battle background

battle of sedang is a major battle in the Franco Prussian War.

Prussia became stronger and stronger after the end of the Putin Austria war. However, the four small countries close to the south of France have not been unified, and Bismarck is determined to unify all German countries except Austria.

therefore, in order to realize the final unification of Germany, we must unify these small states. However, Bismarck knew that these four small countries were close to France, and France had long cherished the heart of annexation. Once Prussia forcibly occupied, would France give up? Moreover, France’s Alsace and Lorraine regions closest to Germany are rich in mineral resources, and Bismarck has long targeted them.

Bismarck

for Bismarck at its peak, it was most appropriate to find an excuse to fight with France, unify the four small countries in the south, and occupy Alsace and Lorraine. However, Bismarck failed to find the opportunity to go to war with France.

on the French side, it was my nephew Louis Napoleon Bonaparte who ascended the throne. He was known as Napoleon III in history. He was a political conspirator and military adventurer. After the failure of the French Revolution in 1848, he stole the presidential power of the Second Republic of France, launched a coup in December 1851, restored the monarchy and established the Second Empire of France in history.

Napoleon III was an authoritarian, cruel and arrogant man who always hoped to dominate Europe through war. At that time, empress Eugenie said on the spot, “how can our son be emperor if we don’t start war?”

such a person, of course, will not sit idly by and ignore the power of Prussia. He once stated bluntly, “Germany should not be unified. It should be divided into three parts. North and South Germany should be opposed. Only in this way can France benefit from it.”

not only Napoleon III, but also another Minister of France at that time, thielle, lamented: “the failure of Austria means the biggest disaster for France in 400 years. From then on, we will lose an trump card to prevent German reunification!”

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in this way, the two sides of Prussia and France began to fight openly and secretly, looking for opportunities to provoke war.

France took the lead. Just after the PuO Austrian war, Napoleon III sent someone to ask Prussia to honor the promise made before the war, asked Prussia to agree to France’s occupation of Belgium and Luxembourg, and politely mentioned the territorial division of the four small countries in southern Germany. This is tantamount to biting off a piece of fat from Prussia. Bismarck, the “iron blood Prime Minister”, of course will not agree. However, he made an open mind and did not explicitly refuse. Instead, he asked France to write a memorandum on the matter, “so that I can go back and discuss it with our king”. The French ambassador did not know what the plan was, so he did it.

Bismarck got the memo and didn’t go to see the emperor. Instead, he gave it to Britain and Russia, who also wanted to dominate Europe, in an attempt to provoke contradictions between Britain, Russia and France. Napoleon III knew Bismarck’s practice and was furious. He was determined to fight against Prussia!

nevertheless, France did not immediately use force. But the ensuing problem of the heir to the Spanish throne finally led to the outbreak of the war.

originally, Isabella, Queen of Spain, was overthrown by the Spanish revolution in 1868. The queen was in exile and the throne was vacant. Bismarck saw that it was profitable, so he sent someone to buy off the newly established Spanish interim government and proposed to let Prince Leopold, cousin of King William of Prussia, succeed to the Spanish throne. Bismarck’s intention is obvious. The prince of Prussia became the king of Spain. France was attacked from both sides. When fighting, Prussia can attack back and forth.

Napoleon III also saw this danger and immediately handed the protest to the king of Prussia. The protest said that the Spanish throne should be held by the Spanish. Otherwise, France can send a king! Bismarck was very angry about this. At the same time, there was a lot of discussion within the French government. Many people asked Prussia to take back its order, otherwise it would be regarded as the reason for launching the war, and the two sides were at war. Suddenly, things took a turn for the better. Prince Leopold, persuaded by others, announced that he would give up his candidacy for king of Spain. He said: “originally, as long as the Spaniards support me, I could be their king. But I don’t want to start a European war for this.”

then the question of the heir to the Spanish throne ended. However, Napoleon III saw that the matter was so simple and ended. He thought Prussia was afraid of him, so he pushed forward and made further demands.

he ordered the French ambassador in Berlin to meet King William I of Prussia and asked Prussia to make a written guarantee that no one from the Prussian King’s family would be sent to be king of Spain in the future.

on July 13, 1870, William I met with the French ambassador in the resort Ames. William I also felt unreasonable about France’s request, so he flatly rejected it. Then William I telegraphed Bismarck the results of the talks.

Bismarck was very dissatisfied with the extraneous actions of France. Without French intervention, I’m afraid Prince Leopold would have become king of Spain. When Bismarck could hardly swallow the breath, William I’s telegram arrived. The main contents of the message are: the unreasonable request made by the French ambassador is unacceptable and I have rejected it; The question of the heir to the Spanish throne has been notified to the French ambassador, and the resulting contradiction has passed; On this matter, I’m not going to meet the French ambassador again.

Bismarck read the telegram carefully and meaningfully. Suddenly, he looked up and asked the chief of staff Mao Qi and the chief of the army Fang Long: “if we go to war with France, can we win?”

He is also the effective executor of the “iron blood policy”, and immediately said: “we will win, and we will fully support you.”

“OK!” Bismarck was so happy that he immediately pointed to the message, “we can…” and the three laughed.

the next day, the newspaper published William I’s “Ames urgent telegram”, but the content has changed. It turned out that Bismarck deliberately angered Napoleon III in order to provoke war. He changed the message and then published it.

the French read the message and felt very angry that the king of Prussia was so rude. Napoleon III, in particular, believed that Prussia was making a fool of himself. Thus, with the support of Parliament, Napoleon III finally couldn’t bear it and declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. The arrogant Napoleon III also said, “we are just going to Prussia for a military walk!”

battle after the beginning of the

war, Napoleon III was full of confidence. He transferred the army known as 400000 to the front line and prepared to use the strategy to rush into Germany and defeat Prussia. So he called himself commander and inspected the front line on July 28. However, when he arrived at the front line, he found that there were only 200000 troops on the front line. The military fortress Mai C í has less than 100000 troops, incomplete equipment, insufficient materials and chaotic establishment. The battle order has been issued, and many officers and soldiers have not found their troops. You can’t go to war at all. The fighters lost one by one.

the French missed the opportunity, but the general army won the time to attack.

on August 2, the French army broke into Germany and was immediately hit head-on by the Prussian army. On August 4, the general army turned to counter attack, launched a fierce offensive against the French army, and attacked the French army outpost visang fort in France, and the French army retreated. Napoleon III was so angry that he quickly ordered McMahon to regain his lost position. On August 6, McMahon led his troops to the village of wilt, southwest of visanburg. Intercepted by the general army, the two sides launched a fierce battle. As a result, the French army was defeated and continued to retreat. The general army pursued the victory and moved all the battlefields into France.

Napoleon III saw that the situation was bad and immediately backed down. He handed the Marshal’s seal to marshal Bazin and fled West in a carriage. On August 14, Bazin was tightly surrounded by the general army in the isolated city of MEC í fortress, and there was no resistance.

Napoleon III saw things bad and fled to the northeast with the 120000 troops led by McMahon. By August 30, he had to retreat to shadang. The general army immediately gathered in satang.

on September 1, the battle of satang began. The 700 cannons of the general army pounded the French camp, and the shells rained on the French positions. When the whole city was in a sea of fire, the smoke of gunpowder filled the air. The French were killed and wounded, and the rest hurried into the fort. McMahon was injured several times.

then, 200000 people of the general army launched a fierce attack on Sadang. At 3 p.m., the French army finally couldn’t support it, raised a white flag in the city tower of Sadang, and Napoleon III wrote a letter of surrender to the king of Prussia, He said shamelessly, “my dear brother, because I could not die in my army, I had to give my sword to his majesty. I hope to continue to be his good brother, Napoleon.”

on September 2, Napoleon III met with German Prime Minister Bismarck and officially signed the letter of surrender. Napoleon III, 39 generals below the French marshal and 100000 soldiers were all captured by the general army. 650 cannons were also captured by the general army.

on September 3, Napoleon III sent a telegram to Paris: “the army has been defeated, and all officers and soldiers and myself have become prisoners.”

on January 28, 1871, Franco Prussia signed the Paris armistice agreement and announced France’s surrender. On May 10, the two sides signed the Frankfurt peace treaty in Frankfurt. France ceded Alsace and Lorraine to Germany and compensated 5 billion francs. The war ended.

evaluation

the battle of satang was called “satang fiasco” in history. After the decisive victory of the German army over France in the battle of Sadang, Napoleon III was captured alive. So far, the obstacles to the unification of South Germany have been removed, and the task of Germany’s national war has been completed. For France, the disastrous defeat of the French army in the battle of Sadang caused the revolution in Paris on September 4, “the Second Empire collapsed like a paper house”. Bismarck drove his troops straight into Paris.

on January 18, 1871, announced the unification of Germany at the palace of Versailles and established the German Empire. Bismarck also served as the Prime Minister of the German Empire. After Bismarck unified Germany, he implemented the policy of serving the interests of the big bourgeoisie and noble landlords, which promoted the development of German economy. But his “iron and blood” did not stop. In 1871, he participated in the suppression of the Paris Commune. In Germany, in order to step up the suppression of the German workers’ movement, he issued the so-called “decree on suppressing the attempt of the Social Democratic Party to endanger social security” in 1878; He organized military blocs abroad and tried his best to consolidate Germany’s hegemonic position in the European continent; At the same time, they plundered colonies in Africa, Asia and the Pacific and competed with Britain for world hegemony. By the late 1880s, Bismarck’s domestic and foreign policies had failed repeatedly and was forced to step down on March 17, 1890. It should be noted that although Bismarck himself withdrew from the historical stage, his “iron blood” policy deeply affected the later German history.