says

the attitude of Americans towards Chinese immigrants is harsh, sometimes even rough. The Chinese are neither white nor Christian. At that time, both of them were indispensable, and either one was enough to constitute a fatal weakness. Chinese follow customs that are completely strange to Americans. Both culturally and physiologically, they are regarded as a race that cannot be assimilated.

in the Chinatown of San Francisco in the early 20th century (data picture)

in 1785, the sailboat Palas (Palas is a synonym for Athena, the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom) driven by Irish captain John O’Donnell arrived in Baltimore, Maryland. Three Chinese sailors were attracted by the richness of the new world, Decided to stay here. Since then, it has opened the prelude to the magnificent history of immigration.

,

,

,

200 years have passed. Li Zhengdao and Yang Zhenning won the prize in 1957, I.M. Pei won the Pritzker Prize in 1983, Yang Zhiyuan founded Yahoo in 1995, Zhao Xiaolan became the first Chinese American Government Secretary in 2001, Guan Yingshan became the world’s best female single skater in 2005, and Lin Shuhao made the United States crazy in 2012. Over the past 200 years, more than 3 million Chinese have immigrated to the United States. On June 18, 2012, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed an apology for the Chinese Exclusion Act.

despite all kinds of strong winds and waves, Chinese have become an indispensable part of American society. For more than 200 years, in order to better material and spiritual life, millions of men and women with yellow skin and black eyes, together with Irish, Italian, German, Jewish, Japanese and Vietnamese, have written the past, present and future of the American nation.

go to Jinshan!

viewers who have seen the first part of the Hong Kong film “Huang Feihong” series should be deeply impressed by the Chinese gold rush to the United States described in the film. 1848 James? Marshall discovered gold in California and started the first wave of Chinese immigrants to the United States. At that time, 300000 people flocked to California, hoping to realize their golden dream. At the same time, because of the Opium War and the war in the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a large number of Chinese people wanted to find a way out.

,

,

,

and “golden dream” spread from Hong Kong to the mainland through businessmen, sailors, swindlers and missionaries. Hundreds of landless farmers go to their dream land through various legal and illegal ways. So “Jinshan” also became the earliest Chinese name of San Francisco. It was not until the discovery of gold mine in Melbourne, Australia that “Jinshan” became “San Francisco”.

is precisely because of this. Most of the early Chinese workers who went to the United States came from the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, of which 60% came from Taishan (Xinning before 1914), and the vast majority of the remaining 40% also came from areas around Taishan, such as Xinhui, Kaiping, Enping, Nanhai, Panyu, Shunde, Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Bao’an and Hong Kong. Until 1965, there was still a saying of “American Chinese half Taishan”, and Taishan dialect became the common language of American Chinese society.

Chinese in California soon proved that they were excellent gold miners. When they were in their hometown in Guangdong, they were familiar with trenching, damming, pumping and other work, which is the basic work of rice planting. When they came to the United States for gold, they applied this experience of water control in their hometown to the gold rush. It is said that even the gold “stuffed between the teeth of insects” can not be found after they have washed the mining area. Of course, this advantage will undoubtedly increase the hostility of local people to Chinese.

interestingly, as gold miners, Chinese often fought with Indians. There was a deep contradiction between the two from the beginning. The Indians could not resist the supremacy of the white people, but when they saw the Chinese, they felt that the Chinese people were peaceful and deceptive. Therefore, some small-scale conflicts often broke out between the two. During the conflict, the Chinese held wooden swords, while the Indians held spears, and the two sides lined up to meet. When the two sides start fighting, the news will spread immediately. This kind of thing is often regarded as a kind of holiday entertainment and attracts many people. The authorities do not want to interfere and often stand idly by.

extended reading:

the Chinatown of San Francisco in the early 20th century (data picture)

in 1785, the sailboat Pallas (Pallas is a synonym for Athena, the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom) piloted by Captain John O’Donnell of Ireland arrived in Baltimore, Maryland, Three Chinese sailors were attracted by the richness of the new world and decided to stay here. Since then, it has opened the prelude to the magnificent history of immigration.

,

,

,

200 years have passed. Li Zhengdao and Yang Zhenning won the Nobel Prize in 1957, I.M. Pei won the Pritzker Prize in 1983, Yang Zhiyuan founded Yahoo in 1995, Zhao Xiaolan became the first Chinese American Government Secretary in 2001, Guan Yingshan became the world’s best female single skater in 2005, and Lin Shuhao made the United States crazy in 2012. Over the past 200 years, more than 3 million Chinese have immigrated to the United States. On June 18, 2012, the U.S. House of Representatives unanimously passed an apology for the Chinese Exclusion Act.

despite all kinds of strong winds and waves, Chinese have become an indispensable part of American society. For more than 200 years, in order to better material and spiritual life, millions of men and women with yellow skin and black eyes, together with Irish, Italian, German, Jewish, Japanese and Vietnamese, have written the past, present and future of the American nation.

go to Jinshan!

viewers who have seen the first part of the Hong Kong film “Huang Feihong” series should be deeply impressed by the Chinese gold rush to the United States described in the film. 1848 James? Marshall discovered gold in California and started the first wave of Chinese immigrants to the United States. At that time, 300000 people flocked to California, hoping to realize their golden dream. At the same time,Because of the Opium War and the war in the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, a large number of people in dire straits hope to find a way out.

,

,

,

and “golden dream” spread from Hong Kong to the mainland through businessmen, sailors, swindlers and missionaries. Hundreds of landless farmers go to their dream land through various legal and illegal ways. So “Jinshan” also became the earliest Chinese name of San Francisco. It was not until the discovery of gold mine in Melbourne, Australia that “Jinshan” became “San Francisco”.

is precisely because of this. Most of the early Chinese workers who went to the United States came from the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, of which 60% came from Taishan (Xinning before 1914), and the vast majority of the remaining 40% also came from areas around Taishan, such as Xinhui, Kaiping, Enping, Nanhai, Panyu, Shunde, Guangzhou, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Bao’an and Hong Kong. Until 1965, there was still a saying of “American Chinese half Taishan”, and Taishan dialect became the common language of American Chinese society.

Chinese in California soon proved that they were excellent gold miners. When they were in their hometown in Guangdong, they were familiar with trenching, damming, pumping and other work, which is the basic work of rice planting. When they came to the United States for gold, they applied this experience of water control in their hometown to the gold rush. It is said that even the gold “stuffed between the teeth of insects” can not be found after they have washed the mining area. Of course, this advantage will undoubtedly increase the hostility of local people to Chinese.

interestingly, as gold miners, Chinese often fought with Indians. There was a deep contradiction between the two from the beginning. The Indians could not resist the supremacy of the white people, but when they saw the Chinese, they felt that the Chinese people were peaceful and deceptive. Therefore, some small-scale conflicts often broke out between the two. During the conflict, the Chinese held wooden swords, while the Indians held spears, and the two sides lined up to meet. When the two sides start fighting, the news will spread immediately. This kind of thing is often regarded as a kind of holiday entertainment and attracts many people. The authorities do not want to interfere and often stand idly by.

“one sentence history”

“after the gold rush, other large-scale construction in California and the construction of the central Pacific Railway in 1865 also required the introduction of a large number of labor from China. Many Chinese workers put down their jobs in the gold mine, met with their new compatriots from their hometown, and invested in the project of connecting the East and west sides of the United States.

in 1868, the United States and the Qing government signed the Treaty on the renewal of the Sino US Treaty of Tianjin (the Treaty of puanchon). The fifth article stipulates that Chinese who wish to live in the United States or naturalize must listen to their freedom and shall not be prohibited. This has opened a convenient door for the United States to attract a large number of Chinese workers to China.

in 1851, there were 25000 Chinese in California. In 1870, the number of Chinese in the United States increased to 63000, all on the west coast. In 1880, 6000 people arrived in the United States, which doubled in 1881 and quadrupled in 1882.

in the general impression, Chinese workers are very miserable. There is no problem with this. It is common to die on long routes and abuse. We must also face the oppression and blackmail of various unscrupulous businessmen, bullies and compradors. However, it is also true that Chinese workers can earn higher income when they work in the United States.

according to Chao Longqi’s book “history of Chinese Americans”, the wages of Chinese miners and railway builders in the early United States were compared with the income of ordinary farmers in China: in the early stage, each Chinese worker’s monthly salary was about $30. After deducting basic living expenses and other expenses, he could still save $80-100 a year. At that time, the annual income of domestic farmers was generally between $8 and $10. The income of Chinese in the two places is at least 10 times different. Because the domestic labor income is very low, and the cost of immigration to the United States is expensive – the cost of travel, interest and immigration documents is about $200, which is equal to the income of not eating and working in China for more than 10 years, so it is difficult for the general public to bear. At that time, the average annual remittance of Chinese Americans was $30, equivalent to 18-25 liang of silver. This was a large income, which could provide a family of four with the living expenses of buying one-year rations and other household necessities.

,

,

,

the upsurge of Chinese going to the United States has even promoted the prosperity of relevant industries. In 1852, about 20000 Chinese tourists arrived in California with a travel cost of $1.5 million. The price of each ticket is $30-50. From 1850 to 1859, the annual turnover of this business was more than $250000, of which the profit was considerable. As a result, competition in maritime passenger transport trade intensified and ticket prices fell.

,

,

,

Chinese workers have made great contributions to the construction of the central railway. They are hardworking, hard-working and cheap, so the railway company employs a large number of Chinese workers. In 1864, there were 4000 Chinese workers in the construction of the central Pacific Railway, while there were only 1000 white workers. Since then, Chinese workers once accounted for 90% of road construction workers, about 9000. Due to the contribution of Chinese workers, the railway was completed seven years earlier than the original date.

unfortunately, at the ceremony of railway completion, there was no mention of the contribution of Chinese workers. The host said: “in the blood vessels of the people of California, there are the blood of the four greatest nations of our time; the courage of the French to fight and rush; the philosophical mind and identification spirit of the Germans; the indomitable perseverance of the English; and the hot temper of the Irish who do not know how to worry. They each make an appropriate contribution.”

but Charles, President of Central Pacific Railway, who first proposed to recruit Chinese workers? Charles Crocker reminded you with a clever sentence: “I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the timely completion of the railway we built is largely due to the poor and despised working class in China – due to their loyalty and diligence.”

this is the famous “one sentence history” in the history of American immigration.

the so-called ChineseScholars believe that as the “spekds” and “skds” of the Chinese government in California have quietly increased, the “spekds” and “skds” of the Chinese government in California do not care about the fatal contribution of the “spekds” to the economy. The first wave of Chinese Exclusion appeared in 1877. In 1880, the United States signed the Beijing treaty with the Qing court, the first clause of which stipulated to limit the number and number of years of Chinese coming to the United States. The climax of

is the Chinese Exclusion Act passed by the United States in 1882, which prohibits Chinese immigrants. Its 1884 amendment further restricted the departure and entry of immigrants who had previously entered the United States, and clarified that the law was applicable regardless of the nationality of these Chinese. In 1892, the bill was extended by the gear act for ten years, and the time limit was cancelled in 1902. Today, Angel Island National Park in San Francisco Bay was a processing station for hundreds of thousands of Chinese immigrants from 1910 to 1940, where 30% of Chinese immigrants were repatriated to China.

even today, although all parts of the Chinese Exclusion Act have been repealed for a long time, it has always been a part of the United States Code, in which chapter 7 of title 8 is entitled “exclusion of Chinese”. It is the only chapter in Chapter 15 of title 8 (foreigners and nationality) that is entirely specific to a particular nationality or ethnic group.

,

,

,

anti Chinese movement is not only a political persecution, but also has a profound cultural and social foundation. Its roots lie in racism, white supremacy and various social negative problems of Chinese themselves.

Thomas? Sawell wrote in a brief history of American race that Americans treat Chinese immigrants harshly, sometimes even rudely. The Chinese are neither white nor Christian. At that time, both of them were indispensable, and either one was enough to constitute a fatal weakness. Chinese follow customs that are completely strange to Americans. Both culturally and physiologically, they are regarded as a race that cannot be assimilated.

the San Francisco Yearbook published in 1855 recorded the situation of Chinese in the area as follows: the customs and habits of Chinese made California Americans very disgusted. Their language, blood, religious belief and character are completely different from ours. Their quality is low. Some people think they are only a little better than blacks, while others think they are lower than blacks. Those familiar with “celestials” soon developed an uncontrollable hatred of them.

there is a proverb “China’s chance” in the United States, which means that “the hope of success is as slim as the Chinese”. It mainly means that under the oppression of racism, the Chinese are unlikely to succeed and get rich.

,

,

and

have to mention that the American left wing and various labor organizations have played an ignominious role in the anti Chinese movement. The California Labor Party regards the exclusion of China as a political slogan to unite workers to fight against Capitalists: “the Chinese must get out!”

,

,

,

in Zhou Min’s book “changes in Chinese American society”, it is believed that the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 has a great relationship with the white working class who holds the concept of “labor sanctity” to unite all social forces and put pressure on the American government under the leadership of trade unions.

the difficult period has passed

while the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed, many western states have also entered into force some laws with racial discrimination. These laws are not only aimed at Chinese immigrants, but also aimed at Japanese immigrants, making it difficult for them to own their own land or find jobs.

during the fanatical period of Chinese Exclusion in California, the California government even declared it a holiday on March 6, 1881 to hold large-scale demonstrations to promote the expulsion of Chinese.

there is also such a law that prohibits Chinese from giving testimony against whites in court. This is actually tantamount to publicly declaring that they can abuse Chinese at will. If Chinese are robbed, injured and attacked by whites, they are unlikely to be protected by law (unless other whites are willing to assist).

it is under the encouragement of this social trend of thought and evil law that violence began to rise. Chinatown is often looted and burned. In 1871, a group of white people in Los Angeles killed more than 20 Chinese overnight.

the promulgation of the Chinese Exclusion Act had a great impact on the immigration of Chinese. The number of Chinese emigrating to the United States decreased from 123200 in the 1970s to 14800 in the 1990s. It was reduced to less than 5000 in the 1930s, reaching an all-time low.

in addition to life injury and economic pressure, various pranks and insults against Chinese are also very common, with men’s braids and women’s small feet as the main targets. According to the records of Taishan literature and history, once on a bus in New York, Huang Huajin, an old overseas Chinese from Nankeng, Taishan, who lived in the United States with long braids, was teased by a group of American scoundrels who tied his braids to the stool while Mr. Huang was dozing off. Huang Huajin couldn’t get off and leave his seat when he woke up, causing the laughter of the passengers on the same bus. The Chinese toil of

,

,

and

* * such as “coolie” (Coolies), “John” (John Chinaman), “Qing” (Chink), and pagan (heathen) are all seen everywhere in American society, and also constitute a special historical legacy of the English language. The wave of

,

,

and

against China lasted until the 1930s, and did not subside until China played an increasingly important role in fighting the expansion of Japan. When the Pacific War broke out, China became an ally of the United States, and the exclusion of China also came to the end of history. However, it still took some time to completely eliminate the system and cultural psychology.

1943, menosen act(Magnuson act) abolished the Chinese Exclusion Act and allowed 105 Chinese immigrants to enter the country every year. In 1948, the law prohibiting Chinese from marrying whites was repealed. However, large-scale Chinese immigrants did not follow. Until the immigration and nationality Services Act of 1965 was passed. This is the first immigration law for specific ethnic groups passed in the United States.

the California government, the US Senate and the US House of representatives officially apologized for the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1970, 2011 and 2012 respectively.

in 1959, the average income of Chinese Americans exceeded that of other Americans. In 1960, the number of Chinese engaged in professional work and business exceeded that engaged in manual labor. Today, 14 Chinese Americans are employed in science and specialized fields. Although the current social situation of Chinese is still very complex (for example, the gap between the rich and the poor is huge; as a whole, they have a high level of education, but the illiteracy rate is much higher than the average level of the United States, or even several times that of blacks), it is undeniable that they have gone through a difficult period in history, It is building American society as a master and playing a special talent.