I.

ancient social nature the era of slavery in India began in Wenbi in the Indus River Basin in 2500 BC.

Due to the unsuccessful interpretation of Halaba seal and the lack of relevant materials, there is no clear and recognized conclusion on its social nature.

After the Aryans entered the subcontinent, the clan commune disintegrated rapidly, that is, they entered the era of slavery, which was replaced by the feudal system of the Gupta Dynasty in the 4th century.

However, the nature of ancient Indian society is still a controversial issue.

Most non Marxist scholars in the West and India do not recognize that India once had a slavery society as a socio-economic form.

Among the scholars who recognize Marxism, for example, the Indian scholar Gao Shanbi also believes that there has never been a slavery society in India, while the Soviet scholar a.

Osipov believes that slavery in India has not become a dominant mode of production.

Chinese scholars generally believe that there was a social form of slavery in India, but they have different views on the division of its upper and lower limits.

Scholars have little difference in the upper limit of Indian slavery society.

They mostly think that it is the early 1000 BC.

If the haraba culture is included, it should go back to 2500 BC.

However, there are many views on the division between slavery society and feudal society, which are roughly as follows: first, in the 5th and 6th centuries BC, India’s slavery society began to transition to feudal society.

Second, India’s transition from slavery to feudal society began in the 1st and 2nd centuries and completed in the 4th century.

Third, the 5th-7th century is the formation period of Indian feudal society.

The statement adopted here is that the slavery system in India reached its peak in the Peacock Dynasty and declined with the collapse of the peacock empire.

It began the disintegration of slavery and the transition to feudalism from the kusana Dynasty, and became the establishment of the Gupta Dynasty.

Therefore, during the period from the Peacock Dynasty to the Gupta Dynasty, Indian society was still a slave society, and a large number of rich materials were left in various ancient Indian books.

Generally speaking, there must be a considerable number of slaves in a slavery society, and slaves must occupy a considerable position in social production.

This is the case in India.

(1) As the sources of slaves increased, so did the number of slaves.

For example, according to Luben’s statistics based on the stories in the Buddhist sutra, 71 of the 547 sutras mentioned slaves, accounting for 13% of the total stories.

It can be seen that the number of slaves has been considerable^ According to the legend data of Pali Buddhist Scripture, the common number is 100, 500, 1000, 10000, 100000, etc.

, and 100000 slaves have been mentioned as many as 20 times.

Although these figures are too exaggerated, they also reflect that there must be a large number of slaves in society at that time.

There are seven sources of slaves mentioned in the theory of Manu law, “captured under the banner, slave eaters, domestic born, bought, donated, ancestral and sentenced”.

The 150000 prisoners of war in the jialingjia war may not be all slaves, but a considerable part of them did become slaves.

Food slaves are domestic slaves who serve for food and clothing.

“Shusi’s Dharma theory” even says that a person may become a slave only in the order of caste decline rather than rise, which shows that not only sudara, but also vishe and sardili may become slaves of others.

(2) the increase in the use of slave labor, especially in production.

It is true that there are quite a number of domestic slaves in India, but the Royal Service of the third kingdom made slaves engage in productive labor, such as agricultural labor in the king’s villa and handicraft labor in the king’s handicraft workshop.

Second, the state also forced slaves to engage in productive labor.

For example, a large number of slaves were engaged in mining, and slave labor was also used in the construction of irrigation facilities and construction projects.

Third, the large farms run by slave owners are generally cultivated by slaves or hired workers.

Fourth, the use of domestic slaves is becoming more and more extensive, and some are directly or indirectly related to production, such as grinding, pounding rice, brewing or fetching water, chopping firewood, cooking and delivering rice.

All this shows that slaves have indeed occupied a certain important position in productive labor.

(3) the social status and situation of Indian slaves are not much different from those of other countries.

They are the property of their owners.

In the treatise on political affairs, they are regarded as two legged livestock, juxtaposed with four legged animals.

Slaves can be bought, sold, given, mortgaged and rented.

At that time, there was a market for buying and selling slaves, and there was regular slave trading.

The value of slaves in the market varied from person to person.

The Buddha’s Sutra once mentioned a female slave worth “100 money”, and also mentioned that the price of each male and female slave was 700 kalishabona, while the “superior” slaves could be sold to 1000 kalishabona.

Examples of giving slaves are often mentioned in ancient books.

Sometimes hundreds of slaves are given.

The Vatican of aitoria describes that a king once gave 10000 female slaves and 10000 elephants to others.

Not only that, the master can also abuse slaves wantonly, beat and scold, confine and even kill them.

There are many records in the Sutra of Buddha’s birth that the master oppressed the slave.

The slave owner often tortured indiscriminately, such as cutting his nose and ears, wearing shackles and handcuffs, torture, or even killing.

In order to prevent the slave from escaping, the slave owner branded the slave and wore chains on his feet.

The slaves usually wore only a waist cloth and engaged in heavy physical labor under the whip of the supervisor.

In short, slaves have no independent personality at all, have become the “talking tool” of their masters, and live a miserable and inhuman life.

However, this is not to say that in a slavery society, slaves must account for the majority of the whole population, or they must become the main producers of society.

As for the situation in India at that time, in addition to slave labor, there were still handicraft workers and members of rural communes, as well as some employees and household workers.

Small producers under private ownership always have to be polarized.

Under the relationship of slavery exploitation, this differentiation is subject to the slave owner class, which is the main manifestation of the dominant position of slavery.

Under the exploitation of slavery, the life of household workers is close to that of slaves.

Their wages are meager and their lives are difficult.

If they fail to hand over the products on time, they will be punished.

If the quality of the products does not meet the standards, they will not only be punished, but even be punished for mutilating their bodies, such as breaking their fingers.

Members of rural communes are exploited.

In addition to paying land taxes (the amount is 16 or 14 or 18 of the harvest of the field), they also have to pay tribute tax, property tax, pasture tax, etc.

The extortion of tax collectors is also a problem for them.

In case of natural and man-made disasters, many people have no means of livelihoodSmall producers had to sell themselves as slaves.

When describing the classification of slaves in ancient Indian books, almost without exception, they mentioned “bought”, such as the above-mentioned theory of manufa.

In addition, there are Buddhist scriptures “Law Collection”, “Buddha Bensheng Sutra”, Jain scriptures “bintuo note”, “various commandments note” and “Daye Sutra”.

Although they describe the classification of slave sources, they vary from four, six or three, But there are “bought”, which is by no means accidental.

The land relationship adapted to the socio-economic development and political system tended to take shape in the Peacock Dynasty.

As the head of the slave country, the king has become the master of the land of the whole country.

But the so-called master here refers to the role of political protection and economic enjoyment.

In Brahman law, the word “bhaga” is different from the word “all” (svam), and the meaning is also different.

The former only refers to the enjoyment of its products, and the latter can be handled at will.

Therefore, it is entirely understandable that the king was accused of treating land as private property.

As far as the actual possession of land is concerned, it can be roughly divided into the following three situations: the land of the royal family, the land of Buddhist and secular slave owners and the land of communes.

The land of the royal family is the private property of the king, operated by the supervisor, cultivated by slaves, criminals or hired workers, and the proceeds belong to the royal family.

The land of Buddhist and secular slave owners and nobles was either given by the king, or obtained through sale, inheritance, reclamation and occupation.

The land can only enjoy the tax of the land without ownership, so it cannot be sold, transferred or mortgaged.

The land occupation of rural communes varies from region to region.

In the backward areas, the land belongs to communes, and the members work together to distribute the products equally.

In the more developed areas, the land has been regularly distributed to no longer be redistributed.

The land of commune members has been legally occupied, and their rights are not allowed to be occupied by others.

Private ownership of land began to appear, but it is still limited.

Therefore, despite the development of agricultural productivity and the evolution of land relations, there is no doubt that it still belongs to the category of slavery economy at this time. II. Historical characteristics of medieval India medieval India is the feudal era of India.

For example, it began with the establishment of the Gupta Dynasty in 320 and ended with the battle of praxi in 1757 and the defeat of nawab in Bangladesh, with a history of more than 1400 years.

It welcomes ancient times and connects modern times.

It is an important period in Indian history.

With the development of commodity economy, the germination of capitalism has been bred in the matrix of India’s feudal country.

If the invasion of Western powers did not interrupt this historical process, India would develop along the law of society itself and gradually and slowly enter the capitalist society.

The time span of medieval India is as long as 14 centuries, which contains extremely rich historical content.

Accompanied by a series of foreign invasions, there are successive dynasties, religious variation, complex races and fierce struggle.

The impact of a new religion with a relatively complete ideological system and the integration of politics and religion on a society with an ancient civilization and a completely different ideology will inevitably cause a huge tremor in that society.

History thus shows its distinctive characteristics.

(1) separation and integration, with numerous states.

Strictly speaking, there was no unified feudal state including the subcontinent in Medieval India.

During this period, the power of the great empire, whether Hindu or Islamic, mostly focused on North India.

When the national power was at its peak, its power expanded to the East and south, but still left more or less independent regional kingdoms, especially in South India.

Moreover, once the national strength declines, the tendency of separation will expand rapidly, and they have declared their independence (or semi independence), which limits the power of the central regime to a narrow scope.

Unity, division.

Flow again and split again.

In the feudal era, India followed the road of “separation and separation for a long time”.

This is the case.

The Gupta Dynasty, established in 320 ad, was the first empire of this period.

Under King shamudra Gupta, its boundaries were roughly established, including most of northern India, the highlands of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, and a territory extending southward along the east coast to Madras.

It is generally believed that the Empire only exercises direct control over North India, while the Deccan and South Indian countries only express their subordinates.

Immediately after the demise of the Empire was the period of separation and war between states.

The rise of the jieri empire in 606 put an end to the chaos, and its territory was even narrower than Gupta.

It is said that there were more than 70 countries in India at that time, and there were more than 20 kings in the jieri Empire alone.

It can be seen how limited the degree of political unity it reached.

Upon the death of King jieri, the Empire immediately collapsed and ended the rule of the Hindu kingdom.

From the 7th century to the 12th century, the subcontinent was more divided and turbulent.

Before reaching a new reunification, India was experiencing the pain of another longer-term war.

By the early 13th century, the ruling dynasty of Muslims was established in the area centered on Delhi, which is known as the period of Delhi Sultanate.

Among them, the Slave Dynasty “is not a single political entity”, and the power of the Sudan is about the United Provinces of Agra and oder, Bihar, guarior, Sindh, several regions of central India and Rajputana.

The halji Dynasty was the prosperous period of the Sultanate of Delhi.

Under the rule of ALA UD DIN Sultan, the Sultan of Delhi realized the expansion of South India.

He sent four expeditions to Deccan in 1307, 1309, 1310 and 1311, all the way to pandia, the southernmost point, making the four kingdoms south of Mount wendia prostrate under the authority of the Sudan.

However, once “the God of fate pulls out her dagger and destroys him”, this superficial political unity will disappear.

Since then, the subcontinent once again appeared the chaotic situation of numerous regional kingdoms.

After more than a century of war and smoke of gunpowder, it ended for the establishment of a new dynasty.

The Mughal Empire established in the 16th century is the last great empire of this period and the most powerful ruling dynasty established by Muslims in India.

In 1595, Akbar’s expedition made the territory of the Mughal Empire include a vast area from the Himalayas to the Narmada River, from the Hindu Kush mountain to the Brahmaputra River.

Then he conquered South India and pushed the southern border of the Empire to the upper reaches of the Krishna river.

In 1690, olangzeb’s expedition strategy almost unified the whole of India – from KhartoumFrom Kabul to Chittagong, from Kashmir to the gaweri river.

However, “by this time, olanzeb seemed to have got everything.

but in fact, he lost everything”.

The Mughal Empire expanded too large to be governed by one center, let alone by one person.

The empire is in danger, and its demise is not far away.

It is generally believed that the lower limit of the actual ruling power of the Mughal people should be set at the death of Aurangzeb (1707), which is not unreasonable.

Therefore, it may be said that even in the heyday of the Mughal Empire, India was by no means a politically unified country.

Moreover, in the late Mughal Empire, the political pattern of numerous regional kingdoms was finally formed, which gave an opportunity to the aggression of western colonists.

In this sense, it is inevitable that India will become a British colony.

(2) frequent wars and frequent wars and looting are another feature of medieval Indian history.

On the stage of the subcontinent, human tragedies of the scourge of war were performed one after another.

To sum up, these wars include: invasion war.

The invasion of the subcontinent by foreigners began as early as the middle of the Gupta empire.

Since then, it has been almost uninterrupted.

From Huns to Arabs, Turks Afghans, Mongols to Mughals, Persians to western colonists, all conquered India with blood and fire.

According to their different purposes, this kind of invasion war can be divided into two categories: one is for captivity.

Early ones, such as mamood of Ghazni, have launched continuous attacks since 1001.

Muslim chroniclers have listed these expeditions as many as 17 times, From nagalcot alone, this looted “700000 gold dinars, 700 man gold and silver pieces, 200 man pure gold ingots, 2000 man broken pieces and 20 man all kinds of jewelry, including pearls, corals, diamonds and rubies.

” In the later period, such as Nadir Shah of Persia, he occupied Delhi in 1739, ordered the city to be slaughtered and looted by soldiers.

According to his own Secretary’s estimation, the extortion amounted to 150 million rupees in cash and a large amount of jewelry and wealth, and took away the famous “Ke Yi Nur” diamond and the expensive peacock throne.

The other is to create a ruling dynasty.

For example, Babur founded the Mughal Empire.

He defeated the army of the Lodi Dynasty in Panipat in 1526 and embarked on the road of founding the country.

By Hu Mayong, the Empire was consolidated and expanded when he arrived at Akbar.

The invasion of the British colonists is another matter, which will be discussed in the next chapter.

After the establishment of each ruling dynasty.

In their heyday, most of them have to fight everywhere, expand their territory and show off their martial arts.

This may be the class nature of the feudal lord.

The Gupta family only controlled a corner of Mogadishu at the beginning, and later conquered some small kingdoms in central India, eliminated the rulers in the upper reaches of the Ganges and adjacent areas, and extended its power to South India.

After the Mughal regime was consolidated in Delhi, Akbar engaged in the war of conquest and annexation for nearly 40 years in an attempt to realize the political ideal of unifying India.

Although he also used the Huairou policy to win over the princes and nobles under his rule, he showed no mercy to the tribal or small state leaders who were unwilling to surrender.

From 1567 to 1568, the Mughal army besieged the chitor fort in mewar, and all the city guards died.

Their female dependents killed themselves in the “Jauhar” (collective self Immolation) ceremony according to the tradition of Rajput.

The furious Akbar ordered the slaughter of about 30000 people in the city (perhaps too exaggerated).

He also removed the bronze drum, the “symbol of the kingdom”, and the candlestick on the throne of chitor’s Great Mother God, and transported them to Agra for punishment.

The war of succession to the throne may occur in almost every ruling dynasty when its power is declining and about to collapse, or when there is no certain law on succession to the throne.

In order to seize the supreme position, there is no kinship between father and son, brothers, uncles and nephews or master and servant.

They secretly plan, plot and frame, or meet each other in war, and make a great attack.

Their mean means and cruel behavior are not inferior to any invasion or conquest war.

After the death of King jieri in the middle of the 7th century, in addition to his relatives, there was a minister named aronashun who coveted the throne.

The usurper had a conflict with the Chinese envoy Wang xuance.

The Chinese envoy defeated aronashun with the help of Tubo and Nepal (now Nepal), captured him and sent him to the capital of the Tang Dynasty.

A more illustrative example may be that several generations of its kings died in an untimely manner during the reign of the khalghi.

The founder of the dynasty, Jalal UD DIN feruz, was killed by his nephew and son-in-law in 1296.

The king, Allah oud DIN al kharji, died in 1316 from a worsening of his edema, and it is said that his close confidant kafur “exacerbated his condition and died”.

Kafuer could not die easily, and the “Regent” was assassinated in only 35 days.

Kutb UD DIN Mubarak ascended the throne after blinding his younger brother and was stabbed to death in 1320 at the instigation of his cronies.

As for the ascent of mogul’s olanzeb, it is even more shocking.

When the old emperor fell ill in 1657, the four brothers began to fight for the throne and kill each other.

Aurangzeb ranked third.

In this struggle, he approached the throne step by step.

He beheaded his eldest brother after he showed up in the street by very cruel means, captured his fourth brother and executed him.

His second brother’s whereabouts were unknown after his defeat.

Even his father was imprisoned by him like an ordinary criminal, and his poor life was exhausted in the long suffering.

In addition, there are the wars of regional kingdoms against aggression and conquest, and the wars of contention between regional kings, which will not be described in detail here.

(III) religious collision, struggle and integration in Medieval India, great changes took place in the religious field.

Especially after Islam was introduced into India and Muslims became the masters of the ruling dynasty, its variation was more prominent and its influence was more far-reaching.

It is embodied in many aspects, such as the decline of Buddhism, the formation of Hinduism, the gradual decline of Buddhism, and its disappearance in the place of its birth in the 12th century and the next few centuries.

There are many reasons for this, including the destruction of Buddhist temples, the killing of monks, and the exclusion and attack of Brahmanism dominated outsiders.

The evolution of Buddhism itself, such as the increasing wealth and extravagance of upper monks.

There are many internal factions, and believers are at a loss.

Due to the deification of Buddhism and its incorporation into Vishnu’s pantheon, there is no big difference between Buddhist monks and Brahmans.

The religious rank in the monk group is strict and the treatment is very different, which is recognizedCaste division, forbidding the lower class people to join the monk group, etc.

, so that the evil consequences of Buddhism will eat themselves.

If Buddhism loses its own characteristics and is not sponsored by the ruling class, there is only one way to die out.

In sharp contrast to the decline of Buddhism, Brahmanism developed in the long-term reform and formed Hinduism in the Gupta period.

Shangkala (788-820) laid the theoretical foundation and organizational form of Hinduism.

Since then, Hinduism has been further developed and supported and advocated by the ruling class.

Religious tolerance and the establishment of new sects under the conditions of intensified class contradictions and severe religious struggle, some “holy” preachers began to promote the spirit of universal “tolerance”.

The bhakti movement came into being.

Driven by this movement and in the atmosphere of religious revival in the 15th-16th century, Nanak (1469-1539) founded sikli (Sanskrit, meaning disciple).

When it was founded, it was a peaceful religion.

By the fifth generation guru Arjan mar and the sixth generation guru Hal govende, Sikhism experienced an important period in its development history.

“Arjan’s financial policy and his son’s armed system have made Sikhs form an independent land state in the Empire”.

The situation didn’t change until the ninth Shizun auzerg was executed.

His son Gulu govende succeeded the tenth generation of master, determined to revenge, so he armed Sikhism and gradually cultivated the martial spirit.

He began a new type of baptism with water stirred by a dagger.

The recipient was called “Khalsa” (meaning pure man) and was awarded the title of “Singh” (meaning lion).

In the later period of the Empire, the warrior Sikhs were a powerful force that made the Mughal people headache, and resisted the British colonists in Punjab until the middle of the 19th century.

When it comes to the creation of a new religion, one cannot fail to mention the “din-i-liahi” (meaning holy religion) founded by Akbar.

Akbar, as the Mughal monarch, certainly did not engage in “pure” religious games.

His new religion served to consolidate his regime.

This religion advocates thrift, emphasizes loyalty to the monarch, integrates the strengths of various religious doctrines, and enables people of different faiths to tolerate and cooperate with each other.

This complements his political magnanimity and is obviously conducive to safeguarding the unity of the Empire.

However, as a religion, the doctrine of this “holy religion” is relatively rigid and lacks charisma.

Therefore, the number of believers has been small, up to thousands, and will no longer spread after his death.

However, this should not lead to a negative conclusion, because it is meaningful to propose religious tolerance and integration in the case of Islam.

The struggle between the two sects and the integration of Islam were introduced into India with the invasion of foreign nationalities.

During the Sultanate of Delhi and the Mughal Empire (13th-mid-18th century), Islam was the state religion.

As a large number of Muslims migrated to India, many Hindus converted to Islam (the upper Hindus either seek high-ranking officials and high salaries.

the lower Hindus either get rid of low caste status or avoid pagan poll tax, etc.

), the Muslim resident population of the subcontinent has increased considerably.

However, in the national population, Hindus still account for the majority and Muslims still account for a relatively small number.

Few people believe in other religions.

Therefore, from the perspective of residents’ religious beliefs, the composition of subcontinent residents with two major sects as the main body has become a foregone conclusion.

There is no denying that Hinduism and Islam are two completely different religions, which have experienced a long-term struggle in the subcontinent.

However, it should not be ignored that the contact, collision, struggle and integration of these two religions for centuries must interact and permeate each other, and jointly created the material and spiritual civilization of medieval India.

In terms of politics, the Islamic feudal state rarely touched the village community and retained the original local administrative institutions and village officials.

Some also appointed Hindus as government officials at all levels, even senior officials.

For example, King Hussein Shah of Bangladesh appointed pinat baus as chancellor of the exchequer and commander of the Navy and gave him the title of “prandar Khan”.

It is said that during Akbar’s reign, about 30% of government officials at all levels in Mughal countries were Hindus, although most of them only served as middle and lower level officials.

At the same time, the rulers of Hindu countries, such as the emperor of vyanagaro, also appointed Muslims in their army.

In terms of religious culture, the two religions admire each other, learn from each other, exchange and mix more.

The efforts of Muslim scholars have promoted the spread of Islamic philosophy and mysticism in India.

Islamic courts and Muslim scholars are also enthusiastic about learning Hindu philosophy such as yoga and Vedanta.

The development of Urdu language proves the combination of Hindus and Muslims in language.

The sponsorship of Mughal emperors promoted the development of Hindi literature.

They also supported the translation of a large number of Hindu classics, such as Mahabharata, which was translated into Persian and compiled under the name of war history, Ramayana was translated in 1589, and crown prince Dara shuko translated Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita and other books.

Architecture and art can be said to be a clever mixture of Muslim and Hindu traditions.

The mausoleum of shersha, the marble mosque, the mausoleum of Queen Shah Jahan – Taj Mahal, and the peacock throne in the same period are all precious artistic treasures and the crystallization of the wisdom of Indian muslin and Hindus.

Others such as painting, music and so on.

In terms of social customs, Indian Muslim society has gradually accepted some customs of Hinduism, including caste division, “sati”, “Johar”, child marriage and dowry system.

The intermarriage between the upper members of the two religions also contributes to the harmonious relationship between the two religions.

Muslim princes and nobles enthusiastically participate in Hindu festivals and celebrations, such as basaiu and hoil.

Hindus, like Muslims, wear green clothes to join the guard of honor of Muharram.

They may be driven by political considerations and are not really interested in religious festivals, but this is undoubtedly very good for promoting the cordiality of the people of the two religions.

When did the germination of social capitalism in India begin,In academic circles, it is still a controversial issue.

There are several views as follows: one view may be the view of many scholars.

They believe that in the 17th-18th century, that is, the prosperity of the Mughal Empire, the development of social productivity led to the increase of commodity currency relations and the refinement of social division of labor.

Rural communes have further disintegrated, and many farmers, especially those living near commercial roads, have differentiated from village communes, engaged in new occupations and established their own settlements.

The specialty of handicraft industry has increased and a new occupational caste group has been formed.

The emergence of capitalist handicraft workshops is considered to be a significant manifestation of the germination of capitalism.

The activities of commercial capital have been strengthened, so an advanced form of controlling small production, that is, the form of cash advance to handicraftsmen, has also developed in some parts of the country.

It is true that these sprouts of Indian capitalist relations only appear more or less in the interior of feudal society in some developed regions.

But in any case, this is, after all, the bud of a new production relationship and a new thing with vitality.

Therefore, according to the gradual law of society itself, the growth of Indian capitalist factors will eventually break through the shackles of the old feudal relations of production and open up new prospects for its further development.

History has not developed according to its general laws.

This is not India’s fault, nor is it the incompetence of the Indian people.

The invasion of western colonists interrupted the gradual process of Indian history.

Indian society evolved into a colonial and semi feudal society, taking a tortuous road.

Another view is the opposite.

Scholars who hold this view believe that before the British colonists occupied the subcontinent, Indian society has not developed to the stage of capitalist relations, so there is no germination of capitalism.

Due to low productivity and underdeveloped economy, the development of commodity currency relationship is seriously insufficient.

The village community has not disintegrated.

The handicraft workshops that emerged at that time were not capitalist handicraft workshops.

It is true that subcontractors exist, but their business activities do not contain the factors of capitalist production relations.

Therefore, there was no budding capitalism in India in the 17th-18th century.

Of course, it doesn’t matter that western aggression interrupts the development process of Indian society.

In addition to the above two views, there is a comprehensive view of the two.

Scholars who hold this view believe that there have been two capitalist sprouts in Indian society.

The first occurred in the 17th-18th century, which was interrupted by the invasion of British colonists.

The second occurred in the middle of the 19th century, that is, under British rule and stimulated by British industrial capital, it led to the development of social productivity in India and the emergence of new production relations.

In short, the problem of the germination of Indian capitalism is a subject worthy of study and needs to be further discussed. III. The historical characteristics of the British annexation of India India during the British rule was a colonial and semi feudal society.

It is a social form imposed by Britain on India with a bayonet.

According to the common saying, this period lasted 190 years from the battle of praxi in 1757 to the partition of India and Pakistan and the end of India’s independence in 1947.

For an ancient civilized state like India, two centuries are short and fleeting, just a moment of history.

However, the two centuries from the middle of the 18th century to the middle of the 20th century are a crucial stage in India’s historical development and a key period for India to enter modern society.

Moreover, the importance of these two centuries will be even more remarkable if we expand the field of observation to the world stage.

This is a century in which human society changes and develops rapidly, and finally gets rid of the shackles of the middle ages and enters the modern society.

The gradual completion of the industrial revolution has brought the productivity of the whole society to an unprecedented height.

Capitalist relations of production have been established successively in European and American countries.

Capitalism has evolved from free competition to monopoly.

The competition, conflict and war of imperialist powers have caused mankind to suffer the havoc of two world wars.

The contemporary industrial proletariat came into being with the development of capitalist industry.

The working class developed from freedom to self-reliance.

Marxism came into being on the basis of the workers’ movement.

The international communist movement and the Communist parties of all countries developed forward, the October Revolution and the establishment of Soviet countries, the victory of the Chinese revolution and the birth of a series of socialist countries in Europe and Asia.

Imperialists seized and divided up colonies and the formation of the old colonial system.

The awakening of the oppressed nation, the vigorous development of the national liberation movement, and the liberation struggle of the oppressed nation and people have become a part of the world proletarian revolution.

Colonial and semi colonial countries gradually got rid of colonial slavery and oppression, and the old imperialist colonial system began to disintegrate.

As a member of this changing world, all of the above are directly related to it and have a profound impact on the survival, struggle and development of the Indian people.

Britain is the pioneer of industrial development in the capitalist world.

It took the lead in carrying out the industrial revolution and greatly improved its productivity.

It tried its best to expand outward, grabbed the largest share of colonial possessions in the world, and became the first colonial imperialist country to enter the imperialist stage.

India is the largest colony of Britain and is called “the brightest gem on the crown” by British imperialists.

It is the sweat, tears and blood of the Indian people that have cultivated British capitalism and British world hegemony.

The historical facts of foreigners entering the South Asian subcontinent are common, while the British are different.

Their aggression and annexation of India have obvious characteristics.

First, in the past, all ethnic groups entering the subcontinent in different historical periods generally adopted the policy of massive invasion and military conquest, or directly overturned the existing regime and established their own ruling dynasties.

Or plunder and return.

The British business in India has another strategy.

They first set up trading companies to make huge profits in the form of business exchanges.

Then they asked for preferential treatment in business and the establishment of business houses or residences.

Then they formed armed forces, seized territory, courted feudal princes, and intervened in internal disputes until they established their supreme rule.

It is obvious that trade is just a veil to cover up aggression, and companies are actually tools for the expansion of the ruling class.

Moreover, this small group of businessmen with the support of the British authorities is indeed a group of brazen and insatiable greedy people.

They have both the arrogance and vulgarity of adventurers and the greed and cunning of speculators.

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