The United States thinks that the “Desert Storm” operation has completely destroyed Iraq’s nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities.

However, the intelligence provided by an Iraqi defector surprised the West.

The defector has long been engaged in nuclear weapons research in Iraq’s sensitive departments.

He said that the air strikes of the multinational force destroyed only three nuclear facilities in Iraq, and another four were intact because they had not been detected in advance.

In order to completely destroy Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and deprive it of the right to possess these weapons, the United States has constantly put pressure on Iraq.

The confrontation between verification and anti verification is treacherous and dangerous.

Resolution 687 adopted by the United Nations Security Council on April 3, 1991 stipulates that Iraq must unconditionally accept the destruction of all biological and chemical weapons and ballistic missiles with a range of more than 150 kilometers under international supervision, prohibit the possession or development of nuclear weapons and materials required for the production of nuclear weapons in the future, and place its existing nuclear forces under the supervision of the International Atomic Energy Agency, To this end, the United Nations established a special committee responsible for the destruction of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction (hereinafter referred to as the “special committee”).

Since then, around the issue of weapons verification, the United States and Iraq have had serious confrontations for many times.

In October 1997, a report by Richard Butler, chairman of the special committee, made the game of “cat and mouse” play again.

In the summer of 1997, after taking office, Butler, chairman of the special committee, repeatedly said that he would remain neutral on the issue of Iraq.

Iraq believes that this position is conducive to the early realization of the desire to get rid of economic sanctions and weapons verification, and therefore welcomes it.

In September, Iraq submitted a “full, thorough and complete” report to the United Nations.

It believed that after the Gulf War, Iraq had fully implemented the relevant resolutions of the United Nations, and all its chemical and biological weapons, nuclear facilities and missiles with a range of more than 150 kilometers had been basically destroyed.

It requested the United Nations to end its weapons verification and economic sanctions in accordance with paragraph 22 of Resolution 687.

However, in mid October, Butler submitted a report to the UN Security Council, which not only did not mention Iraq’s efforts in implementing the Security Council resolutions after the Gulf War, but accused Iraq of still concealing in the destruction of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons, obstructing the normal work of the weapons verification team for many times, and even threatening the safety of the team’s staff.

The United States has also drafted a resolution for the Security Council, proposing restrictions on the travel of Iraqi officials abroad.

The bill was adopted by the United Nations with 9 votes in favor and 5 abstentions.

At the instigation of the United States and Britain, the United Nations Security Council adopted resolution 1134, requiring Iraq to strictly abide by United Nations resolutions and hand over all “final and complete” information on weapons of mass destruction as soon as possible, otherwise new sanctions will be imposed on Iraq.

This resolution is like a blow to the head.

It has dealt a heavy blow to the once hopeful Iraq and seriously hurt the self-esteem of the Iraqi people.

Iraq accused the resolution of being made under pressure from the United States and refused to accept it.

On October 29, the Iraqi revolutionary command committee decided not to allow Americans from the special committee and the United Nations weapons verification team to enter Iraq, and refused to allow American weapons inspectors to carry out verification work on October 30 and November 2 and 3.

Iraq also expressed its intolerance to the United Nations’ use of U-2 aircraft to conduct reconnaissance activities against Iraq, demanded that the U-2 aircraft of the United States be replaced by aircraft that were not hostile to Iraq, and threatened to shoot down the U-2 aircraft that continued to fly into its airspace.

The US side responded immediately and repeatedly stressed that it would take “clear and strong” actions, including military strikes, to force Iraq to comply, so that weapons verification could continue.

In view of the increasingly tense situation, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan called Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz on the afternoon of November 4, hoping that Iraq would stop expelling Americans who are still carrying out UN weapons verification missions in Iraq during the visit of the UN special envoy to Baghdad and before the end of his mission.

On the same day, under the auspices of President Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi revolutionary command Committee held a meeting on Annan’s request and agreed to Annan’s request.

Although the United Nations special envoy held many talks with the Iraqi side, the mediation failed.

In order to exert pressure on Saddam, the United States first ordered the formation of the nuclear powered aircraft carrier Nimitz operating in the Indian Ocean to sail into the Gulf and prepare for battle.

Then they sent more troops to the Gulf from all over the world to strengthen the supervision of Iraq’s “no fly zone” and stood ready to take military action against Iraq.

In a very short period of time, the number of US troops stationed in the Gulf rapidly increased to 27000, with 22 warships of various types and more than 300 combat aircraft.

In order to cooperate with the US military action, Britain drove the aircraft carrier “Changsheng” to the Gulf.

From November 15, the British, Kuwaiti and US troops conducted a three week large-scale military exercise.

The US government warned Iraq not to stop the activities of the UN weapons verification team, or it will be severely punished, and claimed that “it will not be a small blow”.

On the one hand, the United States continues to increase its military strength in the Gulf region, on the other hand, it strengthens its diplomatic mediation and seeks support for the use of force in Iraq.

However, apart from the support of its ally, the UK, other European allies, Russia and Arab countries did not agree, which made the United States a little.

On November 10, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan regretted Iraq’s tough stance of banning Americans from participating in the UN weapons verification team and hoped that Iraq would cooperate with the mediation efforts of the United Nations to avoid the further deterioration of the Iraqi weapons verification crisis.

If the Security Council finds that the United Nations mediation efforts have failed, it will consider adopting new sanctions against Iraq.

On the same day, Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz called on the Security Council to listen carefully to Iraq’s legitimate demands at the United Nations headquarters in New York, and reiterated that the Iraqi government would not change its decision to refuse the entry of U.S. weapons inspectors.

The United States once again asked the United Nations Security Council to take tougher sanctions against Iraq to force Saddam to cancel the decision to ban the entry of Americans from the United Nations weapons verification team.

On November 12, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1137, imposing further sanctions on Iraq.

The resolution condemned Iraq’s action of banning American personnel from the United Nations weapons verification team from entering Iraq and relevant verification sites in violation of relevant Security Council resolutions.

It demanded that Iraq immediately rescind its decision of 29 October and cooperate fully and unconditionally with UNSCOM.

The draft resolution was proposed by nine countries, including the United States and Britainof The resolution decided to impose travel sanctions on Iraqi officials and members of their armed forces responsible for the above-mentioned violations of Security Council resolutions, and prohibit them from entering or transiting through various countries.

This sanction is maintained until Iraq fully cooperates with the weapons verification team.

The resolution also stated that the Security Council would resolutely take further measures if necessary to implement the resolution.

On November 12, a White House spokesman said that if Iraq continues to ignore the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, the United States will take further measures.

A spokesman for the US State Department said that the so-called further measures would never rule out military action.

Some Pentagon officials revealed that the United States has made a series of emergency preparations and will attack Iraq as soon as necessary.

On November 13, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein presided over a joint meeting of the revolutionary command Committee and the regional leadership of the ruling Baath party.

The meeting issued a statement announcing the immediate expulsion of American weapons inspectors belonging to the special committee.

This is Iraq’s official response to resolution 1137 adopted by the UN Security Council to increase sanctions against it.

The statement also said that Iraq would continue to cooperate with UNSCOM and other weapons inspectors.

On the same day, at the request of the United States government, the Security Council issued a presidential statement after urgent consultations, expressing the strongest condemnation of Iraq’s decision to expel the American staff of the United Nations weapons verification team.

On 14 November, with the exception of a few remaining personnel, 68 United Nations weapons inspectors left Baghdad and withdrew to the UNSCOM logistics base in Bahrain.

These weapons inspectors were evacuated in accordance with a decision made by Butler, chairman of the UNSCOM on the 13th.

At the same time, Iraq also put forward a new proposal, that is, to adjust the composition of the arms verification team so that the five permanent members of the Security Council have the same power in the verification team.

If this is agreed, Iraq will allow U.S. inspectors to return to Iraq.

This proposal was rejected by the United States.

“Iraq has no right to determine the composition of weapons inspectors,” White House spokesman McCurry said The Secretary General of the United Nations called the search for a new solution to the crisis part of the diplomatic efforts of the United Nations.

On November 18, the U.S. Department of Defense announced that the United States would send six B-52 bombers and six F-117 stealth fighters to the Gulf again, as well as KC-130 air tankers and other backup aircraft operating in coordination with these aircraft, so as to enhance the military strength of the U.S. military in the region.

Just as the United States increased its troops in the Gulf, diplomatic mediation also entered a critical period.

On November 18, Russian Foreign Minister primakov announced to the press that Russian President Yeltsin met with Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz at the presidential residence on the outskirts of Moscow on the same day.

The two sides have formulated a clear plan to avoid using force to solve the Iraqi crisis.

Primakov also expressed the hope to hold a meeting of the five permanent members of the United Nations to discuss a political solution to the Iraqi crisis.

On November 20, the representatives of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council issued a joint statement after concluding the talks on the Iraqi crisis in Geneva, hoping to see Iraq accept the return of the personnel of the United Nations weapons verification team “unconditionally” and carry out normal work in accordance with the provisions of security Council resolution 1137.

On the same day, the crisis finally turned for the better.

Under the auspices of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi revolutionary command Committee and the regional leadership of the Baath party held a joint meeting and formally decided to agree that all inspectors of the special committee and the weapons verification team, including Americans, will return to Iraq from now on to resume weapons verification.

The statement said that after close consultations with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein through letters, Russian President Yeltsin put forward suggestions in the hope of finding a balanced political solution to the crisis.

Iraq accepted the Russian proposal.

The statement stressed that although the results achieved in resolving the current crisis through dialogue are not all Iraq’s requirements, Iraq is still satisfied with it.

After formal consultations, the UN Security Council agreed that members of the UN Iraq weapons verification team would return to Iraq on the 21st.

On the same day, 77 weapons inspectors of the UNSCOM, including Americans, returned to the Iraqi capital Baghdad by United Nations aircraft from the logistics base in Bahrain.

On November 22, the United Nations weapons verification team officially resumed its weapons verification work in Iraq, and the verification crisis was politically resolved.

This time, Iraq issued a deportation order to the US inspectors on the grounds that the US inspectors were spying for intelligence, and threatened to shoot down the US U-2 spy plane violating its airspace at any time.

This is obviously a challenge to US hegemonism and power politics.

The United States feels that without severe punishment, it will shake its status as a superpower to some extent.

However, the United States did not achieve the purpose of punishing Iraq in this crisis.

“Everyone just danced to Saddam’s tune,” said a former US government official On the one hand, the United States said that it would resolve the crisis peacefully through diplomatic means.

On the other hand, it mobilized a large number of warplanes and warships to the Gulf, bringing the number of us warplanes and warships in the Gulf region to more than 300 and more than 20.

The whole of Iraq is within the range of us airborne and shipborne Tomahawk missiles.

The intention of the United States is obvious, that is, to force Iraq to submit with force as the backing and punishment as the purpose.

However, just as the United States started the military and public opinion machine, Iraq returned to its original position, making the United States suddenly lose the excuse for military attack on Iraq.

No wonder many Americans feel that this time they are clearly fooled by Iraq.

On January 12, 1998, the Iraqi government announced that from January 13, Iraq would prohibit a weapons verification team under the UNSCOM from carrying out tasks in Iraq until the team was reconstituted and the proportion of permanent members of the Security Council in the team was balanced.

The group referred to by Iraq is a United Nations weapons verification team led by American Scott Ritter.

The team, including 9 Americans, 5 Britons, 1 Russian and 1 Australian, arrived in Baghdad on the 11th.

Obviously, in Iraq’s view, the composition of 14 of the 16 people from Britain and the United States hinders the impartiality of the inspection.

Iraq not only objected to the composition of the inspectors, but also pointed out that Ritter himself was a spy of the CIA, so he could not accept themVerification of.

Iraqi media claimed that Ritter’s actions in weapons verification were “like a racing dog without any respect for Iraq’s national security”, He also said that he was sent to Iraq “to create a crisis and perform tasks outside the UNSCOM.

His performance in the verification threatens Iraq’s security and sovereignty.

He came for espionage rather than weapons prohibition”.

Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz called him a “troublemaker”, saying that he “falsified facts, created lies, deliberately delayed the verification process and provided false reports to the security committee”.

Iraq’s refusal to verify this time is different from the last time.

It is not to expel all Americans in the verification operation, but to target a group in the operation, and the spearhead is directed at Scott Ritter, the leader of the group.

At the same time, the work of other United Nations teams is proceeding as usual without hindrance.

In fact, there is no reason why Iraq has poured all its anger on Scott Ritter.

The task of the Ritter team is to investigate the means taken by Iraq to evade weapons verification.

His targets are some places that the Iraqi side considers more sensitive.

Moreover, Ritter often takes sudden actions without notifying the Iraqi side in advance, which has angered the Iraqis many times.

In December 1997, he led a team to suddenly search the habania lake resort that President Saddam often visited.

It was an unannounced raid.

Although nothing was found, the Iraqi side has been dissatisfied with it.

On 12 January, an official Iraqi spokesman said that Iraq had raised the imbalance of UNSCOM personnel as an important issue since the weapons verification crisis in November 1997.

He stressed that the special committee controlled by the United States and Britain will lead to the extension of economic sanctions against Iraq and hinder the implementation of Article 22 of Security Council Resolution 687.

The spokesman also said that the Americans controlled the special commission’s verification operations at its headquarters in New York and in Iraq, repeatedly fabricated facts, created lies, deliberately delayed the weapons verification work, and submitted an untrue report to the Security Council on Iraq’s implementation of Resolution 687.

The United States and the United Nations immediately denied the accusations against Iraq, saying that Iraq’s move was nothing more than to divert attention and transfer contradictions. U.S. President Bill Clinton said at the White House on the same day: “Iraq has no right to choose who will participate in the United Nations weapons verification team.

The decision is in the hands of the United Nations.

If they don’t let work tomorrow, I hope the United Nations Security Council can take corresponding strong action.

” On the same day, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan advised Iraq not to take reckless action on the issue of UN weapons verification at a press conference, so as not to intensify the contradiction between the two sides on this issue.

Annan said he hoped that the Iraqi government would patiently wait for special commission chairman Butler to go to Baghdad next week to discuss and resolve relevant issues with the Iraqi side.

On January 16, Britain became impatient.

Foreign secretary cook announced that Britain’s aircraft carrier “Changsheng” would sail into the Gulf and cooperate with the armed forces already there to force Iraq to submit.

On January 17, in a speech commemorating the seventh anniversary of the Gulf War, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein issued an “ultimatum” to the United Nations verification work, saying that if the United Nations still cannot end its weapons verification and lift economic sanctions against Iraq in the next six months, the United Nations verification team will need to leave Iraq.

On January 21, Iraq said that the discussion on the UN verification of sensitive areas, including the Iraqi presidential palace, should be postponed to four months, because by then, the UN will have a comprehensive assessment of Iraq’s efforts to destroy weapons of mass destruction.

Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz refuted that inspectors believe that the residence of the Iraqi head of state may hide chemical and biological weapons is absurd.

He also specifically listed eight places as restricted areas for verification.

During Butler’s visit to Baghdad, the central topic of his talks with Iraq was to persuade him to agree to the unrestricted access of the United Nations weapons verification team to any place in Iraq, including the presidential palace, as soon as possible.

However, Iraq rejected Butler’s proposal.

Butler returned without success and felt very unhappy.

On January 23, when reporting the results of his visit to Baghdad to the United Nations Security Council, he accused the Iraqi side of violating the resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, not cooperating with the UNSCOM and obstructing the work of the United Nations weapons inspectors, so that the weapons verification could not be carried out normally.

Later, in an interview with the New York Times, he declared: “from the current situation, Iraq still has biological weapons that can destroy the Israeli city of Tel Aviv.

” This remark immediately aroused the attention of public opinion.

Butler’s report and speech were like adding fuel to the fire.

Major Western media used it to play up the possible nuclear, chemical and biological weapons threat and verification problems in Iraq, and the crisis escalated suddenly.

After learning about Butler’s report, US President Clinton convened a meeting of diplomatic and security advisers on January 24 to discuss the punishment of Iraq.

The meeting was attended by Secretary of state Albright, Secretary of defense Cohen, national security adviser Samuel Berger, CIA director tenet and ambassador to the United Nations Richardson.

After discussion and research, people tend to carry out bombing with shorter time and stronger firepower, with the purpose of damaging Iraq’s military institutions and weakening Iraq’s ability to manufacture and deliver chemical and biological weapons.

In this way, the “desert thunder” plan aimed at combating Iraq was officially launched.

On January 28, Albright was ordered to leave and embark on a lobbying trip to Europe and the Middle East.

Meanwhile, defense secretary Cohen traveled to the Gulf region to discuss the same issue with allies and partners there.

However, apart from Britain, no country is willing to take the chariot of the United States, and the United States has fallen into unprecedented isolation.

However, this has not shaken the US determination to use force against Iraq.

The United States and Britain have accelerated their military build-up in the Gulf region while making great efforts to threaten Iraq with war.

The United States mobilized a strong military force, including two aircraft carriers, more than 300 fighter planes and nearly 30000 troops.

The third aircraft carrier “independence” arrived in the Gulf waters and withdrew the aircraft carrier “Nimitz” to China.

The British aircraft carrier Changsheng has also arrived in the Gulf.

The US Department of defense is also considering sending an additional 3000 ground troops to Kuwait.

Because once an air strike is carried out against Iraq, Kuwait may be retaliated by Iraq, and this force will be used to defeat itDefeat Iraq’s attack on Kuwait.

The US Chen Bing Gulf is entirely out of the need of its strategic interests.

Its strategic intention is to safeguard its long-term interests in the Gulf, especially oil interests, make an example to the Gulf countries and Iran, and strengthen its leading position in the Middle East and even the world.

Relying on its strong military strength, US Defense Secretary Cohen threatened that if the United States attacked Iraq, its scale would exceed that of previous military strikes.

Facing the strong military pressure of the United States, Iraq showed no sign of yielding and launched a counterattack against the war warning of the United States.

On January 29, Saddam Hussein said: “Iraq does not want war”, but he also warned that if “the evil enemy invades, Iraq will have no choice but to defend itself with all its potential, experience and belief”.

Saddam’s basic goal is to win the sympathy of the international community in order to lift the UN sanctions on Iraq as soon as possible.

In order to lift the sanctions as soon as possible, Saddam endured humiliation in the face of American power and “blocking”.

He tolerated the brutal interference of the United States in Iraq’s sovereignty, the violation of Iraq’s national dignity by the United States, and the search of key departments such as the Ministry of agriculture and the Ministry of intelligence by the weapons verification team controlled by the United States.

For Saddam Hussein, he believes that Iraq has basically implemented the relevant resolutions of the Security Council in the past seven years.

Therefore, the conditions for relaxing sanctions against Iraq have matured.

Under such circumstances, the United States not only opposes the loosening of ties to Iraq, but tries to strengthen sanctions against Iraq.

In his view, the United States will never relax its pressure on them without confrontation with the United States.

The worst result of confrontation with the United States is nothing more than another attack.

Therefore, on the issue of verification, he resolutely opposed the position and policy of the United States and shouted “no” to the United States! On the 20th of February, the Secretary General of the United Nations stepped on the crossbow of the war.

During his talks with Saddam, he reached a consensus on a peaceful solution to the crisis.

On the morning of February 23, Annan and Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz signed an agreement on UN weapons verification in Iraq in Baghdad.

The agreement stipulates that Iraq will open any place in Iraq, including the eight presidential palaces, to the UNSCOM weapons verification team without restrictions and conditions, so that the verification team can carry out the verification task.

The United States cautiously endorsed the agreement because it met the conditions put forward by the United States.

But President Clinton said that once Iraq violates the agreement reached with the United Nations, the United States has the right to use force against Iraq immediately.

He stressed that the important thing is not to listen to what Iraq said, but to see what it did.

“We have to see whether Iraq’s words and deeds are consistent.”. On March 2, the United Nations Security Council approved the Iraqi weapons verification agreement.

So far, the increasingly tense verification crisis caused by the massive increase of US troops in the Gulf region and the threat of force against Iraq has been alleviated.

On October 31, 1998, the Iraqi government announced that it would stop any form of cooperation with the UNSCOM from that day because it was disappointed with the prospect of lifting the UN sanctions against Iraq.

Iraq also demanded that the UN Security Council remove Butler, the current chairman of the UNSCOM, and restructure the UNSCOM to make it a truly neutral specialized international agency, rather than a spy agency or an agent of the United States.

The statement stressed that the main reason for Iraq’s decision was its disappointment at the prospect of lifting sanctions.

The statement said that in order to obstruct the lifting of sanctions against Iraq, the special committee under the control of the United States and its chairman Butler continue to spread rumors, and even hesitate to create a weapons verification crisis and deny the progress made by Iraq in the process of destroying weapons of mass destruction.

The statement said that experience tells Iraq that under the pressure of the United States, it is impossible for the Security Council to lift sanctions against Iraq in the traditional way.

This is the first time that Iraq has decided to completely suspend all forms of cooperation with UNSCOM since Butler began to serve as the chairman of UNSCOM in June 1997.

The United States reacted strongly and quickly to this.

On the same day, senior officials of the US State Department, the Department of defense and the intelligence department held a meeting at the White House to discuss the latest situation in the process of Iraq’s weapons verification.

The US government believes that Iraq’s suspension of cooperation with UNSCOM is “a serious threat to the international community”.

On November 1, Clinton said that Iraq’s move was a flagrant violation of relevant UN resolutions.

He said that the United States does not rule out any possibility in dealing with the issue of Iraq.

After the announcement of Iraq’s decision, US Defense Secretary Cohen cancelled his six-day visit to Asia and returned to Washington for emergency consultations.

He warned Iraq that it would face military attack if it did not implement the relevant UN arms verification agreement.

On November 5, after many consultations, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1205 on Iraq, calling on Iraq to “immediately and unconditionally” revoke its decisions of October 31 and August 5 and resume cooperation with the UN Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

The British resolution condemns Iraq’s decision as a flagrant violation of the relevant Security Council resolutions and reaffirms that once Iraq resumes cooperation, it is ready to conduct a comprehensive review of the Iraq issue in accordance with the relevant Security Council resolutions, but does not put forward a timetable for lifting sanctions against Iraq.

During the consultations, the draft resolution was revised in accordance with the views of China and relevant countries, deleted the words that believed that the situation in Iraq continued to pose a threat to international peace and security, added that the Security Council had the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and reiterated its full support for the relevant efforts of the Secretary General, And that the Security Council is willing to take action on the duration of the ban on Iraq in accordance with the relevant provisions of Resolution 687.

The representative of Russia stressed that the resolution did not give anyone a “green light” to use force against Iraq.

After the Iraqi government announced on October 31 that it had suspended all cooperation with the United Nations Special Commission for the destruction of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction, all weapons verification work stopped except that the International Atomic Energy Agency continued to carry out the task of monitoring conventional weapons.

In the absence of inspectors, the special committee decided on November 6 to reduce the number of more than 100 inspectors in Iraq by 20% and withdraw in batches from November 7.

On November 11, a total of 103 UNSCOM and IAEA personnel in Baghdad were evacuated by United Nations aircraft from Baghdad to the logistics base of Bahrain UNSCOM on standby, and nearly 200 United Nations staff carrying out humanitarian relief missionsThe staff travelled to Amman by car.

On the morning of the 12th, the last group of 40 UN staff left Baghdad by car for Amman, the capital of Jordan.

So far, in more than a day, more than 300 United Nations staff have withdrawn from Iraq.

The scale and speed of the withdrawal are unprecedented in all previous weapons verification crises.

However, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and the Security Council knew nothing about this major action in advance.

It turned out that Butler, chairman of the UN special committee, conspired with the United States and quickly implemented all this.

It is believed that this plan is intended to kill three birds with one arrow: pave the way for the United States to carry out military strikes against Iraq.

Put more pressure on Iraq to make a compromise.

Shift the responsibility for the extension of weapons verification to Iraq.

The withdrawal of a large number of United Nations staff from Iraq exacerbated the crisis.

The United States has greatly increased its troops to the Gulf, making the situation more tense.

The United States and Britain announced on the 12th that they were ready to use force and that the dialogue with Iraq had ended.

Now it was time to take action.

Britain, Germany, Australia and other countries have asked their citizens to leave Iraq.

While mobilizing the people to prepare for the US military strike, Iraq is seeking Annan and the Security Council to take action to stop the US military strike.

With the escalation of the verification crisis, the international community has strengthened its mediation efforts.

In the consultations held by the UN Security Council for several days in a row, the three permanent members of China, Russia and France strongly advocated the peaceful settlement of the crisis through diplomatic means, and resolutely resisted and opposed any attempt and method that might intensify contradictions and lead to the further deterioration of the crisis in the direction of war.

When meeting with the permanent representative of Iraq to the United Nations, the representative pointed out the seriousness of the current situation and earnestly advised Iraq to proceed from the overall situation of protecting the security of Iraq and the people of the Gulf countries, agree to resume cooperation with the UN Special Committee as soon as possible, earnestly abide by the relevant resolutions of the United Nations and create conditions for the early lifting of UN sanctions against Iraq.

On the 13th, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan sent a letter to Saddam demanding that Iraq immediately resume cooperation with the inspectors of the United Nations Special Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

After receiving Annan’s letter, President Saddam immediately presided over the joint meeting of the revolutionary command Committee and the Regional Department of the Arab Baath socialist party, and decided to unconditionally resume cooperation with the special committee.

Less than 24 hours after Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Aziz said that he would unconditionally resume cooperation with United Nations weapons inspectors, U.S. President Clinton issued a statement at a press conference announcing that the United States accepted Iraq’s assurances, but he also said that the United States would continue to “exert pressure” on Iraq unless Iraq “fully abides by its commitments”, And “ready for military strike” at any time.

Clinton also listed five obligations that Iraq must abide by in the statement, that is, Iraq must solve all the problems raised by the United Nations Special Commission for weapons verification and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Agree that the inspectors shall check and test any place they choose without interference.

Hand over all weapons destruction materials to the United Nations.

Accept the UN resolution on eliminating Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction.

We will not obstruct the work of United Nations inspectors in any way.

Clinton also specifically mentioned that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is the “biggest obstacle” to regional peace and world security and the “biggest threat” to the Iraqi people’s happy life.

The most effective way to eliminate this threat and obstacle can only be achieved through “a new government that represents the will of the Iraqi people, respects its people and is committed to peace in the region”.

This is Clinton’s first public hint that the United States will overthrow Saddam’s regime.

Clinton’s statement shows that the long-term strategy of the United States towards Iraq has begun to take shape, that is, to continue to contain Iraq through the work of the UN Special Committee and economic sanctions, but to maintain military pressure on Iraq at any time.

Step up the cultivation of Iraqi anti-government forces and eventually overthrow Saddam Hussein’s regime.

On October 31, President Clinton signed a “liberation of Iraq act”, providing $97 million to Iraqi anti-government forces to support their activities aimed at overthrowing Saddam Hussein.

At 0:49 a.m. local time on December 17, 1998, the sleeping Baghdad was awakened by the rumbling explosion, and the harsh air raid alarm echoed in the dull night sky.

The United States and Britain launched a large-scale air strike code named “Desert Fox” against Iraq without authorization of the United Nations Security Council and prior warning.

The direct reason for the United States to use force against Iraq this time is that Butler, chairman of the United Nations Special Committee, determined in his report to the United Nations that Iraq had not complied with its promise of comprehensive cooperation with the United Nations made in November 1998 and continued to try to restrict weapons verification.

The United States accused Iraq of obstructing verification, hiding suspicious information and making difficulties for inspectors, saying it had lost patience with Iraq’s repeated violations of its agreement with the United Nations.

The Security Council was discussing Butler’s report at the UN headquarters in New York just when the US warship stationed in the Gulf launched the first batch of Tomahawk cruise missiles.

Annan put forward a series of possible plans to respond to Iraq’s “lack of comprehensive cooperation”, but none of them implied air strikes.

Annan at this time had no idea what was happening.

Compared with the previous situation of “thunder without rain” in the arms verification crisis, the US use of force in Iraq is somewhat sudden.

A few days before the “Desert Fox” operation, the situation in the Gulf was not abnormal.

It was not until Butler submitted a report on Iraq’s obstruction of weapons verification and the subsequent withdrawal of weapons inspectors from Baghdad on December 15 that some news media reported that “the Gulf is covered with clouds of war again.

” President Clinton explained the purpose of the attack on Iraq as: to crack down on Iraq’s ability to produce nuclear and chemical weapons.

Defend the national interests of the United States.

Maintain the security of Iraq’s neighbors.

In fact, his intention to order the use of force this time is mainly two.

First, it wants to establish a strong image of the United States on the Iraq issue.

In the past two years, there have been three major weapons verification crises.

The process of each crisis is almost a pattern: Iraq clashes with the arms verification team led by Butler and refuses to accept verification.

The United States used this as an excuse to mobilize the army and press the border.

Seeing that the situation was not good, Iraq softened its position and expressed its willingness to cooperate with the verification team.

In this way, the United States spends more than $1 billion each time, but it has no chance to start again and againBut downplayed that the United States “does not have the ability” to verify the death toll.

After the end of the cold war, the United States became the only superpower in the world.

In this situation, the United States should have taken greater responsibility for the stability and peace of the world, but it is developing towards lawlessness.

Without the authorization of the United Nations, the United States frequently uses force against Iraq, which poses a serious threat to today’s international order.

The hegemonic act of the United States forces the international community to make a serious choice: the 21st century of peace and tranquility or the 21st century under the threat of hegemony.