the war from 1948 to 1949 made about 860000 refugees flee from Israel to Gaza, the West Bank and surrounding Arab countries. By 2010, the total number of these refugees and their descendants was close to 5 million. At the same time, almost the same number of Jews left Arab and Muslim countries and emigrated abroad. The whole migration process lasted more than 30 years.

the focus of the Arab Israeli Conflict: Jerusalem

the people of the two countries most affected by the conflict – Israeli Jews and Palestinians – harbor great resentment against each other. Most of the conflict is caused by the long-term exposure of civilians to public violence, political violence, terrorist attacks, retaliation and exploitation. Public violence began with riots against Jews, mainly in the early days of British rule of Palestine. Guerrilla action appeared for the first time in the Arab uprising from 1936 to 1939. In the 1940s, in order to create an independent Jewish state, extreme Zionist organizations used terrorist attacks on Britain and Arabia. During the 1948-1949 war, many Jewish and Arab civilians were deliberately killed by guerrillas and conventional forces.

but the human cost of the Arab Israeli conflict far exceeds the number of casualties. The war from 1948 to 1949 displaced a large number of people. About 860000 refugees fled from Israel to Gaza, the West Bank and surrounding Arab countries. By 2010, the total number of these refugees and their descendants was close to 5 million, of which nearly 1 million lived in refugee camps established by the United Nations refugee relief agency, which invested more than $600 million a year. At the same time, almost the same number of Jews left Arab and Muslim countries and emigrated abroad. The whole migration process lasted more than 30 years. The Israeli government encouraged them to move abroad, and the persecution suffered in many Arab countries forced them to move abroad. For the two nations, this kind of migration is very painful, because they have to leave their homes and their original lives.

in Israel, immigrants from Arab and other Islamic countries are known as Mizrahi Jews. They face a difficult integration process. They are discriminated against and have a lower living standard than those Jews from Russia and Western countries. At the same time, those Arabs who remained in Israel during the war acquired Israeli citizenship, which accounts for about 20% of today’s Israeli population. Arabs and Jews in Israel have equal legal and political rights in theory, but in many cases, Arab Israelis will be discriminated against.

2006 map of Israeli settlements in the West Bank.

Jewish settlement issue

the situation faced by Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank is completely different. After Israel occupied these areas in 1967, the residents found their homes under military occupation. The Israeli government encourages Jews to settle in these areas, especially in the West Bank. Initially, the movement was limited, but the settlement accelerated sharply after the right-wing Likud gained power seized power in 1977. As of 1987, 60000 Jews had settled in dozens of settlements in the West Bank. By 2010, this figure had increased to about 500000, including Jews living in East Jerusalem unilaterally occupied by Israel. In all periods, the lives of Arabs in the occupied areas were greatly restricted. Curfews, closures of schools and universities, detention without trial and restrictions on mass movements were all used by the Israeli authorities to control the people.

during the first Palestinian intifada in 1987, the Israeli defense forces tried to suppress young people throwing stones by shooting, beating, arresting and destroying homes, and more than 1000 Palestinians were killed. This situation has not improved since the signing of the Oslo accords in 1993. Although the new Palestinian Authority began to manage parts of the West Bank and Gaza, Israeli settlements still existed, and IDF checkpoints restricted Palestinian activities.

when the second Palestinian intifada broke out in 2000, more serious violence occurred in the occupied areas. This time, Palestinians attacked Israelis with guns and suicide bombers, while Israelis retaliated by air strikes on Palestine. More than 6000 Palestinians and more than 1000 Israelis died in these violent incidents. To a large extent, the peace process has ended.

Sharon, then Israeli Prime Minister,

Sharon’s “separation” plan

in 2003, under the leadership of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, the Israeli government began to implement the “separation” plan to control all movements between Israel and the West Bank. Sharon’s plan is to strengthen Israel’s security defense – without any progress in the peace process – to separate Jews and Arabs in the occupied territories. By 2011, the implementation of the plan had made life easier for Palestinians, many of whom found themselves isolated from their work, areas of activity or their schools. But on the other hand, to a large extent, the wave of terrorist attacks in Israel is over.

in 2005, Sharon unilaterally withdrew 9000 Jewish settlers from the Gaza Strip, then withdrew the Israel Defense Forces and handed over local management to the Palestinian Authority. But radical Hamas seized control of the Gaza Strip in 2007. With the support of Egypt, Europe and the United States, Israel has imposed a tight blockade on this area. This is not only to block the supply of military supplies to militants who launch rockets into Israel, but also to punish civilians who support Hamas. The blockade has reduced imports to a quarter of the previous level, making it as much as possible