae culture, which is called Aegean culture in history.
In 146 BC, ancient Greece was destroyed by ancient Rome, and the history of ancient Greece came to an end.
Painting in the Aegean culture period before the Dorians and Ionians who created the classical Greek civilization arrived in Greece, there were quite developed cultures in the Aegean Sea area in the northeast of the Mediterranean, including countries from clan society to the early stage of slavery society, In the history of art, this culture is called “Aegean culture” or “Crete Mycenaean culture”.
About Aegean culture.
The information we know now is mainly based on the findings of the following two archaeologists: German archaeologist Schliemann and British scholar Evans.
They first visited this area at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century due to the attraction of the Greek myth Homer epic.
Homer’s epic is an important cultural achievement in the Homer era of ancient Greece.
It consists of two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
It depicts the war of Greece’s expedition to Troy in the form of epic.
The Iliad describes the story of Greek general Achilles killing Trojan general Hector.
Odyssey describes the Greek hero Odyssey who crossed the sea and returned home after the victory of the expedition.
Schriman and Evans found Mycenaean cultural relics by archaeological excavation according to the address described in Homer’s epic.
Minos palace ruins and a large number of cultural relics.
These findings prove that Crete culture is the birthplace of Aegean culture and Mycenae culture is the successor of Crete culture.
The painting art in Crete Mycenae culture is mainly decorative murals.
Its murals are mainly concentrated in the Minos palace.
Minos palace is a large and complex building complex, covering an area of about two hectares.
The internal structure of the palace is complex and the level is changeable.
Known as the “maze”.
The walls of the palace are decorated with murals, which depict decorative figures and patterns with smooth curves and bright colors.
There is an artistic connection with Egypt.
Among them, Paris girl, talking women and maid picture are the most famous.
Greek painting in this issue ancient Greek art has made brilliant achievements in architecture, sculpture and painting for many historical reasons.
First of all, in terms of social history, the freedom and democracy of slave owners’ democracies in city-state countries provide favorable conditions for the development of culture and art.
Secondly, in terms of national characteristics, the development of trade and navigation has created the strong will, wit and flexibility of the Greeks and the positive character of daring to pursue ideals.
Third, Greek mythology provides a deep and broad soil for the growth of Greek art.
The characteristic of “God Man homomorphism” in Greek mythology makes God have human face and emotion, and makes Greek artists dare to shape the gods according to the image of people in real life, which has become a favorable factor to promote the connection between art and life.
Fourth, in terms of natural conditions, the mild Greek climate enables Greece to have a wide range of open-air activities and sports venues.
The quadrennial Olympic Games provide the conditions for artists to build a healthy human body.
Fifth, Greek philosophy influenced the emergence and development of art.
The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that beauty and harmony were consistent.
The school headed by mathematician Pythagoras believes that the most intelligent is number, the most beautiful is harmony, and the proportion of people is determined by number.
The right proportion is harmonious.
In short, the aesthetic thought of ancient Greece can be summarized in one word, that is “harmony”.
The art history of ancient Greece is usually divided into four periods: Homer period, antique period, classical period and Hellenistic period.
Painting in Homer’s period (12th century bc-8th century BC) Homer’s period was in the social stage in which clans and tribes prevailed, and the period of alternation between iron age and bronze age.
Because the Dorians destroyed Crete culture and Mycenaean culture successively, many Greek art had to start from scratch.
Therefore, the art in this period was quite poor.
His painting is still in its infancy, mainly focusing on the pattern decoration of pottery bottles.
The earliest plastic arts works in Homer’s period were geometric style pottery bottles with simple shapes and different sizes, which were used for worship and burial.
These pottery bottles are filled with various simple and regular geometric painting decorations, which is the expression of the constitutive decoration of Greece.
At first, this type of works had no decorative patterns of characters, and there were no clear characters until the 8th century BC.
In addition to geometric pottery bottles, the statues used for burial in this period are also geometric without detailed depiction.
Therefore, this period is also known as the “geometric style period”.
Painting in the ancient style period (7th century bc-6th century BC) this period is the formation period of plastic arts.
His main painting achievement is the painting on pottery – bottle painting.
There are three styles of bottle painting in this period, namely Oriental style, black painting style and red painting style.
Oriental style bottle painting was popular from the 7th century BC to the early 6th century BC.
Its main feature is that the painting decorative patterns are mainly animal and plant patterns, and sometimes directly adopt the patterns loved by Oriental countries, such as the lotus pattern in Egypt and the monsters often seen in the art of the two river basins, which enhance the decorative interest of the patterns.
Black painted bottle paintings were popular from the early 6th century BC to the 5th century BC.
This refers to the artistic style of using a special black paint to depict the image on the clay tire of red or yellowish brown pottery.
This style of bottle painting mostly shows plot scenes, mainly mythological themes and daily life.
His famous representative work is “Achilles and AEAS play dice”.
Achilles and AEAS, two heroes of the Trojan War, played dice between battles.
The bending action of the two people is completely consistent with the curve of the instrument shape, which makes the composition of the picture highly harmonious with the instrument shape.
The bottle painting of red painting style was popular from the end of the 6th century BC to the end of the 4th century BC.
It is just the opposite of the black painting style.
The various patterns of people, animals and plants painted on the pottery are in red and the base is in black.
Painting in the classical period (5th century BC).