Francis Bacon (1561-1626) is one of the founders of modern Western European Philosophy and the founder of materialist empiricism.
Bacon was born in York Palace, Linhe street, London.
His father was the seal Minister of Queen Elizabeth of England, and his mother was a Calvinist and quite talented.
Bacon received a good family education since childhood.
In 1573, bacon entered Trinity College of Cambridge University at the age of 12.
His mentor was Dr.
whitejift, the then famous Dean of Trinity College, and later the Archbishop of Canterbury.
During his three years in Cambridge, bacon won the praise of “mastery and diligence” in the study of several arts and Sciences.
In 1576, bacon arrived in France as an entourage of Sir emias paulay, the British ambassador to France.
In 1579, Bacon’s father suddenly died of illness and bacon returned home from mourning.
After dealing with the funeral, bacon stayed at home, studying law and looking for jobs everywhere.
In 1582, bacon passed the exam at the age of 21 and officially became a lawyer.
In 1584, bacon was elected as a member of Parliament and has been elected as a member of Parliament for several consecutive terms since then.
It is said that Bacon is so famous for his debate in Congress and court that “people who listen to his speech can’t look out accidentally, otherwise they will miss a considerable part of the meaning”.
In 1589, bacon, 28, became an alternate Secretary of the civil court.
Bacon actually took office in 1618.
In 1603, Bacon wrote a preface on the interpretation of nature, which was Bacon’s only autobiographical article.
In the article, bacon eulogized the inventor of science.
At the same time, he also analyzed the characteristics of his own thinking.
In the same year, bacon also wrote articles such as the explanation of nature and on the brave baby of the times.
In 1604, bacon published on the nature of things, discussed the mistakes of the ancients in the movement, expounded the differences between the active science as his own goal and the speculative science of the ancients, and stressed that in order to obtain positive natural science, we must participate in the research of movement and master the principles of things.
In the same year, bacon also published on human knowledge, in which bacon expounded on the new natural history, emphasizing that philosophy is unstable if it is not based on natural history, and is helpless to human needs and the positive direction of philosophy.
In 1605, Bacon wrote on academic progress in English, which is Bacon’s work on epistemology and the first part of the grand whole of the great renaissance.
In this book, bacon demonstrates the great function and value of knowledge, criticizes the ignorance of ignorance, and lays an ideological foundation for the famous slogan “knowledge is power” put forward in the future.
In the book, bacon also divides science into history, poetry and philosophy according to the three human rational abilities of memory, imagination and rationality.
In this way, he puts forward a new principle of scientific classification, and makes a systematic division of all human knowledge according to this principle, thus outlining the outline of the Encyclopedia of science.
The book occupies an important position in the academic history of Europe.
The scientific classification expounded by it and the new structure of the scientific knowledge system established by it provided an attempt of scientific encyclopedia knowledge that people had never thought of at that time.
It was the forerunner of modern scientific classification and attracted extensive repercussions and attention at that time and later generations.
In 1607, bacon was appointed Deputy Attorney General, which was rejected by the queen 20 years ago.
Bacon was appointed attorney general in 1613.
In 1616, he served as the seal minister.
In 1618, bacon rose to the last level of the official rank and became the Lord Chancellor of England.
In the same year, he was knighted Baron veruland and Viscount St Albans in 1620.
So far, bacon has reached the peak of his official career.
In 1620, when Bacon was the most prominent in politics, the new ideas he cherished all his life came out at the best time with the appropriate style that he thought would achieve the best effect.
This is Bacon’s important masterpiece, the famous great revival.
However, in fact, only one sixth of the great works that should be completed met with the majority of readers.
The second part of the book plan, new tools, has become the main body of the great rejuvenation.
New tools aims to open up a completely different path for people, so that people’s mind can exercise its inherent authority in the nature of things.
The book castigates the traditional philosophy of being divorced from reality and nature.
This paper reveals several psychological obstacles and false ideas that hinder people from reaching the truth, and puts forward a scientific induction to replace the popular speculative reasoning method.
New tools is a logic and philosophy work with great influence in modern times.
It lays the foundation of modern induction theory, expounds the principle of empirical epistemology, and pioneers the empirical theory of modern materialism.
In 1621, bacon was impeached in the name of accepting gifts.
In essence, bacon maintained the original patent law, deviated from the interests of the bourgeoisie, led to the end of his own political career, and became a victim and scapegoat in the struggle between kingship and Parliament.
In the early stage of his resignation, bacon still tried to find political positions, but failed.
Only then did he fully turn to the writing activities of history and theory, and began a more valuable process in his career.
Bacon soon recovered from his depression, successively published on bad luck, Henry VII and Henry VIII, wrote the outline of the history of Great Britain, and took notes for the writing of the synopsis of the laws of England and Scotland.
During this period, bacon focused on his major in political history on the one hand, and his philosophy on the other.
In 1623, bacon translated “on academic progress” into Latin, added new materials, expanded the length to nine volumes, and named the book “on academic progress and value”.
In 1622, he wrote the first volume of the encyclopedia, the history of the wind, and in 1623, he completed the second volume, the history of life and death.
In 1625, bacon revised and supplemented the Analects of Confucius from 38 expanded in 1612 to 58.
The rest of the time is devoted to the compilation and collection of encyclopedia materials.
One day at the end of March 1626, bacon took a car to haigat, the north suburb of London, and saw the snow on the ground at that time.
Bacon, who liked experiments, had a strange idea.
Can snow and salt also play an anti-corrosion role? He decided to lose no time in doing the experiment of freezing preservation immediately.
He got out of the car and came to a place at the foot of hagate mountainIn the poor woman’s house, he bought a chicken and asked the woman to remove the internal organs.
Then he stuffed the chicken cavity with snow, and bacon helped him make it.
Suddenly, he felt a shiver.
He caught a cold and was unable to return to his apartment.
He had to stay at count arendel’s house.
It happened that the master was not at home, and the servants gave the best bed in the house to the guests.
However, the best bed had not been used for nearly a year.
The damp and cold bed made Bacon’s condition worse, However, bacon did not realize this at that time.
He also wrote a letter to his master to thank him for his help and praised his spirit of pursuing scientific truth without fear of wind and cold.
On April 9, 1626, bacon died of suffocation due to bronchitis at the age of 65.
Bacon’s death did not affect the great turning role of his philosophy in the historical development.
His position in the history of philosophy is eternal.
Bacon’s philosophy ended an old era of scholastic philosophy centered on theology, created a new era of understanding nature by means of experience, and showed a new direction for the development of Western Philosophy – the new direction of the development of empiricism philosophy.
In this sense, even idealists admit that Bacon is “famous forever”.
Marx called Bacon “the real ancestor of British materialism and the whole modern experimental science”.
However, Bacon’s materialism is a materialism that can tolerate the existence of God.
He recognized the existence of God and immortal rational soul and accepted the “dual truth theory” handed down since the middle ages.
The source of truth is from God’s revelation and belief.
Second, it comes from nature and sensory experience.
They are independent and do not interfere with each other.
This thought is positive and desirable in the sense of getting rid of the control of theology over science and striving for the relative independent status of science, but it also exposes the incompleteness of Bacon’s materialism, reflects the incompleteness of Bacon’s philosophy, and reveals the conservatism of the anti feudal struggle of the British bourgeoisie and upstarts.
According to the will, Bacon’s body was buried next to his mother’s grave in St.
Michael’s Church in St.
The testament said, “my soul will be returned to God, my body will die on the loess, and my name will be passed on to future generations and made famous overseas.
” Indeed, Bacon’s name will go down in history not only in his motherland, but also in the history of world culture, science, law and philosophy.