In the first World War, Britain was the victor, gained the greatest interests at the “Paris Peace Conference” and controlled the international alliance with France.
However, the situation in the UK is not optimistic.
The era between the two world wars can be said to be the transitional stage of Britain’s transformation from the 19th century economy with outdated technology to a modern economy based on the cultivation of new technology.
As this is a profound change, the British economy shows ups and downs, mainly manifested in frequent worker strikes.
Britain’s post-war recovery is facing the country’s worst industrial dilemma in its history.
On April 15, 1921, British industry was paralyzed.
On October 19, 1922, Prime Minister Lloyd George announced his government’s resignation and recommended Andrew Bona law to form a new government.
After the first World War, the Liberal Party, weakened by the growing strength of the labor party, relied on the joint governance of the conservative party.
Many conservatives became less and less interested in such cooperation with the Liberal Party, culminating in Newport’s by election.
The coalition candidate, who was expected to win easily, was unexpectedly defeated by the conservative candidate.
The Conservatives immediately opposed the coalition government, weakened George’s foundation and forced him to resign.
In addition, there are other problems bothering Lloyd George.
In 1921, his treaty with Ireland made some conservatives feel betrayed.
Many critics also accuse him of recklessly handling a foreign affairs, which may lead to a new war with Turkey.
On December 6, 1923, Britain held a general election.
Due to the difficulties of domestic and foreign policies and the long-term economic depression, the ruling Conservative Party has greatly reduced its seats in the house, and the Labor Party has greatly increased its seats, becoming the second largest party.
However, the Conservative Party and the Liberal Party have serious contradictions and cannot reach a consensus on the formation of a cabinet.
In January 1924, the first Labour government in British history was formed with the support of the Liberal Party.
James Ramsey McDonald served as prime minister and foreign secretary.
MacDonald’s government implemented some progressive measures, such as formulating a national housing construction plan for workers, increasing subsidies for the unemployed, reducing the consumption tax on food such as tea and sugar, and officially recognizing the Soviet Union in diplomacy.
However, the promises made by the Labour Party to the workers and the people during the election campaign were far from being fulfilled, such as the failure to nationalize coal mines and railways, the failure to levy property taxes and increase loans to business owners, and the realization of the same aggressive and repressive policy as the conservative government on the colonial issue.
On January 29, 1924, the London workers’ delegation, on behalf of 1.
5 million London workers, petitioned the newly ruling British Labour MacDonald government against the British government’s policy of non recognition of the Soviet Union and announced that it would hold a strike to protest.
Under the pressure of the working class and the people, the MacDonald government officially recognized the Soviet government as a legitimate government on February 2 of the same year.
On February 27, the Soviet Union and Britain officially established diplomatic relations.
As the Labour government obeyed the orders of the bourgeoisie, it soon aroused the dissatisfaction of the working people, and workers’ strikes occurred frequently.
The Labour government is hostile to and suppresses workers’ strikes, and even declares a state of emergency across the country, thus undermining its prestige.
McDonald announced the dissolution of Congress and held a new general election in early October.
On November 4, McDonald resigned and the first labor government ended.
In June 1926, the British Conservative government opposed the signing of the friendly neutrality treaty between the Soviet Union and Germany, and carried out anti Soviet activities on this grounds.
In June 1927, the Soviet Union and Britain broke off diplomatic relations.
In the summer of 1929, the British MacDonald labor government came to power again and began negotiations on the resumption of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
In October, the Soviet and British governments officially resumed diplomatic relations.
This shows that the Soviet Union began to play an increasingly important role in international affairs.
In the general election in October, the Conservative Party Stanley Baldwin came to power again and appointed new cabinet members of the Labour government on November 6.
The new cabinet is expected to end the riots caused by the strike that paralyzed everything for three years.
Among the members of the new cabinet are the Chamberlain brothers: the former Minister of state for Indian Affairs, sir Austin Chamberlain, is the foreign minister.
His brother Neville Chamberlain was Minister of health.
Prime Minister Baldwin appointed Winston, who had changed from conservative to liberal and conservative in 1904, as chancellor of the exchequer.
In the summer of 1925, with the support of Stanley Baldwin’s conservative government, British miners held a general strike on July 31, 1925.
As the Baldwin government and management were not ready to deal with it, they were forced to make concessions.
The working class calls Friday, July 31 “red Friday”.
However, the concessions of the bourgeoisie are premeditated.
The government stepped up the struggle with the left-wing leaders of the Communist Party and the labor union, and used the opportunity of the left-wing leaders and the police to temporarily ease the life necessities of the Communist Party.
The government has also established a “coal industry investigation committee”.
On March 10, 1926, the “investigation committee” released a report, agreeing that the mine owner reduced the miners’ wages by 10% and extended the working day by one hour.
In mid April 1926, when the nine month wage subsidy was about to expire, the mine owners renewed their unreasonable request to reduce workers’ wages by 10% and extend the working day by one hour, announced that the coal mine would be closed from May 1, implemented the so-called alliance closure, and no longer signed a national group contract with the miners.
This caused great dissatisfaction among the miners.
The Communist Party actively led the workers’ struggle and put forward the slogan of “no less salary and no more working hours”.
However, the Supreme Committee of the workers’ Congress is still committed to protracted negotiations with the management.
Since a large number of miners were dismissed after May 1, they were forced to announce a general strike from May 3, paralyzing the economic life of the whole country.
The workers automatically organized pickets and established action committees and strike committees to lead the struggle.
The government and the monopoly bourgeoisie have been dealt a heavy blow, and the strike has been actively supported by international proletarian organizations.
Workers and workers in the Soviet Union, China, the United States and Western Europe have raised donations to support British workers.
However, as the leader of the general strike, there are serious differences between the Labor Party and the Communists.
The labor right wingers who control the leadership of the General Council of trade unions negotiate secretly with the government and business owners behind their backs.
On May 11, 1926, the government Supreme Court ruled that the strike was “illegal”.
The General Council of trade unions surrendered to the ruling,.