Seventh, the characteristics and evolution of Arab nationalism since the 20th century.

Arab Nationalism (i.e. pan Arabism) is an important form of Pan nationalism in the Middle East and the whole third world in the 20th century.

It has had an important and far-reaching impact on the political, economic, ideological, international relations and other fields in the Contemporary Middle East.

This paper tries to analyze its main characteristics, from which we can see the track of its development and evolution.

The main features of Arab nationalism are as follows. I. The Origin of Arab nationalism belongs to the type of cultural nationalism.

In the modern history of Europe, the nationalism of Britain and France is political nationalism, while the nationalism of Germany and Italy belongs to cultural nationalism.

Under the premise of forming a single nation, Britain and France developed nationalism, which focuses on the transformation of national political system, so it is called “political nationalism”.

Germany and Italy are in a situation of national division.

Therefore, their nationalism first emphasizes the cultural identity of their own nation and seeks political unity, so they are called “cultural nationalism”.

At the same time, as a reflection of the rising nationalism in the anti French war and the characteristics of Prussian economic and political structure, German nationalism also has the nature of anti “West” and militarism.

The same is true in the Arab world.

During the reign of the Ottoman Empire, the Arab region (except Morocco) did not enjoy political independence, but was divided into different provinces, which was inconsistent with the territory of the current Arab countries.

For example, Iraq was divided into three provinces: Baghdad, Mosul and Basra, and Palestine included today’s Jordan.

In addition, there is no close economic connection between various regions and no nationality has been formed.

From the ideological point of view, what is popular is Islamic universalism, sectarianism and localism focusing on tribal families and neighborhoods, and there is no concept of nationalism.

Since the 19th century, under the influence of Pan Turkism and Western thought in the Empire, the germination of Arab nationalism first appeared in Syria and Egypt.

Initiated by Arab Christians, it is a cultural revival movement with the contents of classical language and literature research, printing and publishing industry, education and translation movement.

Its long-term goal is to strive for Arab autonomy in the Empire.

With the development of the movement, Arab Muslims gradually participated and became the main force.

After the youth Turkish revolution, especially after the first World War, with the implementation of the national oppression policy of the Ottoman Empire and the subsequent disintegration of the Empire, Arab nationalists began to put forward the goal of independence in an attempt to establish a unified Arab state.

If the Arab pioneers in the 19th century fell in love with French liberalism, the establishment of the mandate of France and Britain in West Asia after the first World War and the publication of the Belford declaration completely dashed the hopes of Arab intellectuals for the two countries.

In the late 19th century, the Germans replaced the French in charge of the training of officers in the Ottoman Empire, thus spreading German nationalism directly among Arab officers, who became one of the backbone of the Arab independence movement after the first World War.

The demonstration of this thought by Arab nationalists in the early 20th century also shows the attribute of their cultural nationalism.

Lebanese Abdullah alayili pointed out that the factors that produce nationalism include language, interest relations, geographical environment, blood lineage, history, customs and spiritual cultivation.

Abd Rahman bazaar listed Islam as one of the contents of Arab nationalism.

In the first mock exam of French mandate, Syrian Santi hoschrie, a Arabia nationalist and a highly educated and nationalist Zan Yangde, thinks that the two countries are more suited to Arabs than the French model.

He also fiercely attacked the overall Westernization views of Egyptian intellectuals such as Taha Hussein, and stressed that individual freedom must be subordinate to the overall interests of the Arab nation.

The same is true in political practice.

During the two world wars, many nationalist organizations in the Arab world established ties with Germany and Italy (similar to the policies of Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan in the North during the same period), although many moderate nationalists, nobles and royal families supported the British and French mandate, such as the royal families of Iraq and Jordan and many tribal chiefs, With their support, they tried to get rid of the colonial rule of Britain and France, including the “Golden Square” in Iraq, the free military officers’ organization and the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the Palestinian mufti Hosseini.

Iraq is committed to the cause of Palestinian Liberation and calls itself “Arab Prussia”.

Its prime minister Yassin Hashemi calls himself “Arab”, while four school level officers trained by German officers, the “golden phalanx”, launched a abortive anti British uprising in 1941.

At the same time, satti husri served as the director of education in Iraq and actively promoted nationalism in schools.

In the formation of Arab nationalism, economic interests or the pursuit of a unified market have little effect, but they do exist.

For example, northern Iraq has always had close economic ties with Syria and Palestine, and so has Syria and Lebanon, but the establishment of mandate has hindered the development of economic ties between these regions.

Therefore, we can understand the background of the origin of Arab nationalism in the above areas.

Second, the concept of “Arab nation” has experienced a process of gradual expansion.

Before the Second World War, the center of Pan Arabism has been in the Arab region of West Asia, especially the crescent zone (including Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan).

There are historical reasons for this.

Because North Africa was conquered by the Ottoman late, and there was an area with a long and glorious history like Egypt, they had greater independence, and first fell into British and French colonial rule and separated from the Ottoman.

On the contrary, West Asia was first conquered by the Ottoman, and has always been under its strong control, and its provinces are closely related to each other.

Therefore, Arabs in West Asia have a strong sense of overall identity, while North Africa is divided into different colonies, resulting in local nationalism earlier (i.e. national nationalism, because they later developed into independent nation states).

For example, many intellectuals in Egypt (such as Taha Hussein) even deny that they are Arabs, Connect Egyptian civilization with Europe as part of Mediterranean civilization.

So it was limited to Arab nationalism at firstThey fought for autonomy in the Ottoman Empire and had illusions about Britain and France.

After the first World War, the dream of establishing a unified Arab state came to naught because Britain and France turned west Asia into their appointed rule.

The common destiny prompted Arab intellectuals to rethink the future of the nation.

It was for this reason that husri listed the whole of North Africa as an integral part of the Arab nation for the first time.

At the same time, the free officers organization led by Nasser was increasingly influenced by Arab nationalism, Egypt’s ruling waffle party and royal family also began to seek leadership in the Arab world.

In addition, between the two world wars, there were political movements and uprisings committed to Arab unity in Iraq, Palestine and other regions.

The final result was the establishment of the League of Arab States, including independent Arab States in West Asia and Africa.

After the Second World War, Egypt publicly declared itself an Arab country and included it in the constitution.

Nasser’s three famous circles are the Arab circle, the African circle and the Islamic circle.

Today, the Arab League has included all Arab countries in Asia and Africa.

As some Arab politicians have said, “those who live in our land, speak our language, have been influenced by our culture and are proud of our glory are among us.” III. The main and common goal of Arab nationalism is to strive for national self-determination.

There are major differences in political, economic, social development and foreign policy after independence, which are manifested in different stages of development.

As mentioned earlier, in striving for national self-determination, all factions of Arab nationalism have a common process of development from autonomy to independence, However, the differences in internal affairs are very obvious from the beginning.

The reason is that the social foundation and social development level of nationalism in various regions are different.

This is also a common problem of nationalism in the third world.

Some people believe that nationalism belongs to bourgeois ideas and movements.

In fact, this situation mainly applies to the West.

In the East, due to the existence of colonial rule, most political forces, including traditional aristocrats, emerging bourgeoisie and intellectuals, pointed the spearhead of the struggle at the colonists.

Therefore, anti colonialism and anti imperialism became the main melody of their political proposition.

Objectively, their activities were conducive to the development of the nation-state, We cannot exclude traditional political forces from nationalism because of their different social basis and political opinions, whether they are royal family, feudal lord, tribal chief or religious aristocracy.

In fact, even some traditional political forces have put forward the idea of reforming the country (such as the kader uprising in Algeria and the RIF uprising in Morocco, as well as the reform of monarchs in various countries).

The early Arab nationalists had no clear proposition on the future development direction of the Arab world.

At that time, the moderates dominated, belonging to the aristocracy.

They advocated the establishment of a monarchy, called for gradual reform rather than radical socio-economic and religious policies, maintained good relations with the west, and fought for Western concessions and complete national independence in a moderate way.

For example, Sharif Hussein of Hanzhi wanted to establish an Arab Kingdom, which was supported by Syrian intellectuals and other elites.

After the first World War, especially after the Second World War, the radical nationalist factions representing the petty bourgeoisie gradually rose.

They advocated the establishment of a republic, the implementation of land reform, nationalization, economic planning and secularization reform, and advocated non alignment and active neutrality in foreign policy.

Their typical representatives are the revival of socialism and nasirism.

In other countries, there are schools that transform society in an Islamic way (such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt).

Therefore, within the nationalist camp in many countries, there have been struggles between moderates and radicals, and even bloody coups (such as the struggle between Iraq’s “golden phalanx” and Prime Minister Nuri said).

In Egypt, Iraq, Yemen and Libya, moderate nationalist factions were eventually overthrown by radical nationalists.

Republicanism replaced monarchism and became the development trend of the post-war Arab world.

With the radicalists taking power in some Arab countries and the launch of the cold war after the Second World War, the above contradictions have developed into contradictions, alliances and even wars among countries, For example, the establishment of the conservative Baghdad Treaty Organization (the accession of Iraq under the Hashemite Dynasty) and the radical Arab Southern League (including Egypt, Syria, Yemen and Saudi Arabia) and the civil war in Yemen (Egypt and Saudi Arabia support one side of the civil war, respectively).

Since the 1960s, nationalism in the Arab world has become more radical, and there have been factions advocating Marxism, such as the South Yemen national front, the people’s front for the liberation of Palestine and the Democratic People’s front for the liberation of Palestine.

At the same time, due to various problems in social and economic development and diplomacy, Islamic Nationalism under the banner of traditional Islam has emerged, and secular Arab nationalism is facing severe challenges, especially after the 1970s.

Therefore, the nationalism in the Middle East presents a colorful scene.

We can preliminarily divide the nationalism in the post-war Arab world into the following six types: monarchy Nationalism (the royal families of the Gulf States, Jordan and Morocco), advocating the maintenance of monarchy and progressive modernization reform, and maintaining close relations with the West, At the same time, support the Palestinian cause.

Arab socialism (Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Sudan) advocates republicanism, carries out radical socio-economic reform and secularization reform, and maintains good relations with the Oriental Group.

Liberal Republican Nationalism (Lebanon), multi-party politics and market economy, maintaining close relations with the West and the Arab world at the same time.

Conservative Republican Nationalism (Yemen), implementing controlled party politics and maintaining friendly relations with the East and the west at the same time.

Islamic reformism (Moroccan Independence Party), which advocates the adoption of Sharia law as national law and the implementation of multi-party political and judicial independence.

Radical left-wing Nationalism (Palestine, South Yemen) advocates Palestine Liberation to promote Arab unity and socialism as the future ideal.

It even points the spearhead of the struggle at Arab conservative countries, proposes to carry out “Arab revolution” or radical socio-economic reform and secularization reform, and maintains close relations with the Oriental GroupDepartment.

Islamic Nationalism (Islamic organizations in various countries) advocates the establishment of an Islamic society based on sharia law and opposes secular government.

Among them, some nationalism is compound nationalism, for example, Saudi Arabia is the combination of monarchy nationalism and Islamic reformism.

In addition, since the 1970s, there has been a phenomenon of “convergence” in the domestic and foreign policies of Arab countries.

Radical countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Syria and Algeria gradually began to adjust their economic policies, implement openness and multi-party system, and soften their policies towards the West. IV. the complex relationship between Arab nationalism and national nationalism, regional nationalism and sectarianism, with the establishment of British and French mandated rule in West Asia after the first World War, In particular, in the 1920s, a group of appointed territories (Iraq, Palestine, outer Jordan, Lebanon, etc.

) gradually achieved formal independence and the independence of individual Arab countries (Yemen, Saudi Arabia), and a unified Arab country has increasingly become a distant dream, National nationalism based on the appointed territory and the borders of independent countries has developed accordingly, which will inevitably weaken the pursuit of unity.

In particular, in some countries on the edge of the Arab world, there are a large number of non Arab nationalities, such as Kurds in Iraq (accounting for 20% of the Iraqi population) and blacks in Sudan, who oppose Arab nationalism, Because the latter means the strengthening of Arab dominance (some scholars question whether countries such as Iraq are still “Arab countries”).

With the independence of the country, the consideration of national interests has become increasingly prominent.

The contradictions among countries in water resources, oil resources, territory, sects, personal grievances of leaders and regional hegemony have become increasingly prominent.

This was especially proved by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1991.

Another problem related to national interests is the contradiction between the royal family, such as the contradiction between Egypt’s khedif and Iraq’s Hashemite royal family during the Second World War, and the contradiction between Iraq’s Hashemite royal family and outer Jordan’s Hashemite royal family and Saudi royal family.

With the development of economy, there is a gap between countries due to different resources and development basis, especially in the gap between oil producing countries and non oil producing countries, which has caused new contradictions.

Religion and sects pose another problem.

Many Christians in Lebanon advocated the establishment of a Christian state independent of Syria and denied that they were Arabs, resulting in conflict with Muslims (this contradiction was not resolved until the establishment of the Lebanese state, and the Christian political parties recognized Lebanon as an Arab state).

More than half of Iraq’s population is Shiite, while most of those who advocate Arab nationalism are Sunnis.

Therefore, Shiites oppose this idea.

Sudanese blacks who believe in primitive religion and Christianity also question the dominance of Arab Muslims in national life.

Therefore, in the eyes of many people, Arab nationalism seems to be the thought of Arab Muslims, especially Arab Sunnis.

Arab nationalism provides another way out for some regions.

In the “greater Syria” (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan), the Maghreb, the Nile Basin (Egypt, Sudan) and the Gulf countries, there have always been relatively close political, economic and cultural ties, which provides an excuse for the establishment of a national alliance and even a unified state.

In Sudan, before independence, nationalists were divided into two factions that supported and opposed the merger with Egypt, and the two sides had a fierce struggle.

From the origin, Arab nationalism rose in greater Syria and Egypt, which is the heart of the Arab world.

As a marginal region, the Arabian Peninsula and the Maghreb obviously have little interest in this idea.

Therefore, in addition to the profound differences in domestic and foreign affairs, the Arab nationalism advocating the establishment of a unified Arab state is also challenged by national nationalism, regional nationalism and sectarianism.

This is one of the major differences between Arab nationalism and cultural nationalism in Germany and Italy.

As a result, several efforts between the two world wars were ineffective, and finally the League of Arab States as a national alliance could only be established.

In the early 1960s, Egypt and Syria established Arab League, which once again aroused people’s hope.

But once upon a time, hope turned into disappointment, and the unity of other countries became a thing of the past.

After the 1970s, even the Arab Renaissance, which strongly advocated reunification, lowered its tone.

Syria and Iraq, both in power by the Baath party, became enemies, and their ideological tendency also developed to national nationalism.

In Iraq, the Baath party government began to seek inspiration from the glorious past of Mesopotamia.

Among the eight newly named provinces in 1970, Mosul province and Sheila province were renamed “Nineveh province” and “Babylon province” respectively.

In a poster entitled “from Nebuchadnezzar to Saddam: the resurgence of Babylon”, the new Babylonian emperor Nebuchadnezzar II waved to Saddam standing at the head of Babylon.

At the same time, the ruling figures of individual Arab countries tried to restore the glory of the former caliphate empire.

After the first World War, Egyptian khedif attempted to self styled Caliph in order to replace the deposed Ottoman Caliph.

However, since the civil war in Yemen, the contradiction between republicanism represented by Egypt and monarchism represented by Saudi Arabia has deepened day by day.

In 1962, Saudi Arabia officially established the Muslim League to fight against Arab nationalism in Egypt with Pan Islamism as the banner.

In 1969, Saudi Arabia initiated the establishment of the organization of the Islamic Conference, which has become the most important pan Islamic Organization in the world.

However, the purpose of the organization is to promote the cooperation, development and prosperity of Islamic countries, not to create a unified Islamic state.

Therefore, it is different from modern pan Islamism and Islamic Nationalism that systematically denies secular countries.

The latter opposes secular Arab nationalism and the Arab monarchy that implements pan Islamist policies at the same time.

This determines the possibility of reconciliation between Saudi Arabia and the secular Arab Republic.

The defeat of the Arab Israeli war in 1967 eased the relations between Egypt and other front-line countries and Saudi Arabia, and the two sides resumed political and economic cooperation, especially in the October war in 1973. V. the complex relationship between Arab nationalism and Islam and pan Islamism as mentioned earlier, the traditional culture and ideology of the Arab world are represented by universalist Islam, which provides a social group at the same timeWeaving form.

Therefore, it is inevitable that the initial nationalism in the Arab world took the form of Pan Islamism.

Its main representative is gemaludin Afghani.

He advocated transforming Islam with rational and scientific spirit, realizing religious revival, national independence and unifying the Islamic world on the basis of the Koran.

It is from this modernism with strong religious color that secular Arab nationalism came into being.

However, Arab nationalism still has an indissoluble bond with Islam.

First of all, Islam is the religion of Muslims who constitute the main body of Arabs, and Muslims and Arab Christians have a common historical destiny.

Christian kaiharili iskedar kuberussi declared in the pamphlet “embrace Islam, Christians” published in 1931 that Islam is a kind, equal and democratic religion, and Arab Christians should unite with Arab Muslims to jointly resist European oppression.

Secondly, Islam has historical and linguistic ties with the Arab nation.

Bazaz pointed out that Islam was first revealed to the Arabs.

The Prophet Muhammad awakened the Arabs.

Islam inherited Arab culture, and Arabic fully demonstrated the intellectual life of the Arab nation through the Koran.

Nabih therefore declared bluntly: “the birth of the prophet is the birth of Arab nationalism.

” Thirdly, Islam is a religion that attaches importance to both worlds and is inseparable from political life.

Citing the works of Russell, a western scholar, bazaar pointed out that Islam is a political or social religion, which has penetrated into all aspects of personal and social life.

Therefore, Islam should not be opposed to Arab nationalism.

Husri believes that due to the vast geographical distribution of Muslims and language differences, it seems impossible to achieve political unity, while Arab unity is entirely possible, which is the first step to establish a worldwide Muslim community.

Christian Michel aflak, the founder of revived socialism, also called Islam the “soul” of the Arab nation.

In practice, Islamic color is often revealed.

After the first World War, the Arab kingdom that Hanzhi Sharif Hussein hoped to establish actually contained a strong religious color, although Prince Faisal’s interim government in Syria adopted some secularization measures.

In the Arab countries after independence, the government carried out secularization reform to varying degrees, but different from Kemal’s completely westernized reform, they retained the Islamic factor.

For example, in judicial reform, western law and Sharia law are taken as the sources of law at the same time.

In foreign policy, Egypt, for example, also used Islam to serve national interests.

It established the “voice of Islam” radio station, built mosques, Islamic cultural centers and schools in African countries, and established an international organization called “Islamic Conference” with Saudi Arabia and Pakistan in Cairo in 1954. Vi. after the establishment of the League of Arab States, the dream of unifying Arab countries has been put on the shelf, despite the repeated experiments of individual countries to form the league.

Instead, the Arab League has established 10 political, economic, social, cultural and legal committees, as well as the Joint Defense Council and the Economic Council.

In the diplomatic field, the most prominent issue is to oppose colonialism and achieve Arab unity.

This is reflected in the strong support for the Arab regions that have not yet become independent, such as Algeria and South Yemen in the 1950s and 1960s.

In the 1970s, with Britain’s withdrawal from the Persian Gulf, nine Emirates protected by Britain declared independence.

After arduous negotiations, seven of them united into one country, namely the United Arab Emirates, which is the first successful example of a unified Arab country in this century (another similar example is the merger of North and South Yemen).

However, as a legacy of colonialism, the Palestinian issue has become a central issue of general concern to Arab countries.

In many countries, Arab nationalism has actually become one of the important contents of the political legitimacy of the government.

Although governments are primarily concerned with national interests, at least verbally, they must vigorously advocate the idea of Arab unity and support the Palestinian Liberation Movement.

Countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait have provided a lot of financial assistance to the PLO, which has become an important means for them to balance their pro american diplomacy and maintain dynasty rule.

Political independence puts economic independence on the agenda, and economic cooperation begins accordingly.

However, due to the poor economic complementarity and contradictions in various aspects of Arab countries, the progress of economic cooperation is slow.

In September 1953, nine Arab countries signed a trade and transit agreement providing for the reduction of tariffs between Contracting States, which was only the first step towards a free trade area.

In June 1957, the Committee for Arab economic unity was established.

In 1964, Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan established the Arab common market.

In the same year, the import and export trade between the above four countries accounted for only 2.

0% and 3.

8% of their total import and export respectively.

By 1973, it was 3.

4% and 1.

9% respectively.

In 1973, the import and export trade of the four countries to all Arab countries accounted for only 8.

0% and 6.

2% of their total import and export respectively.

In addition, foreign aid received by Arab countries mainly comes from the eastern and western groups.

After the 1960s, the economic cooperation of Arab countries began to develop in an all-round way, involving the fields of finance, resources, production and labor services.

The Arab League has established the Arab Labor Council, the Arab Industrial Development Center, the Arab Civil Aviation Commission, the Arab Organization for standardization and measurement and the Arab Organization for agricultural development.

After the 1970s, the recovery of oil sovereignty led to a sharp increase in the income of oil producing countries, which laid a foundation for financial cooperation in the Arab world.

Saudi Arabia and other oil producing countries provide a lot of economic assistance to Egypt and other non oil producing countries, and import labor services from these countries.

Therefore, non oil producing countries obtain huge overseas remittance income.

In the 1980s, regional cooperation among Arab countries entered a new stage.

In May 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council was established.

It has carried out cooperation in economic, political, diplomatic and military aspects.

In February 1989, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Yemen established the Arab Cooperation Committee.

In the same month, the five North African countries were established.