battle background

battle of gaucamilla is the most famous battle in the history of the eastern expedition and the decisive battle between Greece and Persia.

on a spring day in 334 BC, the helespan Strait (today’s Dardanelle Strait) at the junction of Europe and Asia was calm and pleasant. Numerous large ships are sailing back and forth at sea to transport the troops gathered on the European side of the Strait to the east bank. At this time, a general commanding the sea crossing operation happily reported to a young commander on horseback and wearing heavy armor: “Your Majesty, our army has successfully set foot on the land of Asia!” The young commander waved his sword excitedly and shouted, “well, my sword will shake the whole East!” The young commander is Alexander, the famous King of Macedonia in history. He was only 22 that year.

Macedonia was originally an unknown small state in the Balkans. During the reign of Alexander’s father Philip II, a series of reforms were implemented, which made the small state strong and became the overlord of the Greek peninsula. In 336 BC, Philip II was assassinated and killed, and Alexander, who was only 20 years old, succeeded to the throne. He continued to consolidate Macedonia’s hegemonic position, while actively preparing for an expedition to the East, first against the Persian Empire, the ancient enemy of the Greeks. On this expedition to the East, he personally led 350000 troops and 160 warships across the helespan Strait, defeated the Persian army one after another with invincible momentum, and soon swept the peninsula of Asia Minor. Darius III, the Persian Emperor, was shocked at the news and decided to fight in person. In November 333 BC, the Persian army known as 600000 people, led by Darius III, entered the city of issus and launched a fierce battle with Alexander’s expeditionary army. In this battle, about 100000 Persian soldiers died, and the Macedonian army won a complete victory. Countless Persian soldiers were captured by Alexander, including Darius III’s mother, wife and two daughters. Darius, chased by Macedonian cavalry, threw away his shield, bow and arrow and King’s robe, abandoned his car, got on his horse and fled in confusion.

after the battle of issus, Alexander did not continue to pursue Darius, but sent south to attack the Persian vassal countries in West Asia and North Africa. After more than a year of war, the Macedonian army conquered a large area of land, including today’s Lebanon, Palestine and Egypt. In the spring of 331 BC, after replenishing troops and materials in Egypt, Alexander led his army north and advanced to the hinterland of the Persian Empire. Darius knew that this war would determine the survival of the Empire. Therefore, he sent his generals to carefully choose the battlefield in gomira in Mesopotamia. Darius III was determined to stop the Macedonian cavalry from invading Persia.

Darius, king of Persia, tried to make peace with Alexander, cede Persia and divide and rule after the defeat of the battle of issus. After being rejected by Alexander, he had to reorganize a new army. In order to deal with the Macedonian phalanx, the Persian army recruited a large number of cavalry troops, and the weapons were changed from the original short sword to javelin and new short spear. However, due to the loss of Asia Minor and Egypt, it was impossible to recruit brave greek mercenaries and cut off the source of good infantry. Although the number of troops is much larger than that of Greece, they are at a disadvantage in terms of combat effectiveness, and many Persians are unwilling to participate in the war. Darius did not consider these factors and decided to fight the Macedonian army head-on, relying on his strength and strength. To this end, a fleet of 200 combat vehicles equipped with sickles was specially formed to prepare for the Macedonian square. Due to the lack of time, the driver hurried to the battle without sufficient cooperative training.

battle after

at the end of September 331 BC, the Macedonian expeditionary army also set up a camp near the gaucamilla plain. Alexander soon learned from the captured Persian scouts that the Persian army had about 40000 cavalry, 1 million infantry and 200 sickle equipped chariots; They learned the lessons of the defeat of the battle of Isis, constantly renovated the terrain and opened up a broad battlefield for cavalry and chariots.

in the battle of gaugamira

after hearing the news, Alexander immediately repaired the troops, adjusted equipment and personnel, prepared materials, and marched to the front of the Persian army on the night of September 29. After careful and comprehensive reconnaissance of the deployment of the Persian army and the whole battlefield, Alexander immediately summoned all the generals and staff to discuss the attack plan and determine the action plan. Finally, the battle mobilization was made: “this battle is extraordinary. It is related to the settlement of the sovereignty of the whole Asia. Therefore, everyone must think of discipline when in danger, be silent when in need of silence, and be loud when in need of cheering.” Finally, he solemnly stressed, “all of you must always bear in mind that personal negligence will cause danger to the whole army, and personal efforts will also contribute to the success of the whole army.” In the early morning of October 1, the curtain of war opened. Both armies began to move forward slowly, and the distance between the two sides was getting closer and closer.

“full line attack!” Darius gave orders. He learned the lesson of the defeat of Isis and decided to. In the deafening rumble, 200 Persian chariots bound with sharp sickles started together and rushed towards the square of Macedonia. At the same time, the Persian cavalry also shouted and launched a charge. Infantry followed.

“volley of arrows!” Alexander gave the first order. The Macedonian archers, who had long been in readiness, fired at the same time. Suddenly, the coachman and cattle of dozens of Persian chariots were shot. “Infantry interception!” Alexander gave a second order. When they were attacked by soldiers and horses on both sides, they saw dozens of chariots rushing out of the field with swords and spears. When less than a hundred chariots left rushed less than a hundred meters from the front of the Macedonian phalanx, Alexander issued a third order: “the whole army dodge to the two wings!” In an instant, the Macedonian square was divided into two, and a passage flashed in the middle. Persia sped in