Section 1 the two river basins in ancient West Asian painting refer to the area between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers running through the territory of Iraq in Western Asia.
Ancient Greece called it “Mesopotamia”.
It means the area between the two rivers.
This is one of the birthplaces of human civilization.
From around 3000 BC, some slavery countries gradually appeared in this area.
Until 538 BC, this area was conquered by Persia, with a history of nearly 3000 years.
This area has made great achievements in painting.
Most ancient civilizations were destroyed due to war and flood, but the profound attainments and national characteristics of ancient art in this area can still be seen from the archaeological relics.
Artistic background of Lianghe river basin 1 The ancient history of the two river basins is a history of war.
Mesopotamia is a fertile and vast plain.
It is a semicircular land, surrounded by mountains on the plateau of Armenia and Iran in the northeast, bordered by Syrian grassland and Arab desert in the west, and the Persian Gulf is located in the south of the two rivers into the sea, so it is also called “Xingyue plain”.
Because it has no natural barrier to stop the invaders from the northern and eastern mountains, and can not stop the interference of nomads from barren Syria and the Arab plateau, wars have been more frequent over the years.
Geographically, the moody rivers here are worthless for agricultural irrigation, but they are often flooded.
The two river basins are naturally divided into two different parts geographically.
The lower reaches are Babylon, an alluvial plain with flat riverbed, fertile land, rich products and prosperous economy.
The upper reaches are the Assyrian plateau.
The soil is poor.
The nomadic tribes have rough and brutal customs and are good at hunting.
They continue to migrate and invade the plain area, resulting in years of war on this dangerous land.
This rich Xingyue plain is unimpeded for peaceful wanderers and hostile invaders.
Therefore, the history of the two river basins is not only a history of war, but also a history of national development in which all ethnic groups infiltrate, fight and melt each other.
The dynasties here changed constantly, and successively experienced the ruling periods of the Sumerian ur Dynasty, the rajash Dynasty, the Akkad Dynasty, the Babylonian Dynasty, the Assyrian Dynasty, the new Babylonian Dynasty and the Persian Empire.
During the rise and fall of this series of dynasties, four outstanding cultures were formed: Sumerian culture, Assyrian culture, gale culture and Persian Achaemenid culture.
As early as around 4000 BC, settled agricultural peoples appeared in Mesopotamia.
By 3500 BC, Sumerians migrated from Central Asia through Iran and established the earliest cities.
There were many slavery countries in this region until it was incorporated into the Persian Empire in 538 BC.
In the history of art, Generally, the history of this area is roughly divided into four periods: Sumerian Akkadian period (3500-2000 BC), Babylonian period (1900-1600 BC), Assyrian period (1000-612 BC) and new barbiron period (612-539 BC) The painting art in the two river basins is closely connected with religion.
Like its culture, the religion in Mesopotamia is not affected by ethnic migration.
Ethnic migration has not caused religious variation, and the religion there has formed its own tradition.
Mesopotamian religion experienced three stages: the first stage, about 4000 BC, the image of God was a strange form of non-human.
In the second stage, around 3000 BC, the image of God was dominated by the appearance of man, and the primitive democracy was formed between God and God.
Each god represents his own unique functions and responsibilities.
The third stage is the emergence of anthropomorphic religion, which was particularly popular between 2000 and 1000 BC.
In the thought of ancient Mesopotamians, the gods also formed a democratic country with their own temples and cities.
Among the gods, the most authoritative God is “an”, and Akkad calls it “Anu”.
The second main god “enlier” is the patron saint of NERP City, the main god of wind and agriculture, and the creator of hoes.
The third main god is the “nimak God” as important as the God enlier.
She is the goddess of the stone land.
She is in charge of the rocky desert areas in the East and West, protecting the residents there and animals such as wild donkeys and wild goats.
She is also the God of fertility.
The gods of the second class are associated with these three main gods and have a lower status than them.
There is the “Enki” God, which Akkad calls “Ai”.
He symbolizes the sweet water in the river.
He is the smartest God and a great man who eliminates all kinds of difficulties and disputes.
The other gods are the children of God enlier.
The oldest literary material in ancient Mesopotamia is Sumerian.
Most of its art works are also related to myths.
Painting in West Asia 1 Sumerian painting during the Akkadian Dynasty (3500-2000 BC) Sumerians are one of the founders of ancient Near Eastern civilization and the first to become the pride of art in the two river basins.
They invented cuneiform and established an organized theocratic society.
Their wisdom was first shown in architecture.
The magnificent palaces, temples and pagodas became a model for future generations to follow.
Their paintings were also quite successful, with ancient and interesting shapes.
The existing Sumerian paintings represent the military flag unearthed in ur city.
That is, the war and victory celebration scenes inlaid with shells, turquoise and pink limestone on the asphalt painted wood.
The picture is divided into three layers.
According to the development of the story, the characters, animals and utensils are arranged in an orderly manner.
The characters are mainly side, body and side feet, and tend to be depicted in a plane.
The colors of the whole work are in sharp contrast, and geometric decoration is used around and between the layers.
Much like a tapestry, it has strong decoration.2. Babylonian painting (1900-1600 BC) Babylonians have inherited the Sumerian and Akkadian traditions in culture, but few Babylonian art works have been found so far.
The most famous stone tablet of this period is the code of Hammurabi.
The code of Hammurabi is engraved on a black basalt stone tablet, with relief on the upper part and characters on the lower part.
The relief depicts King Hammurabi standing in front of the throne of the sun god and listening to his dictation.
The majesty of the sun god is in sharp contrast to the humility of Hammurabi.
The whole picture is full of religion.