Borodino battle

battle background

in the summer of 1812, an army of more than 600000 people was collected from France and its European allies and vassal countries to invade Russia.

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on June 24 of the same year, the French army entered Russia, and the first group of nearly 450000 people soon went deep into the Russian mainland. At the beginning of the war, facing the aggressive offensive of the French army, the Russian army was forced to retreat and clear the fields along the way in order to block the progress of the French army. From August 16 to 18, Russian and French troops fought fiercely in Smolensk. Unable to resist the French attack, the Russian army abandoned Smolensk and retreated to Moscow. On August 29, Kutuzov, the new commander-in-chief of the Russian army, arrived at the front line and led the army to continue to retreat.

on September 3, the Russian army pre selected a position near Borodino to cut off the two main channels from the French army to Moscow. Kutuzov was determined to fight a decisive battle with Napoleon’s army based on the position.

on September 4, Kutuzov reported to I that the position was selected in Borodino village in front of mozaisk. The front of Borodino position is 8km wide, and the front line is located in the front line of maslovo, Gorky, Borodino and semonovskoye; The right wing is near maslovo village, close to the Moscow River; The left wing is connected with the impassable ujica forest; The central government relies on the kurganaya highland; There are forests and shrubs in the rear, which is convenient for the concealed allocation of troops and the implementation of mobility. The position was built with complete fortifications, forcing the French army to fight the Russian army on the unfavorable terrain.

battle after

on September 7, the fierce battle between the two sides began. Napoleon led the French Army (about 130000 people) to launch a fierce attack on the Russian Army (about 120000 people). At the beginning of the battle, the Russian army had a slight advantage in artillery, especially in large caliber artillery. The Russian army has 640 guns and the French army has 587 guns. Kutuzov’s combat attempt was to kill the enemy as much as possible by means of active defense, so as to preserve strength for the subsequent battle and annihilation of the French army. Napoleon’s strategic proposition was to crush the Russian army with a total decisive battle. Facing the defense of the Russian army, it was difficult for the French army to encircle from both wings. They decided to take a frontal assault in the Borodino battle in order to break through the Russian Defense Line in a narrow area, a enter the Russian rear, force the Russian army to the Moscow River and annihilate it, so as to open the door to Moscow.

before the Borodino meeting, the Russian and French troops launched a fierce battle for the multifaceted fort on September 5. As a result, the Russian army tenaciously resisted the French attack and won the Russian army time to complete the defense at the main position.

at dawn on September 7, Borodino battle began with artillery battle between the two sides. The French attacked Borodino village. Under the fierce attack of the superior forces of the French army, the Russian army crossed the koloza River and retreated to defense. The French army followed him across the river, but was hit by the Russian army, and one was forced to retreat to the West Bank of the koloza river. At about 6 a.m., the French army began to attack the Russian defended Bagration ang fort. At 0700 hours, the French army launched another attack and occupied a fort on the left, which was repulsed by the Russian army with a brave counter attack.

both sides then sent reinforcements. At 0800 hours, the French army launched a third attack on Bagration’s forts and captured the left and right forts. From 9:00 to 11:00, the French army launched four attacks on the fortress, which were ineffective. At about 12 o’clock, the French army began the eighth attack on the fort. In a narrow area only 1.5km wide, Napoleon used 45000 troops and 400 artillery against 18000 Russian troops and 300 artillery. The two sides fought in close combat. In a fierce battle, Russian general bagration’ang was seriously injured. Finally, the French army won the position and occupied Borodino.

Napoleon was unable to expand the results because he did not dare to easily put the last reserve, the guards, into battle. The Russian army resisted tenaciously, but could not make up for the losses of the army and could not invest all the reserves. They had to withdraw to the mainland and open the door to Moscow. Napoleon entered Moscow on September 14.

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both sides suffered heavy losses in this battle: 52000 casualties of the Russian army and more than 50000 casualties of the French army. In the Borodino battle, the two sides failed to decide the real victory or defeat, but it created conditions for the Russian army to consume the French army and turn to the counter offensive.

in the Borodino battle, Russian general Kutuzov showed superb art of battle command. The Russian combat team forms a depth configuration. The total depth of the combat formation is 3 to 4 kilometers. The infantry cooperate closely with the cavalry and artillery to ensure the robustness of the defense. All Russian troops have strong reserves and have established a general reserve.

Kutuzov attached great importance to the role of the reserve team and the general reserve team, and pointed out that “the reserve team should be kept as long as possible, because a general will not be defeated as long as he still has the reserve team in his hand”. In the battle, the battle formation of both sides is basically the same, showing the characteristics of column and scattered formation tactics. Before the impact or counter impact, the artillery is skillfully used. First, the artillery fire is used for fierce shooting and fire preparation, and then the assault is carried out in a dense formation of infantry and cavalry.

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after the Russian army withdrew to the mainland, it gathered strength and created conditions for turning into a counter offensive. On October 18, the Russian army began to counter attack; On the 19th, the French army withdrew from Moscow and then retreated one after another. The defeat of the French army in the battle of viyazima in November had a great impact on its morale and accelerated the disintegration of the French army. By December, the French army was almost completely destroyed. Napoleon’s war against Russia ended in a disastrous defeat with the loss of more than 500000 people.

commented on the Borodino battle of

. The two sides failed to decide the real victory or defeat, but created conditions for the Russian army to consume the French army and turn to the counter offensive. Although Napoleon’s tactical goal of Russia’s invasion of France was not defeated, he was defeated by Russia’s Third Army on the battlefield. In the war, both sides suffered heavy casualties, but the Russian army still had a reserve ready to fight at any time, and the logistical supplies were safe; And Napoleon’s transportation