In early October 1688, numerous slogans, leaflets and promotional materials suddenly appeared in all parts of Britain, even in the countryside.
“Protect Protestantism!” “A parliament that protects our property and freedom!” “Freedom of belief!” “We don’t want Catholicism!” “King James II is a tyrant!” And other slogans can be seen everywhere, mainly condemning the king, demanding freedom of belief and protecting Parliament.
English people have never encountered such a thing.
For a time, people talked and speculated.
At the end of October, King William of the Netherlands led 14000 soldiers and 500 ships to Britain.
He originally planned to dock in the north of Britain.
However, due to the uncertain wind direction of the sea breeze, the fleet was “blown” to the Dover Strait by the sea breeze, which also caught those British nobles waiting in the northern port unprepared.
In early November, William’s fleet finally landed in tol Bay.
The huge welcoming ceremony attracted the onlookers of the British people.
When people inquired, they knew that it was the son-in-law of King James II of England and King William of the Netherlands.
As for why William, the king of the Netherlands, led troops to his father-in-law’s British territory, we must first start with the protector Cromwell.
Cromwell fought all his life on the battlefield and made countless achievements.
He was named the protector of the country.
Cromwell died in early September 1658, and his son Richard Cromwell succeeded as protector.
But Cromwell’s son is nothing like his father.
He is a mediocre and incompetent person.
Seeing that he was so cowardly, those senior officers did not listen to his orders at all, and even secretly competed with each other to become the protector of the country.
A year later, Cromwell’s baby son Richard was forced to resign.
You don’t agree with me and I don’t agree with you.
You fight with me and make the country a mess.
At this time, another force also became active, that is, the royalists.
None of them dared to be so arrogant before Cromwell died, but when Cromwell died, it was all messed up.
The royalists soon settled in London.
In February 1660, as soon as the commander of the British army in Scotland, a member of the royalist party, Munk, entered London, he immediately sent someone to France to negotiate with Charles I’s son Charlie Stuart.
After some communication, in April of this year, Charlie issued a statement in Breda, the Netherlands: pardon those who participated in the revolution.
Guarantee freedom of religious belief.
Recognize the land products changed during the revolution.
The parliament also unanimously passed the bill and publicly declared Charlie Stuart “the most powerful and indisputable king of England, Scotland and Ireland”.
The Stuart dynasty was thus restored.
But what people did not expect was that as soon as Charles II came to power, he immediately turned his face.
He did not pay attention to the Breda declaration at all, and soon carried out a crazy counter attack on the revolution.
He also ordered that those who had participated in the trial of Charles I should be sentenced to heavy punishment for the crime of “regicide”, and those who lived should be executed, and those who died should not be let go.
He cruelly persecuted the revolutionaries of the past.
He even dug Cromwell’s body out of the tomb and hung it on the gallows.
He also cut off his head and hung it in the hall of the trial of Charles I.
The means are abominable.
After the glorious revolution, after the “Glorious Revolution”, Britain established a constitutional monarchy and a two party system in which parliamentary power exceeded the sovereign power, which not only had a significant impact on the future historical development of Britain, but also played a certain reference role in the politics of many European and American countries.
Autocratic monarchy was a very common form of government in Western Europe and other parts of the world in the 17th century.
Countries such as France, Spain, Austria, Denmark, Sweden and Germany in Western Europe have established centralized autocratic monarchy.
These countries were once dominated by the divine power of monarchy.
Before 1688, the ideas of autocratic monarchy and divine power, omnipotent monarchy and unconditional obedience of subjects in Europe were deeply rooted.
However, after 1688, the political ideas sprouted from the British political system gave them a fatal blow.
Charles II was cruel to his enemies and “never forgets to repay his benefactor”.
In that year, he was forced into exile.
During that period, he was sheltered by French King Louis XIV.
Therefore, despite the opposition of the British people, Charles II did not hesitate to offend the public anger to sell Dunkirk taken back by Cromwell from the Spanish to France.
Once an important commercial port like Dunkirk was lost, foreign trade would suffer huge losses, but he still did so.
As a result, Britain lost its only foothold in the European continent.
Charles II died in 1685.
Because he had no children, his brother James II ascended the throne.
I thought it would be better to change the king, but people never thought that their nightmare had just begun.
James II became a Catholic to the point of fanaticism, and he was more reactionary than Charles II.
Charles II only wanted to avenge his father, while James II was wholeheartedly thinking of restoring the rule of Catholicism in Britain, so as to restore the feudal monarchy.
As soon as he came to power, all policy reforms focused on Catholicism.
Not only did he appoint Catholic monks to important state positions, but also released a large number of Catholics.
He continued to hold Catholic Prayer ceremonies in the court and set up a publishing house in Oxford to print and distribute Catholic propaganda materials.
The interests of the bourgeoisie and the new aristocracy have been seriously damaged, but also aroused the opposition of the broad masses of the people.
James II turned a blind eye to the reactionary feelings of the people, still went his own way and vigorously promoted Catholicism.
The people finally couldn’t bear it and launched a movement against James II in 1688.
As long as it was a Catholic service, people refused to participate.
As long as they heard the propaganda about beautifying and praising the king, they immediately walked away.
James II was very angry and ordered the cruel persecution of bishops who did not obey his orders and handed them over to the court for trial.
However, James II underestimated the power of the bourgeois new aristocracy and the broad masses of the people.
With their support, the judge acquitted the bishop persecuted by the king.
This completely angered James II, but.