On November 11, 1918, the morning mist shrouded the Ledo station in the forest of Gombine in northeast France.
A train stopped quietly on the track.
On both sides of the train, French soldiers with guns stood upright step by step and sentry step by step.
At this time, the German delegation headed by the Foreign Minister got on the train in turn and came to the carriage of Fu Xu, commander-in-chief of the Allied forces of the allies.
They will sign the armistice agreement here.
Marshal Fuxu and his representatives in military uniform have already been waiting here.
At 11:00, the signing ceremony was completed, and the victorious countries fired 101 salutes, announcing the official end of World War I.
The imperialist war was triggered by the assassination of the crown prince of Austria Hungary on June 28, 1914.
It lasted four years and three months from August 1914 to November 1918.
The main battlefield of World War I was in Europe, affecting Asia and the Pacific.
35 countries and regions participated in the war successively, accounting for about 1.
5 billion people of the world population at that time.
The allies and allies mobilized more than 65.
03 million troops and lost more than 37.
5 million people in the war, of which more than 8.
53 million were killed.
618 million civilians died.
The direct cost of the war between the two sides amounted to more than 186.
3 billion US dollars.
The total economic losses of the belligerents were about 170 billion US dollars.
From any angle, the loss of World War I is immeasurable.
Germany is a rising imperialist country.
Due to the unbalanced development of capitalist economy, Germany’s industrial output exceeded that of Britain and France in 1910, ranking second in the world, second only to the United States.
The proportion of Germany in the world’s total industrial output increased from 13.
2% in 1870 to 15.
7% in 1913.
Over the same period, its share in total world trade rose from 9.
7% to 12.
6%, second only to the UK and second in the world.
With the rapid economic development and the transition to imperialism, Germany has carried out crazy external expansion since the 1980s.
In 1914, the colonial area of Germany reached 2.
9 million square kilometers and the population was 12.
3 million, but the colonial area was far less than that of Britain and France.
To this end, it did not hesitate to resort to war, trying to redistribute the world by force and seize world hegemony.
World War I entered 1918.
After more than three years of fierce fighting, the warring parties suffered great casualties and material consumption.
There is a stalemate in the war.
At this time, Soviet Russia withdrew from the war, and the American Expeditionary Force was still in large-scale formation and training.
The German command tried to seize the opportunity to get rid of the dilemma of fighting on the two fronts and a large number of reinforcements have not yet arrived in Europe, launch a decisive attack on the western front, defeat the British and French coalition forces and win the war before the summer of 1918.
The German army assembled 194 divisions on the Western Front into four group army groups, with a total force of about 4 million, more than 5000 artillery, 3000 aircraft and nearly 200 tanks.
There are 186 divisions of the Allied forces on the western front, belonging to four groups of French and Belgian armies and the British Expeditionary Force, with a total force of 5 million, more than 16000 artillery, more than 3800 aircraft and 800 tanks.
Later, a large number of American Expeditionary Forces arrived in Europe, with 550000 people from 14 divisions participating in summer operations.
From March to September, the two sides conducted the largest series of offensive and counter offensive campaigns during World War I.
The German army launched five large-scale offensive campaigns from March 21 to July 17, 1918.
Although these campaigns dealt a heavy blow to the British and French coalition forces, occupied a large area of land and approached Paris again, the German army did not achieve the expected objectives of each campaign and was forced to stop the attack under the tenacious resistance of the Allied forces.
Three huge protrusions were formed in the newly occupied areas, which stretched the front and provided conditions for the Allied forces to carry out counter offensive.
After these five attacks, the German army lost millions of troops and the source of troops dried up.
In the summer of 1918, 160000 soldiers need to be added every month, but in fact, it can only be pieced together to 60000.
It can no longer launch a new offensive.
On the other hand, a large number of us reinforcements arrived, and the comparison of forces between the two sides changed more in favor of the allies.
From July 18, the Allied forces turned to counter offensive and launched three campaigns in succession.
By September 15, three prominent sections had been eliminated, the German army had been expelled back to its spring offensive starting point, and firmly grasped the strategic initiative.
On September 26, 1918, the Allied forces launched a general attack on the German army on the western line.
The whole German army retreated and the defeat was decided.
At the same time, the Bulgarian army launched an attack on the Balkan battlefield on September 15.
The Bulgarian Army surrendered on September 29.
In the Middle East battlefield, the British army occupied Damascus on October 1, defeated the Ottoman Imperial Army, successively occupied the whole territory of Syria and Mesopotamia, forcing the Ottoman Empire to sign the armistice agreement on October 30.
On the Italian battlefield, the Italian army launched an attack on the Austrian army on October 24.
A few days later, the Austrian Army collapsed.
The Austro Hungarian Empire sought peace with the allies on 27.
On October 28, the oppressed nationalities in Austria and Hungary set off a wave of national revolution.
A general strike and demonstrations broke out in Vienna, demanding the abdication of the Austrian Emperor.
On November 3, the disintegrated Austro Hungarian Empire surrendered and signed an armistice agreement with Italy.
The collapse of Germany is inevitable.
It lacked manpower, and the last conscription recruited 14-year-old children and people in their 60s.
Due to the maritime blockade imposed by the allies, food and other supplies were exhausted.
On November 3, Germany began the “November Revolution”, and the civil unrest caused by Bolsheviks and liberals shocked the government.
On November 9, the German Emperor fled to the Netherlands in a hurry.
On November 8, the head of the Catholic centrist, marceus elzberger, led other German representatives to the headquarters of the allies in gombinje.
They met with Marshal Fu Xu, commander in chief of the Allied forces of the allies.
He spent two days considering the surrender request: Germany must hand over heavy artillery and aircraft, 5000 trucks, 5000 locomotives and 15000 carriages.
Large warships and most submarines must be anchored in the ports of the allies, and the German troops stationed in Austria Hungary, Romania, Turkey and Russia must withdraw immediately.
The troops in the territory west of the Rhine must withdraw.
Elzberger and his compatriots agreed to these conditions.
World War I was a global war fought by two military blocs of allies and allies to redistribute colonies and spheres of influence and compete for world hegemony.
The end of the warIt was a complete failure of the group of allies, which won at great cost.
The alliance group headed by Germany is composed of the German Empire, Austria Hungary Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the kingdom of Bulgaria.
The group of allies led by Britain, France and Russia is composed of more than 30 countries and regions.
The group of allies paid a great price for the victory of the war.
Only the United States and Japan seized a lot of practical interests.
In terms of imperialism, the alliance will undergo a temporary decline, both in terms of imperialism and in terms of international relations.