Section VI ancient Indian dance culture as soon as talking about Indian culture, some people will come to mind the “paradise of Western Heaven” described in the journey to the west, or the images of snake charmers, local gang leaders and acrobats who swallow knives and spit fire, walk rope and pill.
These make India full of mystery.
In modern times, India has a large population and underdeveloped economy.
However, in ancient times, India was the most dazzling pearl of civilization in the world. I. Indus River Basin civilization Indian civilization originated in the Indus River Basin.
Indus River Basin civilization is the source of various cultures in India.
Since the civilization of the Indus River Basin was first discovered in Harappa, the civilization of this period is also called Harappa culture.
Halapa culture belongs to the era of bronze culture, which refers to the period from 2800 BC to 1700 BC.
At this time, the early slavery urban civilization had appeared in Harappa.
The Harappans had learned to smelt all kinds of metals and manufacture all kinds of production tools.
They also had a certain scale of urban construction, and the drainage system and construction technology in the city had reached a high level.
There are castles symbolizing politics and religion in the city, as well as large brick walls.
There are ditches outside the walls, and baths, granaries, residential houses, etc.
in the city.
Another important reason for its rise is that it started overseas trade early and communicated with the Tigris River, Euphrates River and other basins and Western countries by sea.
Its export commodities include wood, cotton, spices, ivory, jewelry and so on.
The imported commodities include copper, silver, precious stones, barley, edible oil and wool textiles.
The civilization and commercial trade of the city led to the emergence of the first batch of cities in the Indus River Basin and the early slavery social system.
Compared with ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, ancient India was not as rich as those two regions.
Among the cultural relics unearthed in Harappa, there are many seals with different shapes, which are painted with images of animals and characters.
Some scholars believe that those seals may be family marks of ancient Indian businessmen, or religious amulets.
The seal is engraved with inscriptions.
Although scholars in various countries are studying it, they have not deciphered its meaning.
Unable to solve the mystery of words, people had to guess the origin of ancient Indian civilization and religion by relying on the images on the seals.
Most of the images on the Indus seal are animals, and the most of them are bulls, especially rumen Bulls – bulls with a piece of meat on their back, which represents the male reproductive ability.
Ancient Indians also called this kind of cattle “Brahma cattle”, which means divine beasts.
Shiva, the Hindu God, is a rumen cow.
There are also figures on the seals of Indus civilization.
Some people have bull horns, while others are practicing meditation.
In addition, there is the worship of the bodhi tree.
In ancient India, the bodhi tree is a sacred tree.
Women should kneel down to worship the bodhi tree when they ask for their children and grandchildren.
In the New Delhi Museum, there is a seal of Indus civilization.
On it is a bodhi tree.
A goddess is standing on the branch of the bodhi tree.
In front of her, there is an admirer half kneeling.
Both the goddess and the admirer are wearing an ox horn headdress.
The seals of Indus civilization have no trace of carving.
The characters and animals on the seals are realistic, natural and unique.
In the Indus Valley culture, in addition to some seals, there are a large number of terracotta figures and bronze and stone statues.
Among the terracotta figures, there are all kinds of animals and figures – mother gods.
Two images of dancers have also been unearthed in the ancient ruins in the Indus River Basin, one is a female dancer and the other is a male dancer.
The female dancer is a bronze round sculpture with a height of 4.
The dancer looks like a black man with thick lips.
Her head is slightly tilted up, her right hand is on her hips, her left arm is naturally drooping, her left foot is extended forward, and her legs and knees are slightly bent.
It seems that she is posing for a dance pose, or standing on one side to breathe and watch others rehearse after practicing the dance.
She is slim, curved and lifelike.
Another male dancer is a dark gray limestone sculpture.
His neck is thick and has muscle lines.
The shape is natural and realistic.
The two dancers are both products from 2500 to 1500 BC and are now collected in the National Museum in New Delhi.
From the shape of these two statues, dance performance art has been quite developed in early cities in the Indus River Basin. II. Vedic Civilization in history, the culture of Harappa was connected with Aryan culture.
Between 2000 BC and 1500 BC, a group of Aryans, a less civilized nation, migrated from Iran.
Their invasion caused the decline of Harappa culture.
The earliest document in Indian history, Rigveda, records the living conditions of Aryans.
When the Aryans first entered the Indian territory, they lived a primitive and barbaric life.
They used stone tools, bronzes and other tools to produce Dingju and cut mountains.
Since 800 BC, Aryans began to use iron tools.
Iron tools liberated Aryans from heavy labor, had a certain leisure, and began philosophical thinking and religious activities.
The Vedic Veda is the highest of the Vedic Vedas, and the Vedic Vedas are the four most ancient Vedas.
Vedic culture contains a lot of contents and is the source of Indian national culture.
The Rigveda era is the historical stage when Aryans first entered India.
During this period, Aryans mainly lived in the upper reaches of the Ganges River in North India.
The gray colored pottery unearthed in this area, as well as iron, horse bones and rice, reflected the Aryan civilization of this period.
Aryans belong to nomadic people.
The symbol of their wealth is cattle.
Their labor production is mainly animal husbandry.
Their culture is rural, which is different from the urban civilization of harapa.
Early Vedic society was a clan tribal society composed of blood.
It was like a patriarchal family.
The rulers maintained the power of the clan with temples and altars.
In their society, there are warriors and nobles.
The second level is priests and the third level is civilians.
This period is the formation period of Indian caste system.
Aryan characters appeared relatively late.
In the early Veda, people spread culture by oral and personal teaching.
In the late Veda, noble children began to learn arithmetic, grammar and prosody, as well as dance art combined with poetry.
People who spend their leisure time on singing and dancing are more vigorous, and they spend more energy on leisureMarriage also pays attention to dignity, which costs a lot, and some even lose their money.
To this end, the parents who have several daughters at home are very worried.
They often don’t let their daughters go to school and let their daughters marry early.
Many families even have women jumping into fire and setting themselves on fire because they can’t afford a dowry.
There are also many women who have to be dancers.
Many singing and dancing arts in India are promoted and developed by women who are born discriminated against.
It is like “women’s music” in ancient China. V. civilization in the era of the Peacock Dynasty from 327 BC to 326 BC, the king of Macedonia of Greece led his army to capture India and passed Greek culture to India.
But soon after Alexander died, an Indian named Chandra Gupta peacock took advantage of the chaos in India to establish a dynasty.
He captured the most powerful kingdom of India at that time, Capricorn, expelled Greek Macedonian officers and soldiers, defeated the forces of the Seleucid Dynasty, expanded its territory, and established the first empire in Indian history, the Capricorn Peacock Dynasty.
The prominent position of the Capricorn Peacock Dynasty in history is that it ended the chaotic “separatist” situation in India and established a unified empire with centralized slavery.
From then on, the state form began to take shape, the political power exceeded the theocracy, and the politics and economy had a great development.
The most famous great man of the Peacock Dynasty is Asoka, the third generation emperor of the Peacock Dynasty.
His brilliant political achievements, especially his admiration for Buddhism, made him a celebrity in world history.
In China, his name is often connected with Buddhism.
Asoka made Buddhism the state religion of India.
Asoka adopted the benevolent governance strategy of Buddhism.
In order to establish his prestige, he also built many sand and stone pillars, engraved with edicts and preached Dharma.
Later generations call them Asoka stone pillars.
The top of Ashoka’s stone column is generally crowned with animal statues such as lions, elephants, rumen cattle or horses.
The top plate is decorated with animal and plant reliefs, and the column neck is in the shape of a hanging lotus bell.
It is the symbol of the pillar of the universe in Indian mythology.
Its roots come from the “butcher pillar” that bound and sacrificed heaven and earth in the Vedic era.
In the age of Asoka, Shizhu became the spiritual pillar to promote Buddhism and care for life.
There are two kinds of artistic representatives in the era of the Peacock Dynasty.
One is the court style Buddhist art style represented by Ashoka stone column, and the other is the folk art style represented by the natural God medicine fork and the female statue of medicine fork.
Medicine fork and medicine fork girl are the gods of landscape plants believed by Indians.
It originated from the worship of trees by Aryans.
Ancient Indians believed that the growth of trees from seedlings into trees reflected the magical power of natural life, so they had a religious worship of trees.
Ancient Indians took the trunk as a medicine fork and the branches and fruits as a medicine fork.
They were the gods of production and protection.
Therefore, they were often built on homes, palaces and city gates.
In Buddhism, The medicine fork is one of the “eight heavenly dragons” (the eight heavenly dragons include: diva, Naga, medicine fork, ganguva, Asura, Garuda, jinnara and moroga).
The medicine fork and the figure statue of the medicine fork woman in the peacock era reflect the Indian artistic ideal of human body beauty.
There is a sand and stone round carved “sangqi medicine fork woman” at the east gate of sangqi Pagoda in India, which is hung at the corner between the North column of the East Gate and the third beam.
It is considered by scholars all over the world as a model of female body beauty of Indian art standard.
Dance modeling is centered on the human body.
The simple and elegant smile, plump and mellow physique of the medicine fork woman, the “s” shaped curve, graceful posture and the outward shape of ribs, hips and knees fully show the artistic requirements and aesthetic standards of ancient Indians for human body lines such as dance sculpture. Vi. kusana Dynasty and Gandhara civilization kusana Dynasty is considered to be an important historical period in the cultural development history of North India.
Because it is associated with many events in Central Asia.
Kusana Dynasty is a new dynasty after the decline of the unified empire of the Peacock Dynasty.
Asoka’s reign for more than 40 years was the heyday of the peacock empire.
Shortly after his death, the class contradictions within the Empire intensified, and the princes competed for power and power, leading to the division of the peacock Empire and the invasion of India by the Greeks, Serbs and kusanas of Daya.
Their invasion brought varying degrees of cultural impact to India.
The first is the cultural invasion of Bactria Greeks from the Amu Darya River Basin.
Bactria is called Da Xia in Chinese historical records.
In 159 BC, the Greeks of Bactria attacked Gandhara.
Gandhara is located in the Peshawar valley near the intersection of Indus River and Kabul River in northern Pakistan.
It was one of the sixteen countries in the era of the ancient Indian Republic.
Gandhara was not only a transportation hub connecting Central Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean countries in history, but also a distribution center of the ancient Silk road.
Therefore, Gandhara culture came from Persia, Greece The cultural color of Rome.
After the Bactrian Greeks captured Gandhara, in 90 BC, the nomadic Serbs in Central Asia defeated the Bactrians and occupied Gandhara.
Serbs are a nomadic people without their own national culture.
After occupying Gandhara, they continued to carry forward the Greek civilization and Indian civilization of Bactria.
“The local female nude statues, the sun god suliya and the winged Deva (flying) sculptures of zadubo bracket in zucha SHRO.
The silkap double headed eagle zadubo (pagoda) built in the Serbian era shows the characteristics of the mixing of Indian, Greek and Central Asian cultures.
” In 25 ad, the Parthians in northern Iran (known as the Sabbath in Chinese History) drove away the Serbs and occupied Gandhara.
Parthians like Greek culture and introduce a large number of Greek culture and art from West Asia, Among the artifacts unearthed during the Parthian rule are: “The silver molded head of Dionysus, the Greek god of wine, the small bronze statue of halbocratis, the ancient Egyptian boy God, and the gold molded statue of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, etc.
the plaster statue unearthed from the ruins of zadubo, the semicircular Buddhist temple of sirkap, which was built in about A.D. 40, actually has the head of satyr, the God of the forest in a pure Greek style, indicating that the Greek statue has been destroyed Began to integrate into the Indian pagoda.
” Some scholars have determined that the earliest statues of Bodhisattva and Buddha in Indian Buddhism came into being in the Parthian era of the mouth fork SRA in India.
Before that, there was no figure statue in Indian Buddhism.
In Gandhara area, due to the influence of Greek culture, Indian Buddhism also produced Buddha statues and Bodhisattvas.
In 64 ad, the kusanas occupied the Gandhara area.
The kusanas, also known as the Dayue people, were originally a member of the Yueshi people, a nomadic people in GansuSupport.
About 175 BC, he was driven by the Huns and migrated to the Amu Darya River Basin.
The period from ad 78 to ad 241 was the golden age of the development of Gandhara art in the kusana era.
Although kusana people believe in fire worship (Zoroastrianism), it has played an inestimable role in the wide implementation of Indian Buddhism.
The most famous King of the kusana Dynasty was kaniska.
His fame is also related to his dissemination of Buddhism.
During the kaniska period, the kusana Empire had a large territory, including Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan in Central Asia and more than half of North India.
Kusana rule continued until the reign of the Sassanian Dynasty of Persia.
In the 3rd century, kusana became a vassal of the Sassanian Dynasty.
Under the continuous rule of foreigners, ancient India also expanded the vision of Indians.
Especially in the kusana Dynasty, it not only expanded the trade exchanges with western Greece, Rome and eastern China, but also strengthened the cultural exchanges between several civilized powers such as Greece, Rome and China.
At that time, the silk trade was closely related to Buddhism.
It can be said that silk was a commodity related to Buddhism.
“Early Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, such as memorabilia or Lotus Sutra It not only encourages believers to decorate the pagoda with silk, but also vows that even if only one piece of silk is donated, it will accumulate great virtue and achieve the well-being of this life and the afterlife.
The custom of decorating pagodas with colored silk and jewelry flourished.
After central Asia and China, it developed into colored flags, and in a few centuries, it developed into 100 foot long flags.
Song Yun and Huisheng, from the Northern Wei Dynasty, as special envoys of the Northern Wei Dynasty, took 1000 100 foot long flags, plus silk spice bags and 2000 shorter colored flags.
Buddhist consumption constitutes an important part of the silk trade.
” The trade in silk also promoted cultural exchanges.
The long silk dance and lion dance popular in ancient China were influenced by the Buddhist art accompanying the silk trade.
The short scarves worn by the Gandhara colored Buddhist flying sky in Kizil thousand Buddha cave in Xinjiang may also be the reflection of the silk trade in Gandhara area. VII. Indian civilization after the Gupta Dynasty.
The kusana Dynasty was the last dynasty in ancient India.
It was established by the Dayue people Qiu but unified the five Linghou and established itself as the king.
After conquering northwest India, he began to occupy the western regions of China.
By the time of Yan kadphishen, the second generation ruler of the kusana Dynasty, its territory was close to the territory of the Eastern Han Dynasty, This situation was maintained until the reign of kaniska.
In the 3rd century, the kusana empire was divided into small countries.
It was ruled by the Gupta Dynasty in the 4th century and destroyed by the disgusted people of the nomadic peoples of Central Asia in the 5th century.
Historically, the Gupta Dynasty was previously divided into the ancient Indian period.
Since the Gupta Dynasty, ancient Indian history has entered the medieval period, which is also the classical period.
From the Gupta Dynasty, Indian slave society began to transition to feudal society.
Since the late Middle Ages, it has been a period of great development of European civilization and a historical period when India was invaded by foreigners.
In addition to the peaceful situation of unity and stability maintained by the Gupta Dynasty for more than 100 years, India’s later development history is in turbulent political changes.
Foreign rulers conquered India, established their capital in Delhi and ruled the whole of India.
“From the 13th century to the 16th century, five successive dynasties of Turks or Afghans ruled India with Delhi as the center”.
During the period of Muslim rule in India, many changes have taken place in Indian culture, which are mainly reflected in the contradiction and conflict between Islam and Hinduism.
Islam is a monotheistic religion, which is a rigid religious belief and takes the dissemination of Allah Muhammad as the only religion.
Hinduism is polytheism.
It is the symbol of various incarnated gods, colorful religious patterns and various religious buildings, which make Hinduism incompatible with Islam.
However, over the years, it has also forced some Hindus to convert to Islam.
The Turks have carried out destructive transformation of Indian culture and art.
They demolished Indian temples and built mosques, making Indians become spiritual slaves of Islam.
Indian women have since put on the veil and lived a simple life.
Culture and art also have the color of Islam.
In the 13th century AD, the Mongolian army entered India under the leadership of, leaving a large number of Mongols to settle in India.
At the end of the 14th century, Timur led cavalry to capture Afghanistan, Persia, Mesopotamia and India.
Timur led the army to invade, which brought a devastating blow to India.
“Timur and his troops were in India for less than a year (1398-1399 AD).
When they left, India was in ruins.
After three days of looting, the whole city of Delhi became an abandoned and uninhabited Town, desolate.
” From the 16th century to the 19th century, India began to revive and become a big country, that is, the Mughal Empire era, which was the Empire established by foreigners in Central Asia in India.
The founding monarch is the descendant of Timur, a Mongolian.
This is a period of political unity in India, a period of feudal social and cultural development, and a period of convergence between medieval India and the fast reading generation of modern world cultural history.
1757-1947 was the colonial period of India.
During this period, India suffered from European commercial plunder and commercial plunder and trampling by Portuguese, Dutch, British and French.
India became independent from 1947 to 1984.
In the early morning of August 15, 1947, Nehru, the representative of India’s interim government, solemnly declared: “.
When the clock tolls at midnight, when the whole world is still asleep, India wakes up, and it has gained rebirth and freedom.
” Since then, a Congress Party tricolor flag has been raised over Delhi castle, which means that India has separated from nearly 200 years of British colonial rule and began to become independent.
After India’s independent political, social and cultural development, it has been fully valued and carried forward in India’s independent politics, society and culture.