for example, there was traditional Chinese medicine in ancient China. What about contemporary Europe?

(this article is for reference and correction) in the history of medicine, the so-called “European medieval medicine” generally refers to the period from Galen to the rise of human anatomy in the Renaissance. During this period, the basic theories of medicine in early ancient Greece and Rome have long declined and have not really been inherited. In particular, the herbal medicine and pharmaceutics in ancient Greece (and those from ancient Egypt) and the surgical treatment in Roman times have basically failed. Compared with their predecessors, medieval medicine is actually degraded. Scientific theory almost stagnated during this period, so m. neubugrer, a famous medical historian in the 20th century, once commented on this era: “medicine in this period has degenerated to the era of primitive medicine”. Of course, there are many reasons for this situation, including:

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. 1. The invasion of foreigners and the cultural inheritance in Roman times, including medical theory, have problems and are difficult to develop. In particular, the professors of medical works in Roman times are mainly concentrated in the upper class and are not very popular in the lower class.

2. The Confucian school thought that prayer can replace medical means, which has lasted for many years among the people. Therefore, the number of groups engaged in specific medical work is relatively reduced.

3. The current situation is very unstable, various conflicts are common, and there is not enough stable time for the people to rest and recuperate, so as to develop medical work on a large scale..

of course, this problem is not the focus here, and I won’t repeat it..

medieval medicine is theoretically divided into four categories:

one, Byzantine medicine.

Byzantine medicine is a tributary of Greek medicine. Medical schools, hospitals and pharmacies have appeared in Byzantium in the past 300 years from the 5th to the 8th century; Byzantine physicians are mostly compilers of medical encyclopedias.

for example:

oirbasius: his birthplace is the same as Galen, both of which are pregamon. The theory is basically inherited from Galen, an excellent editor. He is a doctor of A. juilen and has edited 72 volumes of medical series.

Aetius: he is the attendant of justeanus and has 16 volumes of TETRA biblion, which describes the symptoms of diphtheria, goiter, hydrophobia, epilepsy and carbuncle, as well as aneurysm ligation.

atrailanus: with clinical medical books, it puts forward food, land transfer, navigation and other treatments for pulmonary tuberculosis, and uses rhubarb for treatment. A. Theophilus: he was the first person to examine urinary sediment by studying the mechanism of urinary production.

in short, Byzantine medicine sorted out the previous medical theories theoretically and developed in specific medicine by compiling encyclopedia. The prototype of the medical system and the basic education system have been established. It also preserved the remaining “Monographs on herbal medicine” in Europe..

II. The distance between scholastic medicine and saleno medicine is saleno, which is southeast of Naples. Salerno was called the “capital of Hippocrates” in the late Middle Ages.

early scholastic medicine focused on the so-called “self-cultivation therapy”, that is, the so-called “psychotherapy”, that is, repentance and prayer in the church shelter, some rituals performed by the clergy, chanting some holy words for you, even holy oil or pouring a few drops of holy water, or painting a G piece of clay..

but monks still have some treatment methods in specific medicine, especially in simple surgical wounds. Of course, people are also doing these things. For example, the famous “doctor beak”, after seeing the sign of “snake around crutch” on the doorplate, knock on the door, and then see a dark bird man – black hat, black clothes, black cloak, plus a long beak mask. This is the standard outfit of medieval European folk doctors, and the “beak” is screened with “cotton, lavender, mint and other spices”.

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are the so-called “treatment methods”. Two medical methods are very popular:

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, “urine diagnosis” and “bloodletting therapy”. “Urine test” in the era of

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is not a concept now. Generally, take a urine bottle, hold it in the sun, observe the color, concentration and smell of urine, dip it in urine at most, and then make a diagnosis according to the theory of “body fluid balance”..

and “bloodletting therapy” are actually based on the theory of “body fluid balance”. All diseases are “fluid imbalance”, so adjusting the “fluid ratio” is handled by bleeding. This kind of bloodletting therapy is not simply to cut the blood vessels, but to decide how much blood to bleed, where to bleed from, and how to bleed – whether to cut the blood vessels with a knife or suck blood with a leech according to the patient’s age, symptoms, season, climate and place.. Of course, the most important thing is that some folk doctors have to be connected with astrology after school. How about today’s star position? Is it appropriate to cut breast blood vessels and bleed..

in fact, doctors in this era still have two moves: vomiting and enema. However, these two moves are relatively special and have been retained for a long time. They have been retained until the end of the middle ages, even after the Renaissance, and even to the mid-17th century..

generally speaking, it is to use the herbal classics left over from early or Roman times to fill the anus with medicine soup for treatment..

emesis is also a medicinal soup that uses early herbal knowledge and a large number of different kinds of spices to make you vomit..

of course