Section IV Byzantine art when the Western Roman Empire was divided by Germanic tribes, the Eastern Roman Empire led by Byzantine still ruled the vast territory of Eastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa.
At this time, slavery disappeared in Western Europe, and the Eastern Roman Empire was able to maintain its economic stability because of the slave farming system, and played an important role in the political development of this region.
It combines the three civilizations of Europe, Asia and Africa, creates a unique culture and has a far-reaching impact on Eastern Europe, Russia and Greece.
Christianity did not surpass the secular regime in the Byzantine Empire.
The church’s control over culture was far less than the authority of the emperor.
The emperor was also a religious leader and integrated politics and religion.
In order to distinguish from Roman Catholicism, Christianity in the Byzantine Empire is called “Eastern Orthodox Church”.
From 787 to 813 ad, under the influence of Islam, Byzantine emperors launched an “idol destruction movement”, replacing the holy image with trees, bird patterns and undecorated crosses.
Byzantine art, centered on Byzantium, the capital of the Roman Empire in the East, is popular in Asia Minor, Greece, Yugoslavia, the Balkans, Russia and parts of Italy.
It began in the 4th century when Constantine the great changed the name of Byzantium to Constantinople, began to flourish in the era of theodonius II (401-450 A.D.) and reached a climax when Justinian the great (483-565 A.D.). After the pause of the idol destruction movement (AD 726-843), the Macedonian Dynasty (AD 867-1056) to the komunin Dynasty (AD 1081-1185), which began in Basel I, was revived.
The basic characteristics of Byzantine art are brilliance, abstraction, the full use of light and color, the plane modeling technique of two-dimensional space, the sense of rhythm between characters and background, and so on.
It is manifested in architecture, mosaic murals and icon art.
Church architecture around 330 ad, the earliest Eastern Roman churches almost adopted the early Christian basilica structure.
Since the 5th century, a series of pure Byzantine cathedrals have been built in Byzantium.
The typical representative is the St.
Sophia Cathedral built in 532-538.
Its designers are said to be Antilles and Aesop Doros of Asia Minor.
It is mainly composed of walls made of brick and concrete, and gradually rises to the solemn dome, which is 33 meters in diameter and supported by four pillars and four large circular arches.
The side ambulatory is concentrated to the center, which naturally leads to the huge dome shaped dome.
There is a circle of light windows under the dome.
From here, the sun enters the interior of the church and shines brilliantly on the mosaic paintings of marble columns and walls.
Looking up, through the fog of light, the blue dome glitters with the brilliance of patterns, creating an illusory and mysterious realm, which brilliantly reflects the spiritual inspiration force required by religious architecture.
As Karl moss, the Archbishop of Constantinople, said, “the church is the kingdom of heaven on earth, where the throne lives and moves.”. After the Turks occupied Constantinople, the church was changed into an Islamic mosque, with four high minarets outside and Arabic patterns and text decoration inside.
The Church of St.
Vitali, built by Justinian the great in Ravenna during the western expedition, is also a dome structure, but the exterior is octagonal.
Its mosaic murals Justinian and his entourage and Empress Theodora and female officials far exceed its architectural achievements.
Mosaic mural mosaic in Byzantine art has written a glorious page in the history of art with its unique style.
This artistic method, which originated in ancient Mesopotamia and flourished in the Roman Empire, attracted the interest of Byzantine artists with its brilliant colors, and left its masterpieces in almost all important Byzantine buildings.
Those who can be called “Masterpieces of masterpieces” are Justinian and his entourage and queen Theodora and the magistrates of St.
Vitali’s Church in Ravenna.
This is a memorial left by Justinian, the emperor of Eastern Rome (reigned in 527-565 AD), during the western expedition to Italy.
These two 7-meter-long murals occupy the East and west sides of the main hall of the church.
Byzantine artists abandoned the classical technique of Roman painting and treated the picture with plane decoration.
Both paintings have beautiful frames, like two beautiful tapestries, following the principle of “equal height law”.
Two rows of characters stand vertically, like two continuous patterns.
This composition makes the picture produce a static effect.
The characters lack personality description, stiff posture and dull expression.
It all depends on the clever cooperation of color and the flashing of materials to form a beautiful rhythm and vivid appeal.
The new aporinal church, built almost at the same time, has a long procession of apostles on the upper eaves of the corridors on both sides, with the same style and larger scale.
For nearly 100 years in the 8th century, there was an idol destruction movement in the Byzantine Empire.
Emperor Leo III (717-741 AD) announced that the image of human beings was not allowed to represent God and the Holy One.
This practice was opposed by the Pope and had little impact in Western Europe.
Leo III’s son continued to carry out idol destruction and banned all holy images.
Until the era of teoros (reigned in 829-842 AD), the ban had not been lifted.
After teoros died, his concubine teona fought tirelessly for the revival of the holy image, and finally passed the resolution to abolish the idol destruction order at the religious conference in 843.
The day on which the Orthodox Church has passed the resolution – March 1 – will be celebrated as the “memorial day of the Orthodox Church”.
The first advocate of Christian art after the end of the iconoclast movement was Basel I.
the Macedonian Dynasty started by him continued until the 11th century, known as the “Macedonian Renaissance”.
However, the art of this period did not imitate the classical style of Greece and Rome, but more concerned with the style and pagan art before the destruction of the holy image.
For example, the mosaic of the apostles in the coymisis Church in Nicaea is just a remake of the picture before the destruction of the holy image.
The famous fine paintings such as Joseph’s scroll and the Psalms of Paris are more vibrant than before.
In addition, there are inlaid murals in Daphne monastery, which are also more natural and vivid.
In contrast, it is a rigorous and concise decorative style, mainly the pattern mosaic murals in the monastery of hesios lugas in Greece and the monastery of NIA Moni on the island of Jos.
To the baleolo Dynasty (1261-1453), in artThe narrative of gradually overwhelms the decorative.
For example, the mosaics of Kari ikami Church in Istanbul and St.
Nicholas Church in tesanic have entered a new aesthetic field inconsistent with the Byzantine spirit, which has been fully carried forward in later Western European art.
That is, the narrative tone in late Gothic and Renaissance art.
As the Nicaea religious conference pointed out in 787, “religion has supreme jurisdiction over art”.
“The painter’s responsibility is limited to skill, and the content should be decided by the theologian.
” This is the consistent principle of implementing the whole medieval art.
There are many frescoes existing in the church at the same time as the mosaic murals.
Its content and style are very similar to the mosaic painting, but its color is far inferior to the mosaic painting.
It is impossible to use a large area of gloss color, but it can use the method of halo dyeing to set off a strong three-dimensional feeling and intensity change.
Icon is a kind of tempera painted on wood, which is popular in Russia and Eastern European countries.
It also evolved from ancient Greek portraits and manuscript illustrations since the 9th century after denying the idol destruction movement.
Iconography is generally small in size and is often placed in public places, churches and families.
You can also hold it to participate in religious processions.
Its tall and straight lines, deformed contours, purple and green colors and simple and symmetrical composition are highly praised by modern painters.
It has become an art treasure searched by European and American tourists in Russia and Eastern Europe.
However, there are few original works before the 11th century.
Even in the 12th century, there are only a few works such as the virgin of Vladimir in Constantinople.
The remarkable feature of the virgin of Vladimir is that it has got rid of the majestic and rigid face of the virgin in the murals of the same period, and brought a little maternal kindness and tenderness.
Since the baleolo Dynasty, icon painting has further developed, and the images have become more and more complex.
Some were painted on the partition between the main church and the side porch, which further promoted the popularity of iconography.
It was not until the 14th and 15th centuries that the painting schools of lubliaov, Dionysius and Stroganov flourished in Russia that they gradually declined.
Sculpture and arts and crafts Byzantine sculpture was most affected by the iconoclastic destruction movement, and the works before the 9th century almost disappeared.
The rest are decorative sculptures with plant and Animal Themes.
The technique is almost all bas relief, and the effect is quite close to painting.
The only exception is a head portrait hidden in the Milan Art Museum.
It may be the carved queen Theodora.
The subtle expression obviously comes from the real face, with big eyes and a little melancholy.
In addition, the relief of the 6th century sarcophagus in St.
Vitali’s church, the worship of Machi, is also a masterpiece.
The various characters on it have been significantly separated from the background and naturally distributed on the side panels.
Arts and crafts, including ivory carving, fine gold and silver work, wood carving, weaving and embroidery and fine painting, are also remarkable for the achievements of Byzantine craftsmen.
After the 4th century, Byzantium was a handicraft center in the Mediterranean, and its skills have been guiding the surrounding areas.
Its golden age was from the 9th to the 10th century.
The ivory plate of the second company of stinico in Monza cathedral is a famous masterpiece at that time.
Compared with the ivory plate of the second company of St.
Gregory (Carolingian Dynasty) in this church, the latter is purely interesting in terms of patterns, while the former focuses on the images of the virgin and the apostles, with realistic faces, hands, feet and clothing patterns, The skill of relief is very good.