Section IV ancient Roman painting in the middle of the 8th century BC.

The Latin people established the city of Rome in central Italy.

In 146 BC, Greece was conquered by Rome.

In 30 BC, Rome defeated the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt.

Since then, the vast areas originally ruled by Greece, including Greece, have all been attributed to Rome.

Rome replaced Greece and became the center of western politics and culture.

Art history generally divides Roman history into two periods: the Republic period (509-30 BC).

During the imperial period (27 B.C. – 476 A.D.), Rome in the imperial period became a great empire spanning Asia, Africa and Europe.

Roman art flourished mainly in the late Republic and imperial period, but before the formation of the Roman state, there was an ancient Italian indigenous culture in the Apennine Peninsula, among which the idaria culture had the greatest influence on Rome.

As early as the 8th century BC to the 3rd century BC, the idarian people created coupon arch architecture and decorative murals, as well as powerful and realistic sculptures, which had a great impact on Roman art.

The main characteristics of Roman painting art Roman art mainly inherited the style of Greek art.

At the same time, it is also influenced by Italian indigenous culture and edaria culture.

Compared with Greek art, Roman art is more pragmatic.

The content is mostly hedonic secular life.

Pursue magnificence in form.

Emphasize personality in character performance.

The main achievements of Roman painting paintings in the Roman period are mainly murals and mosaics used for architectural decoration.

Compared with ancient Greece, the existing Roman paintings are quite rich.

In addition to the tomb murals of the early idarian people, there were many murals and mosaics in the Roman Republic and Empire.

One of the most important is painted in the palace.

Many decorative murals in mansions and villas.1. Mural paintings in ancient Rome are mainly used for architectural decoration.

They have simple perspective and light and dark description.

The themes include portraits, landscapes, animals and so on.

In the era of the Roman Empire, a large number of murals are mostly from Greek mythology in terms of content.

In terms of form, they mostly use Greek powder.

The achievements of the murals in the imperial period in the art of painting can not be ignored are the effect of light on the color and the description of scenery and still life, which make the works have greater integrity and life flavor.

Although Roman painting was influenced by Greece, it is still different from Greek art.

It has the artistic characteristics and achievements of the nation’s stern and heroic temperament, especially in portrait painting.

Today, our understanding of ancient Roman painting is mainly based on the mural relics of Pompeii ancient city.

The mural art of Pompeii is a complete collection of the existing mural art of the ancient city of Rome.

Pompeii is a famous city in ancient Rome.

The site is 23 kilometers southeast of Naples, Italy.

In 79 AD, due to the eruption of nearby Vesuvius volcano, volcanic ash buried Pompeii and other three Italian cities.

Pompeii city was excavated in the 19th century.

Because it is covered by volcanic ash and magma, the original building.

Murals and other objects are still well preserved.

It is displayed in front of the world like a huge Roman history museum.

Pompeii murals are mostly painted indoors, but some are decorated with the outside of the building.

Most of the murals in the room are frescoes, and craftsmen usually outline them on the plaster.

Then paint, most of which are minerals.

It is fixed to the wall by the adhesion of quicklime.

Most outdoor murals use wax painting to avoid the erosion of wind and rain.

There are protruding front eaves above the wall for protection.

Most of Pompeii’s murals are.

Sometimes they also describe some daily life, some of which are very vivid portraits.

According to Pompeii’s mural ruins.

Roman murals are divided into the first, second, third and fourth Pompeii styles.

The first style is to make the entities of each detail of the building with plaster and divide the wall into several blocks.

It looks like it’s inlaid with polished colored slate.

At the same time, fine stones are embedded on the ground to achieve coordination.

This decorative style has the artistic characteristics of the spread of Greek culture.

This style is common in Greece and many territories in the mid-4th century BC.

However, in Italy, it did not appear in Pompeii and other places until the second half of the 3rd century BC.

Therefore, it is known that the art of ancient Roman murals was also influenced by Greek art.

The second style is not to use plaster as each detail entity of the building, but directly depict the architectural details on the plane wall, create the illusion of more spacious space with perspective, and interspersed with plot painting.

Pompeii’s famous pastoral “secret instrument villa” uses murals of the second style to decorate the wall.

The work “wine mysterious instrument map” belongs to the boutique of this style.

The third style no longer pays attention to the treatment of space and realistic performance, but emphasizes the flatness of the wall.

Plant decorative patterns are mostly used, and painted with exquisite still life and scenery.

The style tends to gorgeous effect.

It was the time of Augustus, and the emergence of this style had something to do with the luxurious life of the aristocracy of emperors and slave owners.

The fourth style is the continuation and development of the second style.

It combines perspective effect with decorative patterns.

And the complicated and realistic scenery is interspersed with character activities, with gorgeous colors, sense of space and dynamic, which is also known as “Pompeii’s Baroque”.

This style and style reached its highest achievement before it was covered with volcanic ash in AD 79.

The four styles of Pompeii murals are an overview of the evolution of Pompeii murals, but these styles are not limited to the ancient city of Pompeii, and these decorative techniques have been found in Rome or various provinces of the Roman Empire.

Therefore, it basically represents the development track of Roman murals.2. Mosaic painting ancient Rome also made some achievements in mosaic painting.

In 1831, among the ruins of Pompeii, the mosaic depicting the battle of aesus was unearthed from the home of the largest residence “fuonus”.

It has an obvious traditional style of painting style in the 4th century BC.

Among the mosaic unearthed in Italy, it has attracted the interest of many researchers as the oldest masterpiece.

In the 1st century BC, there were comic sketches in Pompeii’s mosaics, and the comic effects of the actors on the stage were vividly portrayed.

This can be seen as a copy of Greek paintings in the 3rd century BC.

And hadazhenThe age of anusti was the heyday of the production of mosaics with classical themes and styles.

The “battle between Kanda onai and beasts” unearthed from hadani anus villa reflects a more obvious classical realism.

In addition, the floors of public buildings and shops in ostia are decorated with black and white mosaics, often with traditional myths and legends.

Mosaics in this issue mostly adopt the technique of shadow painting, with a concise and lively decorative effect.

The 2nd century AD was an era when Roman mosaics were particularly popular.

Mosaic paintings at this time are closely related to contemporary paintings and have a strong decorative effect.

By the 3rd century AD, mosaics, like contemporary paintings, had significant local characteristics.

After entering the 4th century, mosaics almost replaced murals in interior decoration.

In 330 ad, the vines, Eros, animals and geometric patterns decorating the dome of St. t. kasdanci in Rome came to an extremely fine and gorgeous decorative effect.