Waterloo battle

battle background

the sixth anti French Alliance composed of Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria was finally defeated. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and exiled to his territory Elba Island, and the Bourbon Dynasty was restored.

but Napoleon was not reconciled to his failure. He was still concerned about the development of the current situation. At the beginning of 1815, the anti French alliance held a meeting in Vienna. Due to the uneven distribution of stolen goods, they were at war with each other. At the same time, the French people are more and more dissatisfied with the rule of the Bourbon Dynasty due to the cruel rule of the feudal aristocracy, and miss the Napoleonic era even more.

“Napoleon

Napoleon decided when the time was ripe. On the night of February 26, 1815, Napoleon led 1050 officers and soldiers in six small boats to skillfully avoid the Bourbon Royal warship monitoring Elba Island. After three days and three nights of navigation, he arrived at the bay of Rouen on the South Bank of France on March 1. Napoleon was filled with emotion and interest, Immediately delivered a passionate speech on the shore: “Soldiers, we have not failed! I am always listening to your voice. I have gone through many hardships for our today! Now, at this moment, I am finally back among you. Come on, let’s fight side by side! Victory belongs to you and honor belongs to you! Hold high the eagle flag, overthrow the Bourbon Dynasty and strive for our freedom and happiness!”

soldiers were inspired by Napoleon. The troops began to march into Paris. Along the way, many people cheered. The blocking forces sent by the Bourbon Dynasty were mostly Napoleon’s old headquarters, so they were attached one after another. In this way, Napoleon entered Paris without firing a shot on March 12. By this time, his troops had grown to 15000. Louis XVIII saw that the tide was over and hurried out of Paris. On March 19, Napoleon re ascended the throne amid the jubilation of all the people. The heads of state of the anti French Alliance, who were meeting in Vienna, were terrified, immediately stopped arguing, and immediately drew up a provisional declaration, saying that Napoleon was a disruptor and enemy of world peace and that he was “not protected by law”. At the same time, they quickly gathered forces. By March 25, Britain, Russia, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries had formed the seventh anti French Alliance, with 700000 troops. The coalition forces are ready to attack Paris separately: Barclay commands 170000 Russian troops and 250000 Austrian troops to assemble on the Rhine River and advance towards Lorraine and Alsace; Fremont commanded 60000 Austrian Sardinian allied troops, assembled at the French Italian border, ready to march towards France at any time; Marshal Blucher of Prussia led 120000 Prussian troops and 300 cannons to assemble between sarois and Liege; British general Wellington commanded a mixed force composed of Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. About 100000 people and 200 artillery were stationed between Brussels and Mons. In addition, the coalition has a reserve of 300000 people.

coalition forces agreed to start operations around June 20. By the end of the month, there are 180000 troops under the “spkds” flag of Napoleon, and it is hoped that by the end of the month, there will be 500000 troops under the “spkds” flag. However, Napoleon regretted that the veteran who had rich combat experience in the past was no longer willing to play for Napoleon, which was very unfavorable to the French army.

Napoleon carefully analyzed the strong lineup of the coalition forces. He decided to turn passivity into initiative and take attack as defense. He believes that the biggest threat is the Anglo Prussian army of Belgium, so we should concentrate our main forces to deal with it, while the coalition forces of Rhine and Italy only need to send a small number of troops to contain it. At the same time, he also decided to fight for fighters before the coalition forces met, take the lead in defeating the Anglo Prussian coalition forces, and defeat the two veteran generals Wellington and Blucher, so that the other coalition forces could cope with it. The

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plans have been set. Napoleon sent 125000 French troops (including 20000 guards) and 300 artillery on June 12 to quietly move to the Belgian border and station in a dense forest only away from the general army. The battle of

began at 2 p.m. on June 16 after the battle of

. 70000 of the main force of the French army fought with 80000 of the main force of the general army near Linny. Napoleon sent another 50000 troops to contain the British army. He hoped to cut the British and general armies and break them one by one.

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the battle of Waterloo

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was extremely fierce. In addition, the sky was not beautiful, and there was a heavy rain. The sound of guns and thunder roared with each other. It was not until after the thunderstorm in the evening that Blucher found that the French army had occupied linni village and the defense line of the general army had been cut off. Moreover, the French quickly surrounded the general army, and Blucher was also injured. Seeing that the situation was unfavorable, the general army fled in disorder. Napoleon thought that the defeat of the general army had been decided, so he gave the French army a day’s rest, and then ordered field marshal grouchy to pursue the disabled soldiers of the general army. In this way, the great opportunity to annihilate the general army was missed, and the fleeing general army regrouped in waffle, which posed a new threat to the French army.

defeated Napoleon of the general army and led the army to attack the British army. Wellington heard that Blucher was defeated and was afraid of fighting alone, so he quickly retreated to Waterloo. French general Nei was ordered to intercept the British army, but Nei was indecisive and the British army withdrew smoothly. Napoleon was very angry and followed the British army near Waterloo.

at this time, the general army defeated by Napoleon regrouped and divided into two routes, one to reinforce the British army near Waterloo and the other to directly besiege the French right wing.

Wellington led more than 60000 British troops and 156 cannons to set up an array in the south of Waterloo Village. Behind the position is Mount Saint Jean, in front of which is low-lying. On the left are several small villages, swamps and shrubs, on the right are solid ugumon fortress, and in the center of the position is the village of Saint Rae. Wellington, known as the “Iron Duke”, is good at defense and short of attack in tactics. Therefore, before fighting Napoleon, he was more cautious and focused on defense. This correct tactical principle laid the foundation for his final victory.

before the final battle of Waterloo, Napoleon led only 7Million soldiers and 270 cannons, but only a small part of these cannons entered the position because of the heavy rain. Napoleon placed the general reserve behind the center and correctly judged that the weakness of the British army was in the middle, so he decided to feint on the right wing of the British army and focus on attacking the middle.

at 11 a.m. on June 18, the time to decide the historical process came. The French army fired first and shot at the British right-wing ugumon fortress, forming a confrontation. At 1 noon, Napoleon prepared to attack the middle of the British army according to the plan, but the situation changed significantly. Blucher led part of the general army to arrive in time. Napoleon had to draw two cavalry divisions from the reserve to meet Blucher. At the same time, Napoleon quickly ordered field marshal grouchy to reinforce him, and then led his troops to storm the central position of the British army. Wellington resisted tenaciously, and the two sides competed with each other, resulting in heavy casualties. At 6 p.m., Napoleon ordered field marshal ney to conquer the middle of the British army at all costs. Nei deserves the title of “warrior among warriors”. After fighting bravely, he finally completed the task and occupied the village of San Rae. The British army is unable to support and the French army is exhausted. Both sides are anxiously waiting for reinforcements. Whoever reaches the first step will control the historical process. This is an extremely critical historical moment.

this picture shows the tense scene at about 8 p.m. in the battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815.

at dusk, a large group of people finally galloped from a distance. Both sides were praying to the Emperor: it was their own people! Finally, the army approached, and both sides could see very clearly that the Prussian flag was flying high!

suddenly, the morale of the British army was high and the spirit was high. Wellington immediately ordered the troops to make a final counterattack. The Anglo Prussian coalition army was boiling with blood and frantically rushed to the weak French army. “Where’s Napoleon, spkds?” At this moment, he also felt that the general trend was gone, but he was still making the final battle. He immediately ordered the guards to fight and fight hard to resist the attack of the coalition army, but he was powerless. Finally, the whole army was defeated by the enemy. Napoleon escaped from the battlefield by horse and left in a hurry.

evaluate

the battle of Waterloo is the last battle in the Napoleonic War and one of the famous battles in military history. After the battle of Waterloo, the Allied forces soon captured Paris. Napoleon abdicated again and was exiled to St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean. This battle marked Napoleon’s complete failure. It not only ended Napoleon Bonaparte’s military career and political life and changed the historical process of Europe, but also made this large land filled with more than 60000 soldiers’ bones go down in history forever and become an ancient battlefield for generations, The word “Waterloo” has since become synonymous with “failure” and has been handed down and widely used all over the world.