Francis Bacon (1561 ~ 1626) [brief introduction] Francis Bacon, British modern materialist philosopher.

Born in a new noble family in London on January 22, 1561, her father was the seal Minister of Queen Elizabeth.

Bacon entered Cambridge University at the age of 12.

At school, he was deeply dissatisfied with Aristotle’s philosophy, which was regarded as a classic by the church at that time.

He believed that it was a mere theory and had no practical benefits to life.

He was determined to completely abandon the old philosophy and create a new philosophy that can directly serve mankind.

In 1576, bacon went to Paris as an entourage of the British ambassador to France.

In 1579, he returned home because of his father’s funeral.

After his father’s death, bacon was very poor.

Bacon completed his law studies by borrowing money and became a formal lawyer in 1582.

He was elected to Congress in 1584.

In 1586, he was elected as one of the chief members of gray law school.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, he often wrote articles to express his political opinions and seek to make achievements in his official career, but he was not hired as the Queen’s special legal adviser until 1596.

In the Stuart dynasty of James I, bacon successively held important positions in the court.

He was appointed chief prosecutor in 1613, seal minister in 1617 and chief justice in 1618.

So far, bacon reached the peak of his official career.

Bacon received the title of nobility many times in his life.

He was knighted in 1603, Baron verulent in 1618 and Viscount St.

Alban from 1620 to 1621.

In 1621, in the struggle between King James and parliament, bacon was impeached by Parliament for bribery and removed from all official positions.

Since then, bacon, who suffered from both economic and career problems, separated from his political career and devoted himself to writing.

In 1626, bacon died of illness at the age of 65.

[influence] bacon spent most of his life in officialdom, but he never gave up his ambition to promote human knowledge.

His main theoretical works were completed during his official career.

This collection of essays on ethics was published in 1597.

In 1612 and 1625, bacon updated the Analects twice and collected 58 articles.

In the Analects of Confucius, the author’s incisive analysis of things, rich and profound thoughts, strict logic and police language shine with the light of wisdom.

Academic progress, published in 1605, is Bacon’s work on epistemology and the first part of his huge plan to comprehensively reform knowledge, the great rejuvenation.

In this work, he criticizes the obscurantism that belittles knowledge, demonstrates the great function and value of knowledge from many aspects, and lays a foundation for later proposing that “knowledge is power”.

In 1609, Bacon’s “on the wisdom of the ancients” written in Latin was published.

In this book, he selected 31 excellent ancient Greeks and expressed his views on political, scientific and philosophical issues with rich imagination, profound philosophy and exquisite talent.

The completion of academic progress and on the wisdom of the ancients paved the way for the creation of Bacon’s main work the great renaissance.

In 1620, the unfinished masterpiece “the great revival” was published, the main part of which is the famous “new instrumental theory”.

Bacon named “the great renaissance” to emphasize that the world must be transformed through science, art and all human knowledge instead of old philosophy.

Bacon is the first person in the history of western philosophy to criticize scholasticism comprehensively and deeply.

His criticism of traditional philosophy is always carried out in Bacon’s works.

In the struggle with scholasticism, bacon established his own materialist empiricism.

Taking epistemology as the central issue of his philosophy, he regarded the transformation of human knowledge, the realization of the “great rejuvenation” of science and the establishment of a new philosophy that can promote production development and technological progress as the ultimate goal of his theoretical activities.

As a great reformer, bacon realized that to advocate science and use science to transform human material living conditions, we must criticize obscurantism and make people fully aware of the function and value of knowledge.

Bacon advocated facing nature and exploring the laws of nature, opposed Plato’s idealism and adhered to materialist empiricism.

We oppose the practice of separating scholasticism from reality, isolating the relationship between man and nature, and advocating authoritarianism, dogmatism and obscurantism.

He criticized the fallacy that “knowledge is evil” and believed that knowledge is not only the revolutionary force to promote social development and the driving force for the self-improvement of human nature, but also the force to understand and control nature.

On the relationship between man and nature, bacon emphasized that “man is the servant of nature” and that man must obey the laws of nature.

It also emphasizes that man is the master of nature.

The source of human power to command, control and conquer nature lies in the understanding of the laws of nature, and knowledge is the understanding of the laws.

As long as we master the laws of nature, human beings can obtain truth in cognition and freedom in action.

In epistemology, bacon put forward a brand-new materialist epistemological line and created a new era of philosophical research centered on epistemology.

In the new instrumental theory, bacon expounded the epistemological principle of his empiricism, which opened up a completely different way for restoring people’s rule over nature.

He believes that if human beings want to acquire knowledge and restore their dominance over nature, they must re contact with nature, observe things with new eyes, and obtain regular knowledge through observation and experiment.

This is completely different from the old method in Aristotle’s instrumental theory, so he calls it new instrumental theory.

Through the analysis of previous philosophy, bacon found that the reason why people can not correctly reflect the objective world lies in their own psychological obstacles to obtain truth.

He called it “false appearance”, which formed his original false appearance theory.

This played an important role in emancipating the mind and destroying the ideological fortress of feudalism at that time.

Moreover, he came into contact with some complex problems in epistemology, such as subjective and objective, perceptual knowledge and rational knowledge, which played a great role in promoting the study of philosophy.

After eliminating the psychological obstacles to obtaining truth knowledge, bacon put forward the cognitive principle of materialist empiricism, clearly put forward that “man is the servant and interpreter of nature”, “knowledge is the image of existence”, and said that the perceptual, natural and objective empirical facts are the object of knowledge, so that experience has always been despised The belittled humble status has risen to a scientific principle and a method of investigation, making it a scientific and philosophical principleAn indispensable basis.

This is of great significance to the history of philosophy and the history of science.

Although bacon emphasized the epistemological principle of empiricism, he did not confine himself to the field of experience.

He recognized the limitations of feeling and stressed the need to combine perceptual knowledge with rational knowledge.

He believes that all real knowledge is sorted out by rational methods such as induction, analysis, comparison and experiment on the basis of empirical materials.

Perceptual perception is only the beginning of cognition.

He advocated experiment and believed that experiment was superior to perceptual intuition.

Because through the experiment, the observed objects can be extracted from the complex relationships, which makes the causal relationship of things more exposed.

In his new instrumental theory, he stressed that “all more real explanations of nature are obtained by appropriate examples and experiments.

What is determined by feeling is only in contact with experiments, while what is determined by experiments is in contact with nature and things themselves.

” In this way, bacon put forward a complete epistemological principle of empiricism for the first time in the history of human cognition.

In order to open up the way for scientific epistemology, bacon discussed a lot of ontological problems and established his materialistic view of nature in his works such as on the wisdom of the ancients, on principles and origin and on new tools.

He inherited and developed the thought of ancient materialism that matter is the origin of all things, affirmed that the world and all things are composed of matter, opposed to seeing matter as an abstract thing, and emphasized that motion is the fundamental attribute of matter, motion is absolute and stillness is relative.

He also stressed that matter is an eternal existence.

Bacon endows material with real and dynamic nature and various special personalities, which is materialistic and has dialectical ideological factors.

Marx praised Bacon’s material view, saying that what he said “material smiles with poetic perceptual brilliance on people’s whole body”.

Bacon is also the main founder of modern inductive logic.

He believed that the syllogism put forward by Aristotle could not find scientific principles, and the old induction, namely simple enumeration, could not draw reliable conclusions.

Therefore, Bacon’s task for himself is to remove the obstacles on the road of scientific revival and formulate new tools for understanding nature.

He expounded the idea of establishing a new logic in the theory of new tools.

This new logic is what he calls the real induction.

Bacon’s important contribution to inductive logic is to put forward the three table method and exclusion method, and take them as the inductive method to sort out and summarize empirical materials.

He not only advocated scientific induction, but also specified the purpose, principles and basic procedures of induction, so as to give inductive logic new content and new life.

He is known as “the father of modern induction theory”.

Later, J.S. mill put forward the famous method of seeking causality, which is based on Bacon’s induction.

[Conclusion] bacon pioneered modern British materialism and made great contributions to the development of human cognition.

He is worthy of being a great materialist philosopher.

Marx spoke highly of him and called him “the real ancestor of British materialism and the whole modern experimental science”.

In the history of science, he raised scientific knowledge to an unprecedented position and put forward the famous slogan “knowledge is power”.

In the history of philosophy, he created a new era centered on epistemological research.

His epistemology of empiricism raised the feeling experience that had always been despised as a scientific principle in the ideological circle, which was a revolution in the cognitive principles and methods at that time, which laid an ideological foundation for the rapid development of science later.