The space center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA was filled with a busy and warm atmosphere on the morning of January 28, 1986. The space shuttle Challenger stands on the towering launch pad, waiting for its upcoming 10th space trip. The giant has been in service since April 9, 1983. During its first voyage, it completed two important tasks: launching a 2.5-ton tracking and data relay satellite and astronauts’ first spacewalk. In its second flight, Sally Ryder, the first female astronaut in American history, was sent into space. In its third flight, it sent lieutenant colonel lufford, the first black astronaut in the United States, into space. On its seventh flight, it sent the first Chinese scientist Wang ganjun into space and put him in charge of the study of hydrodynamics in weightlessness. The launch of

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attracted more than 10000 enthusiastic viewers to the scene, and hundreds of millions of viewers around the world watched in front of the TV. They were all waiting to witness this historic scene.

“the history of the disaster

” Challenger “the space shuttle

” Challenger “is the second space shuttle developed by the United States. It is 15 stories tall and costs $1.5 billion. Compared with the first space shuttle” Columbia “, it has made some improvements in structure, materials and equipment, The weight is even lighter by 4.5 tons.

“Challenger” crew photo

on January 28, 1986, Challenger will carry out its 10th space trip. In previous flights, it also encountered some problems, but each time it successfully completed the mission and sent 54 people into space. However, the flight seemed to have been very difficult from the beginning. The challenger’s launch was originally scheduled for January 22, but due to the bad weather in recent days and the hidden dangers found in some mechanical parts, the launch date was postponed to 9 a.m. on January 26, but the weather was not beautiful and postponed to 27. On the day of

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, seven astronauts had already entered the orbiter as required, waiting for an order to go straight to space. Friendly envoys and tourists from many countries have also gathered at the launch site long ago, waiting to see the spectacular take-off of the space shuttle. However, just one hour before the launch, a micro switch failed and could not be repaired for a while. Therefore, the launch time was postponed to January 28.

on January 28, people finally ushered in the rare sunny weather. The blue sky was cloudless, but the temperature fell below zero degrees Celsius. The cold wind beat everything, and even a thin layer of ice formed on the launch pad. Although some engineers who had participated in the manufacture of solid rocket boosters strongly suggested that it was not suitable for launch under such low temperature conditions, the person in charge at that time firmly denied his opinion and stubbornly chose to launch. The space shuttle

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and “Challenger” soared into the air. Seven crew members in orange spacesuits appeared. They were valiant and valiant, smiled confidently and waved to the audience. Among them, the most striking is a female astronaut. She is the first “ordinary citizen” in the United States to participate in space flight – Christa McAuliffe, a sociology teacher at Concord middle school in New Hampshire. In 1985, she was selected from 11000 candidates to take off on the “Challenger”, and plans to teach two space classes to 2.5 million middle school students in many cities in the United States. In order to meet the conditions of being a qualified astronaut, she had 120 hours of intense training. On the morning of the 28th, 1200 teachers and students in the school happily dressed in holiday costumes crowded in front of the TV in the classroom and auditorium early, anxiously waiting for their teachers to successfully enter space and give them lectures.

according to the original plan, the “Challenger” will be launched at 9:38 a.m., but the launch time has been delayed again and again due to strong air currents at high altitude and other reasons. It wasn’t until 11:30 that everything was ready. The command desk began to give instructions: “60, 59, 58… 3, 2, 1, launch!” At the command, the Challenger rose slowly, the tail began to send out a long fire beam, and thick smoke rose around. At the initial stage of the launch, the “Challenger” was just like the previous launch. Everything was normal and went straight to the sky like a giant dragon…

the sky Big Bang

11:38 am 7 seconds, and the “Challenger” broke away from the launch pad; In 38 minutes and 9 seconds, the Challenger slowly turned 90 degrees according to the normal procedure; 38 minutes and 35 seconds, according to the normal procedure, the main engine of the “Challenger” orbiter began to slow down to 65% of their total power, and everything was normal. The stands of

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were filled with jubilation. In the classrooms and auditorium of Concord middle school, teachers and students gathered in front of the TV cheered. They blew trumpets and drums. It seemed that they had felt that before long, they could hear the voice of Mr. McAuliffe from space.

at 11:39:6 a.m., the ground command console issued a command: “accelerate!” 39 minutes and 12 seconds, the commander of the Challenger replied, “understand, accelerate!” By this time, the Challenger had reached a speed of 3165 kilometers per hour and 16 kilometers from the ground.

“Challenger” exploded

however, at this moment, a shocking scene happened. A small orange fireball flashed at the lower right of the fuel tank outside the challenger. Then on the other side of it, a large fireball appeared near the chest of the orbiter challenger. On the challengerAfter 73 seconds, a violent explosion occurred. A big red fireball and milky white smoke immediately swallowed the whole challenger. In an instant, the huge space shuttle fuselage turned into thousands of burning debris and scattered on the vast sea surface of the Atlantic Ocean 29 kilometers southeast of Kennedy Space Center.

the audience watching the scene and the hundreds of millions of viewers in front of the TV were stunned for a moment, and the announcer immediately stopped broadcasting, speechless with amazement; In the auditorium of Concord middle school, the smiling faces of teachers and students suddenly disappeared, one by one. After the silence, the cries of grief rose for a while. A teacher turned off the TV and couldn’t bear to watch it any more. The vicious accident shocked the whole world and killed seven astronauts, which wrote the most tragic page in the history of aerospace. The whole country was shocked, and almost all activities were suspended, waiting for a detailed report on the disaster.

accident analysis after the

“Challenger” crash, NASA immediately established an investigation agency, and President Reagan also announced the establishment of a presidential commission to investigate and deal with the accident. Subsequently, the work of salvaging and searching for the wreckage and debris of the “Challenger” was carried out in an all-round way, and the scope of the search continued to expand. The scope of the search on the surface and seabed of the Atlantic Ocean was expanded to 30000 square kilometers, and the scope of the search on the coast and land spanned three states, covering tens of thousands of kilometers. More than 30 ships, submarines and more than 50 aircraft shuttle back and forth using highly sensitive sonar, underwater cameras and other equipment. Each piece of wreckage found will provide strong physical evidence for the investigation.

“the wreckage of the space shuttle Challenger

the wreath of the National Memorial Day

June 9, 1986, The presidential commission of inquiry headed by former Secretary of state Rogers officially released its findings: the direct cause of the disaster was the failure of the sealing device of the solid rocket booster on the right side of the space shuttle, the leakage of gas and the explosion of the propellant tank after spitting out flames. In addition, the low temperature during launch, the loss of elasticity and sealing effect of synthetic rubber sealing ring are also important factors leading to this disaster. The

report severely criticized NASA’s serious dereliction of duty in management. Due to serious problems in the process of making the launch decision, the most serious accident recorded in the annals of aerospace history “could have been avoided” finally occurred. In fact, the problem of booster rocket design was discovered as early as the beginning of 1978, but it has never attracted the attention of NASA officials. Many previous launches of the space shuttle have been carried out without solving this serious technical defect. On July 29, 1985, during the eighth flight of the “Challenger”, shortly after the space shuttle took off, one of the three main engines suddenly stalled and shut down after starting for 5 minutes and 48 seconds due to the failure of the thermal sensor. At that time, thanks to the astronauts’ timely start of another standby engine on the fuselage, the space shuttle was able to enter earth orbit, but its height from the ground was more than 100 kilometers lower than the original plan. The final recommendations of the report are to redesign the solid fuel booster, change the management structure of NASA, strengthen the centralized leadership of each flight center, and set up a special safety organization within NASA to supervise the space shuttle program. The crash of the

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and “Challenger” has aroused strong repercussions in society. US President Reagan announced that the day was a day of mourning and commemoration. At the same time, the United States has been forced to postpone or cancel its space research plan, which has also brought many disasters to the United States. However, this has not shaken people’s determination and confidence in exploring space. President Reagan announced on the day of the Challenger crash: “we will continue to explore space, have more space shuttles and more space pilots!” On September 29, 1988, after more than two years of silence, the US space shuttle Discovery flew into space again to continue to complete the unfinished business of the challenger.

when human beings first came up with the idea of exploring space can not be verified, but effective space activities are only in recent decades. During this period of time, although various problems have been encountered, and some astronauts have sacrificed their precious lives, the aerospace industry has indeed made great achievements. It has greatly expanded mankind’s horizons, enriched mankind’s treasure house of knowledge, and even is constantly changing the face of modern civilized society. Facing the inexhaustible universe, mankind will continue to learn lessons, absorb energy and move forward in the future.

Encyclopedia

as the highest intelligent creature living on the earth, human beings are full of curiosity about everything around them. After visiting almost every corner of the earth, people began to turn their eyes to space, so the human conquest of the universe began:

on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union announced that it had successfully put the world’s first man-made satellite orbiting the earth into orbit. The satellite weighs 83kg and the diameter of the sphere is 55cm. It takes only 1 hour and 35 minutes to orbit the earth, and the maximum height from the ground is 900km.

on April 12, 1961, the world’s first manned spacecraft “dongfang-1” flew into space, beginning the era of manned spaceflight. Soviet astronaut Gagarin returned to the ground safely after flying around the earth for 108 minutes, becoming the first person to fly in space in the world.

on March 18, 1965, Soviet astronaut onov became the first person to walk in space in human history.

on April 19, 1971, the Soviet Union launched the first space station – “salute” 1.

in July 1975, the Soviet Union’s “alliance” 19 spacecraft and the American “Apollo” 18 spacecraft successfully docked in space.

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