among the Russian leaders, only vice president ruzkoy opposed the “belowe day agreement”. He learned the news on December 9. On the morning of the 9th, rutzkoy came to Gorbachev’s office. He called signing the treaty a crime against the state and suggested the immediate arrest of “three drunks who signed this humiliating treaty to please the United States”. “Gorbachev’s face turned pale after listening to me. We talked in a hurry for a while. When saying goodbye to me, he advised me not to get angry and said to me that everything was not as terrible as I thought, and the situation could be reversed.”

the end of the new ogaliovo process

at the end of November 1991, the new ogaliovo process was in a desperate situation, and no one proposed or discussed any draft of a new alliance treaty. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is the load-bearing structure of the organs of Soviet political power and economic management departments. After the collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, many main pillar institutions of the Soviet Union began to collapse one after another from September and October. In November 1991, Gorbachev’s presidential guard and his famous Kremlin guard were left to direct the activities of the Soviet special forces.

on November 15, Yeltsin signed an order announcing the cessation of financial allocations to Soviet ministries and commissions. The remaining staff of Soviet ministries and commissions can continue to work in their office buildings, but under the supervision of the Russian executive authority. Now the ministries and commissions of the Soviet Union are facing the fate of either automatic dissolution or classification into Russian ministries and commissions. Local taxes are no longer included in the Soviet Treasury, and most of them are appropriated by the Russian Treasury. Russian leaders also tried to control the activities of the Soviet national bank and its subordinate departments. The Russian government also announced that it would carry out radical economic reform and liberalize prices in recent weeks. Obviously, under the unified financial system, this reform will lead to a sharp rise in commodity prices in Russia and other participating republics, but the “White House” is indifferent. There are almost no goods in the shops, and winter is coming. For the people of all nationalities in Russia and the Soviet Union, this winter can be said to be the most difficult winter since the war of the self defense state.

in late November and early December 1991, Gorbachev was still working in the Kremlin. He constantly convened meetings of his aides and advisers, talked on the phone with the leaders of the participating republics and Western countries, and received interviews from foreign guests and journalists. However, the power of the Soviet President can only be limited to a few buildings in the Kremlin. During this period, Gorbachev went to the special archives of the party and the state not far from his office, where the most important and confidential materials of the Political Bureau were stored. Gorbachev ordered that most of the materials in the archives be transported to the general staff by military trucks.

a referendum to determine the future destiny of Ukraine was held on December 1, 1991. On August 24, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine had adopted the decision on declaring Ukraine’s independence, and now the issue was left to all citizens to decide. Gorbachev was well aware of the decisive significance of the Ukrainian referendum. Therefore, on the day of the referendum and the day before, Gorbachev accepted television interviews with a number of Ukrainian media. In the interview, he mentioned his Ukrainian and Russian descent and tried to convince the Ukrainian people to stay in the Soviet Union. These interviews were broadcast on television stations all over the Soviet Union. Gorbachev’s former assistant, grachov, once commented: “Alas, the effect of this speech is far from that of the” letter to all citizens of the Soviet Union “published in Flores.”

the result of the Ukrainian referendum shocked many people and plunged Gorbachev into despair. Among the citizens voting, 90.32%, or 28804071, voted in favour of the decision adopted by the Supreme Soviet of Ukraine to declare Ukraine’s independence. Russia immediately recognized Ukraine’s independence. When Yeltsin met Gorbachev in the Kremlin on December 5, Yeltsin said that the alliance treaty would lose its significance without Ukraine’s accession. Yeltsin also informed Gorbachev that he would hold a meeting with the leaders of Ukraine and Belarus in Minsk from December 7 to 8, but did not explain the agenda of the meeting. Perhaps he did so for fear of obstruction or deliberately. At that time, the final agenda of the meeting had not been set, and no one knew what opinions and suggestions Kravchuk would put forward during the meeting. At that time, the relationship between Yeltsin and Kravchuk was already very tense. Ukraine is worried that Russia will put forward territorial requirements, especially the territorial issue of Krim. The Belarusian leader shushkovic only hopes to discuss the economic problems that will be brought to Belarus by Russia’s lifting of price restrictions, because shushkovic is not the president of the country and his authority is much smaller than Yeltsin and Kravchuk.

belowege forest in viskuli scenic area

the meeting of belowege leaders on December 7-8, 1991 has been described in a lot of literature. All participants described the events in Belarus in these two days. We can see Gorbachev’s attitude from the title of the chapter describing this event in Gorbachev’s memoirs: “treachery” and “the dark days of the Soviet Union and Russia”. In Yeltsin’s memoirs, this chapter is simply called “belowege dense forest”.

in addition to Yeltsin, the Russian delegation to Belarus also included Gennady burbliss, Sergei shahrai, Yegor gedar, Andrei kozilev and Viktor Ilyushin, Yeltsin’s assistant. Belarusian Prime Minister Vyacheslav Kubic and Ukrainian Prime Minister Vladimir fukukin also attended the meeting. All three parties sent reporters to the meeting, but the number was small.

when the leaders took a bath in the sauna, the working group had completed the task of drafting the document. The text of the treaty consists of two pages,The preface reads: “the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine signed the Union Treaty in 1922 and became members of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the ‘Supreme Party’. Here we solemnly declare that the reality of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics as the subject of international law and Geopolitics no longer exists”. Article 1 of the




treaty stipulates: “the supreme contracting party shall form the Commonwealth of Independent States( СНГ, Referred to as’ CIS’). ” Article 2 reads: “from the date of signing the treaty, the norms of a third country, including all norms of the former Soviet Union, shall not be allowed to be applied in the territory of the signatory state.” Article 14 of the treaty also stipulates that “Minsk is the permanent seat of the CIS coordinating body, and all activities of the institutions of the former Soviet Union are prohibited in the territory of the CIS member states.” The signatories of the treaty are: representatives of Belarus shushkovic and Kubic, representatives of Russia Yeltsin and burbliss, and representatives of Ukraine Kravchuk and Fukun.

before leaving viskuli, the participants first informed us president bush of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and then informed Soviet President Gorbachev. This sequence was not planned in advance, because shushkovic called Gorbachev through a special line at that time, but he didn’t get through for a long time, Kozilev contacted the United States through ordinary international long-distance calls. At the beginning, the people in the U.S. presidential office didn’t immediately understand what the other party said. In addition to this most important treaty, the leaders of the three countries also signed two statements on more specific issues. They also reached some oral agreements, including on Gorbachev’s future destiny. The debate on this issue is even longer than the discussion of the CIS national defense outline.