I appointed my grandson Badu as the commander of the Mongolian army and asked him to conquer the world until the last ocean and where Mongolian horseshoes can step.
Then the plague, hunger and drought will stop and universal peace will come We are the descendants of Genghis Khan.
We throw lightning at all nationalities and places with death When the ancient Mongolian Folk Song King Mikael said to Badu Khan, bow to you, his majesty Badu Khan. No. His Majesty the Czar, it’s God, and he appointed you to become the new master of the world.
“- the chronicle of Novgorod, 1242 entry, the imperial Khan issued an edict:” I heard that the people there were strong and armed in anger, So I sent you to fight them.
I discussed with my brother.
My brother agreed.
Now I send the eldest son of each family there.
The eldest son has great potential to go to war! ” This is the second western expedition of the Mongolian Empire.
From the eighth year to the fourteenth year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1236-1241), the Great Khan of wokuotai sent Batu and other kings to lead their troops to conquer the countries west of the Volga River.
After the end of the Mongolian war against Jin, wokuotai Khan established a solid rule in the Central Plains and Central Asia.
To the west of Yeer’s Shihe River (today’s Erqisi River in Xinjiang) and to the east of Ural River are the conquered areas of Mongolia, which are the territory of the eldest son of Genghis Khan, shuchi.
However, chincha and uluros in the west of Ural River have not been settled yet.
In the seventh year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1235), wokuotai convened huliletai and decided to enlist qincha, uluros and other unsung countries.
Khurusuman, the leader of the qincha Department living between the Volga River and the Ural River, was afraid of the Mongolian army.
He had sent envoys in advance.
The Mongolian army arrived and was ready to surrender.
But Ba Chi man, the leader of the qincha department who lived in the lower reaches of the Volga River, resolutely resisted the war.
At that time, Russia, Poland and Hungary were divided into principalities, which acted independently and did not listen to the orders of the Archduke.
Germany, Italy and Austria were involved in the crusade.
The situation in Europe is favorable for Mongolia’s western expedition.
In the spring of the eighth year of Russia, Genghis Khan’s eldest son Shu Chi’s eldest son Batu, his second son Chagatai’s eldest son baida’er, his third son wokuotai’s eldest son Guiyou, his fourth son Tuolei’s eldest son mengge unified his royal army.
Nayan at all levels below 10000 households also sent his eldest son to join the expedition, with Batu as the commander and no deputy to Taiwan.
A total of 150000 troops set out from all over the country, It reaches the East Bank of the Volga River in autumn.
After the kings agreed, they led their troops forward.
Subutai led the vanguard army to take buliar (now the east of viatka POLYANA, Russia).
In the winter of that year, mengge marched into the qincha department in the lower reaches of the Volga River.
The leader of the Department of oulebulrik, bachiman, haunted the dense forest and attacked the Mongolian army from time to time.
In the spring of the next year, subutai moved south from buria to reinforce mengge.
Eight red pretty smell speed not to Taiwan, great fear, fled into the sea.
Mongo led his army to attack the island of kuantianjisi sea (today’s Caspian Sea), captured Ba Chi man and executed him.
As a result, Hirota Jihai and other parts north of the Outer Caucasus Mountains were shocked.
In the summer and autumn of the ninth year (1237), he recuperated his horse in the east of the Volga River and decided to expropriate Goros (now Kirov Prefecture in northern Europe of Russia and the west of Tatar Autonomous Republic, Ukraine and Belarus).
In December, Batu and other kings led their troops across the Volga River and conquered the cities of lieyezan (a “lieyezan”, now the city of riazan in the southeast Zan state of Moscow) and kolomna (now the city of kolomna in the southeast of Moscow).
In February of the following year, they besieged Vladimir (now northeast of Moscow, Russia), the capital of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir.
Grand Duke kuoerji fled the city and went to the Bank of the Sidi River (now the upper reaches of the Volga River) to wait for the reinforcements of the Principality of Kiev.
The Mongolian army besieged the city for five days and forced the oroth people to take part in the siege.
Batu troops attacked Rostov, Moscow and other more than 10 cities near Vladimir.
In March, Batu sent an army to suddenly attack Dagong military camp on the Bank of Sidi River, completely annihilate his troops, and Dagong died.
The Mongolian army thus advanced to Novgorod, the ancient capital of the Principality of Kiev (now Novgorod city in Novgorod, Novgorod, Russia), to the city for 20 Li, and suddenly changed its way south to march north to the Caucasus.
Mengge and Guiyou suppressed the ASU rebels, took the capital to the east of the Volga River, and recuperated in qincha Caoyuan.
In the past ten years, mengge and Guiyou conquered tiemen pass (now jerbintexi in southern Uzbekistan) and opened the north-south traffic line of the Caucasus.
That autumn, Batu, the commander of the western expedition army, had a fierce dispute with Guiyou, the eldest son of wokuotai Khan.
Mengge stood on Batu’s side and baidaer stood on Guiyou’s side.
The two sides almost fought each other.
After wokuotai Khan learned about it, he ordered Guiyou and mengge to return to the Mongolian grassland in the East, leaving his fifth son Hedan to command the wokuotai Mongolian Legion.
In the 11th year, Batu sent troops across the Don River and returned to the south of dauros to plunder.
The princes of uluros were busy fighting for power and profit and could not unite against the enemy, so that the Mongolian army captured the cities of bereslale and Chernigov.
When attacking the city of Chernigov, the Mongolian army used giant riprap machines.
In the autumn of that year, Batu personally led a large army to qiwa city (today’s Kiev City, Ukraine), and all route armies gathered.
Batu ordered four guns to attack fiercely day and night.
It was only on November 19 that it was conquered (see the battle of CHIVA).
After capturing the city of qiwa, the Mongolian army continued to advance westward to capture the capital city of the Principality of garic, Vladimir Warren (now Vladimir vorensky, Warren state, northwest Ukraine) and other cities in the territory.
Garrich and Danielle fled to Mazar.
Russia was occupied by the Mongolian army.
The establishment of the Mongolian Western Expedition Corps requires general assembly meetings before Mongolian military operations, especially during expeditions.
This is also because summer is not conducive to the war of nomadic cavalry.
Mongolia’s attack has always chosen to continue to winter when grass and horses are fat in autumn.
Winter is the leisure time of nomads, and nomads do not need to use winter to prepare agricultural tools for the coming year or use dry season to repair and excavate river embankments.
After spring, nomadic cavalry will be scattered to spend the summer.
Generally, if there is no special need, Mongolia will not launch war in summer.
Therefore, usually in March and April, thousands of households on the front lines of Mongolia will gather to hold military meetings, decide on military operations to start in autumn, and then disperse back to tribes or fiefs to spend the summer.
At the same time, arrangements will be made for the recruitment of troops, Prepare for the battle in autumn.
This also makes Mongolia always have a perfect military operation plan before each military action, which is planned before action.
When the Mongolian army marches, it is necessary to send a forward in front of the army, and there should be sentry horses in front of the forward, as long asIf it is a small part of more than a few hundred people, we must send sentries and horses around for reconnaissance.
Reconnaissance is divided into two types.
One is armed sentry, which is usually carried out when there are enemy forces around.
Sentry rides up to the high and look far, or plunders the enemy and approaches the enemy’s camp sentry to obtain intelligence.
The other is the sentinel detection of marching in peacetime, which is mainly to find residents.
Once residents or passengers are found, they should be captured and asked about the surrounding terrain, force distribution, fortress, military base, where to supply, etc.
The distribution of such sentinels during marching can sometimes be as far as 200 kilometers in front of the army.
Once information is found, it shall be reported to the commander of the unified army according to the importance of the information.
Therefore, the Mongolian army has almost never been ambushed.
Behind the army is the old and young battalion called oru.
The oru battalion system is a system different from others in the Mongolian army.
As we all know, Mongolia plundered a large number of people into slavery.
When the Master goes to war, the slave needs to go to war with the army and serve as labor.
Sometimes he is also killed as a Death Squadron.
If he can fight bravely and live through the Death Squadron several times, he can be freely incorporated into the nationality.
In addition, Mongolian soldiers can carry their wives and children, called military dependents, when they go to war.
These women and children are responsible for logistical supplies at ordinary times and can also go to the battle in case of special emergency.
There are two kinds of oru, one is to follow the army and the other is to stay behind for grazing.
For example, Genghis Khan often took concubine Hulan to the war, while the great concubine bo’ertie often stayed in the rear.
However, after the establishment of the capital Helin, the left behind Legion was meaningless, because under the situation at that time, the Mongolian grassland had been unified, and it was impossible for the rear tent to be raided.
With the expansion of the Mongolian Empire, the Mongolian princes were gradually divided into all parts of the Empire, farther and farther away from the Nen River, and their respective left olu would inevitably go to all parts with the army, Therefore, staying behind olu eventually became following olu.