At 20:00 p.m. on August 15, 1939, when the Soviet Union and Germany signed the “non aggression” treaty, the German ambassador to the Soviet Union Schulenberg asked to see the Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov and conveyed his intention to him, saying that the German foreign ministry would go to Moscow for negotiations to solve the tense situation between the Soviet Union and Germany.
At this time, the Soviet Union had noticed Germany’s aggressive intention in Europe and was very anxious to establish an alliance with several other European powers, such as Britain and France, in order to prevent Germany from continuing its expansion and ensure regional peace and stability.
However, Britain and France are hostile to the new socialist countries.
Therefore, the Soviet Union’s several proposals for establishing an alliance have hit a “soft nail”.
Molotov’s predecessor, levinov, has always tried his best to win over and unite with the western countries represented by Britain and France and strive to sign a peace plan to achieve the purpose of anti aggression through collective agreement.
However, western countries despised him, and levinov’s efforts failed.
In a rage, he was removed from his post as foreign minister.
Now, the Germans first extended an “olive branch” to the Soviet Union, which made the new foreign minister Molotov very happy.
When meeting with German representative Schulenburg, Molotov proposed to Schulenburg that a non aggression treaty should be signed between the two countries.
He hoped that Germany could use its influence on Japan to mediate to improve Soviet Japanese relations and eliminate the conflict on the border between the two countries.
He also talked about whether the security of the Baltic States could be jointly guaranteed by the Soviet Union and Germany.
Schulenburg was secretly happy to hear the Soviet proposal, because these ideas were exactly what Hitler wanted.
Hitler believed that only by keeping the Soviet Union out of the incident could he safely and boldly attack Poland without fear of Soviet intervention.
In that case, Britain and France would shudder and the territory of Nazi Germany would expand infinitely.
According to Hitler’s instructions, Schulenberg conveyed Germany’s unconditional acceptance of the Soviet proposal.
He told Molotov: “Germany is ready to conclude a non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union.
Moreover, if the Soviet government has the same wish, the term of the Treaty can be set at 25 years and cannot be repealed before the expiration.
Germany is also ready to shoulder the security guarantee for the Baltic countries together with the Soviet Union.
Germany is also willing to play its own influence to improve and consolidate the relations between the Soviet Union and Japan.
” After receiving Germany’s promise, Molotov took out the reply of the Soviet government to the letter from the foreign minister of Nazi Germany.
From the beginning, the reply traced the hostile behavior of the Nazi government towards the Soviet Union, and said: “until recently, the Soviet government had always believed that the German government was looking for an opportunity to conflict with the Soviet Union, not to mention the fact that the German government used the so-called anti Communist convention to establish and has established an anti Soviet ‘reunification war line’ including some countries.
” Molotov explained: “it was for this reason that the Soviet Union participated in the organization of a united defense front against German aggression.
” Molotov then pointed out: “nevertheless, if the German government now wants to change its past policies and is ready to seriously improve its political relations with the Soviet Union, the Soviet government welcomes it and is ready to revise its policies in this regard in order to seriously improve its relations with Germany.
” The Soviet government believed that such a wish of Germany should be achieved through “serious and practical steps”, rather than taking too big steps as suggested by German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop.
After Hitler received the report, he thought it was a very important signal.
On August 18, he sent an “urgent” telegram signed by foreign minister Ribbentrop to ambassador Schulenburg.
He demanded that “immediately arrange to see Molotov again and tell him that the German Foreign Minister will leave for Moscow immediately and will finally solve the problem comprehensively with the authorization of the head of state”.
Hitler’s remote control of the Soviet German negotiations was burning with anxiety, because Germany’s attack on Poland was imminent.
He needed Moscow’s attitude, because Moscow’s attitude was not only the premise of whether Germany could successfully occupy Poland, but also the problem that must be solved before that.
Hitler and Ribbentrop waited anxiously for Moscow’s decision, but Moscow never gave a positive reply.
On the evening of August 19, Hitler’s eager reply from the Soviet side finally came.
Schulenburg reported that the Soviet Union deliberately delayed and refused to sign the agreement on the comprehensive trade negotiation between the two countries, probably due to political factors.
On the same day, the foreign minister of the Soviet Union received the German ambassador and handed over the draft non aggression treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany drafted by the Soviets to the German side.
He also said that the German Foreign Minister could visit Moscow only one week after the two countries signed a trade agreement.
Hitler was annoyed by the attitude of the Soviets, but in order to make a comprehensive plan, he had to put down his airs and deal with Stalin.
On August 20, he sent a telegram to Stalin, which was immediately handed over by the German ambassador to Moscow to Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov.
The telegram said: I sincerely welcome the signing of the new German Soviet trade agreement as the first step to change German Soviet relations.
Signing a non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union means establishing a long-term German policy for me.
From then on, Germany will resume the political policies that have been beneficial to both our countries over the past few centuries.
I accept the draft non aggression treaty submitted by your foreign minister, but I think it is urgent to clarify the relevant issues as soon as possible.
With regard to the contents of the supplementary protocol that the Soviet Union hopes, I think if a responsible German politician can come to Moscow for negotiations, I am confident that it will be clarified in the shortest time.
Otherwise, the German government cannot understand how the agreement can be clarified and resolved in a short time.
At 21:00 p.m. on August 21, Moscow called and agreed to ribentrov’s visit to the Soviet Union.
On the night of August 23, Stalin received German Foreign Minister Ribbentrop in a cold atmosphere.
They jointly agreed on the text of the agreement.
In order to express friendship to the Soviet Union, Ribbentrop specially added an important text on the formation of friendly relations between Germany and the Soviet Union at the front of the text.
Stalin opposed it.
He said: “it is impossible for the Soviet government to suddenly bring a German Soviet friendship declaration to the masses today, when both sides have been hostile and hateful for so many years.
” Stalin and Hitler knew very well that there would be no real peaceful diplomacy between the two countries.
The reason why they signed a non aggression treaty was that it was only a matter of time.