Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher and scientist.
Born in the northern Greek city of Stagira in 384 BC.
His father was a court doctor of Amuta, king of Macedonia, who died when Aristotle was a child.
At the age of 18, Aristotle came to Athens to study in Plato’s Academy.
Later, he was promoted to a teacher in the academy to teach rhetoric.
In 347 BC, after Plato’s death, the school was presided over by debussypo.
Aristotle had differences with him.
He and another classmate kesenocraty accepted the invitation of Hermia, left Athens and came to the city of Athos in Asia to establish the school and carry out teaching and research.
Three years later, the Persian Empire captured the city, Hermia was killed, and Aristotle fled to the city of mitirini on Lesbo island.
In 342 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II, king of Macedonia, to be a teacher for the prince.
In 339 BC, he left the court of Macedonia and returned to his hometown, the city of Stagira.
In 335 BC, Alexander defeated the anti Macedonians, and Aristotle returned to Athens and set up another pulpit in the playground near the Apollo temple in Luc ó n outside the city.
Thus, his school was called “Luc ó n”.
His teaching activities are mostly carried out in the walking area of the playground, discussing problems while walking, so he is also known as the “carefree school”.
Luc ó n has established a style of study that is very different from Plato’s school, paying more attention to reality, studying problems, raising difficulties, and collecting materials, trying and exploring in many aspects.
Great achievements have been made in many departments of philosophy and ancient knowledge.
In 323 BC, King Alexander, who fought in the East and West, died suddenly in the army.
There was an anti Macedonian movement in Athens.
Aristotle became the object of political attack.
Like him, he was charged with “blasphemy”.
He handed over the school to theo frasto and took refuge in Kalki.
He died of illness the following year at the age of 62.
Aristotle wrote many works in his life.
His main works include: category, interpretation, pre analysis, post analysis, debate, refutation of wise men (the above general name is instrumental theory), metaphysics, physics, ethics, politics, poetics, rhetoric, etc.
[influence] Aristotle is the most erudite among ancient Greek philosophers and is known as an encyclopedic scholar.
After Plato, he divided science into three categories: practical science, including ethics, economics and politics.
Creative science, including rhetoric, poetics and dialectics.
Theoretical science, including mathematics, physics and philosophy.
In philosophy, Aristotle swayed between idealism and materialism, metaphysics and dialectics.
He denied Plato’s theory of idea and thought that the idea without concrete things did not exist.
At the same time, it also points out the defects of ancient Greek materialism.
He criticized Plato’s method of demonstrating the existence of ideas, and pointed out that those arguments that there is an independent existence of a specific thing are untenable.
He also criticized Plato’s way of connecting the dual world, that is, the “theory of separation” and the “theory of imitation”.
Finally, Aristotle pointed out that idealism regards ideas as substantive things.
In this way, there needs to be a “third person” between individual objects and ideas, which Aristotle summarized as a famous formula “one of many”.
This hit the idealistic key of idealism very accurately.
While criticizing idealism, Aristotle also pointed out the defects of materialism in ancient Greece.
He believed that Democritus and his pioneers discovered the cause of material, but ignored the cause of the movement of things.
At the same time, Democritus also ignored the form and essence.
He did not explore the internal source of the movement of things, nor did he understand people’s concepts, which more deeply reflected the essence of things.
On the relationship between essence and form, Aristotle believes that form is not only the universal essence of things, but also the purpose of things.
Only form is reality and the purpose of things.
Relatively speaking, the material is completely negative, which is the possibility and potential to achieve the goal.
In physics, that is, natural philosophy, Aristotle pointed out that all objects in nature are composed of materials, and must have movement and change.
He divided the movement in the narrow sense into three categories: first, the movement of quantity, that is, the movement of increase or decrease.
Second, the movement of quality, that is, the transformation of quality.
The third is spatial movement, that is, the transformation of position.
He believes that since motion is eternal, time is also eternal.
The universe has an infinite past and an endless future.
There must be a reason for the changing nature of movement.
He put forward the famous theory of four causes, namely material cause, form cause, power cause and purpose cause.
When people understand the “four causes”, they will understand the emergence, disappearance and natural changes of things.
The theory of four causes is summarized from the history of the development of previous philosophy, which has obvious harmony.
In Aristotle’s classification, logic belongs to the tool of philosophy.
In the view of Xiaoyao school, logic is not the knowledge itself, but the tool and means to obtain knowledge.
Aristotle is the founder of formal logic, and instrumental theory is a classic textbook of formal logic.
He believes that the research object of logic is language, that is, “logos”.
Aristotle also made special research on definition, proposition and reasoning.
He divided propositions into simple propositions and compound propositions.
He discussed “simple transposition” and “restricted transposition”, and put forward the theory of equivalence and transposition of propositions, which is the basis of syllogism theory.
Aristotle’s syllogism is a relatively complete deductive reasoning theory, that is, the thinking form from which the conclusion can be drawn from the premise.
The theory of thinking law is the basis of Aristotle’s logic.
Aristotle put forward and established his theory of logical thinking law from two aspects of ontology and logic.
In category, he first discussed the problem of noumenon and listed ten categories, namely noumenon, quantity, quality, relationship, place, time, attitude, possession, initiative and passivity.
Among them, ontology has the first important position.
In metaphysics, he investigated the law of contradiction and put forward the law of exclusion.
In Aristotle’s logic theory, there are induction and scientific methodology.
The central content of Aristotle’s ethics is about happiness and the conditions for realizing happiness.
In the ethics of nicomarcus, he deeply discusses the various aspects of human moral behaviorThe first complete theoretical system of happiness ethics in the history of western ethical thought is established.
The starting point of Aristotle’s theoretical system of ethics is the theory of human nature of the slave owner class.
He criticized the mysticism and asceticism in Plato’s ethical thought, affirmed the happiness and happiness of material life in this world, and believed that happiness is the natural result of human virtue activities.
In politics, Aristotle believes that man is not an isolated individual and points out that “man is a political animal in nature”.
The so-called political animals are social animals, so the city-state has become the embodiment of human nature.
The city-state is a community developed by families.
The country is an inseparable whole, and its goal is a beautiful and happy life.
The city-state is a collection of citizens, and citizens naturally have the right to participate in the management of the city-state.
Aristotle divided regimes into six categories: monarchy, aristocracy, Republic, democracy, oligarchy and tyranny.
As for Aristotle’s tendency to seek benefits for the public system or for the public system, he does not think that the purpose of the ruler is to seek benefits for himself.
Aristotle opposed Plato’s proposal to abolish private property and advocated private property.
He also opposed Plato’s “king of philosophy” theory and advocated that citizens take turns in power.
Aristotle’s poetics is the first western work to systematically discuss literary theory and literary criticism.
It has always been regarded as the golden rule by western scholars.
Starting from the essence of art, he believes that art is reproduction or imitation.
“Imitation theory” is the core of Aristotle’s aesthetics and artistic philosophy.
Aristotle believes that reason is something foreign and sacred.
Like other souls, it annihilates with the death of the body.
Rational virtue is the highest virtue.
The national purpose is not to develop military advantages, but to improve science and culture.
Therefore, he attaches great importance to the education of city-state citizens.
Aristotle attached importance to the rule of law and believed that the law must be consistent with the form of the state.
The highest purpose of law and discipline is to cultivate virtue.
[Conclusion] Aristotle lived in an era when slavery in Greece began to enter crisis and decline.
His encyclopedic ideology had a great impact on the West.
He systematically summarized ancient Greek Philosophy in a scientific way, distinguished philosophy from other disciplines for the first time, and created independent disciplines such as logic, ethics and politics.
The philosophical vocabulary he founded is still in use today.
His logic has been the basis of the unity of European philosophy for two thousand years.
His metaphysics made him the crown of “king of philosophers”.