After the successful landing in Incheon, troops were dispatched to attack Seoul and Suwon.
Under the command of lieutenant general walker, commander of the 8th group army, the “United Nations army” and Li CHENGWAN’s forces trapped in the Luodong river began to turn to the counter offensive, echoed with the Incheon landing forces north and south, and attacked the Korean people’s army.
The people’s army is in a very disadvantageous position.
In order to get rid of the unfavorable situation of fighting on both sides and turn passivity into initiative, they were forced to turn to strategic retreat.
Nevertheless, the people’s army was still divided and surrounded by the enemy, which not only cut off the supply in the rear, but also suffered heavy casualties.
The previous success achieved has been wasted, and the situation is deteriorating day by day.
On September 28, MacArthur commanded the “United Nations army” to capture Seoul with Yu Wei.
At this time, MacArthur was arrogant because of his victory.
He believed that the success of Incheon landing and the recovery of Seoul were not only his victory over the internal opponents of the U.S. military, but also a victory on the battlefield.
The two victories combined were double victories.
In order to celebrate well and show off another great achievement since the Pacific War, he wants to “triumph” into the city.
On September 30, a Navy light aircraft landed slowly at Jinpu airport.
Around the empty airport, there are trees destroyed and charred by gunfire, and some places are still emitting wisps of smoke.
MacArthur and his entourage got off the plane, got into the five-star car that had been waiting for him, and drove to Seoul under the close protection of guards.
In front of the Lee Seung Wan government building in Seoul, Lee Seung Wan held a grand welcome ceremony.
At the welcome banquet, MacArthur raved: “Ladies and gentlemen, my friends, the Incheon landing and the recovery of Seoul is not a great victory, but a prelude.
A more brilliant victory is still waiting for us.
Our military’s pursuit is to defeat our opponents.
Our belief is to wave the war knife to win honor.
The 38th parallel of North Korea should not have any binding force.
God’s mission is war Fight and win.
” MacArthur was determined to move north and cross the 38th parallel.
The White House and the Pentagon still have some scruples about military operations across the 38th parallel.
They are afraid that this move will cause a strong reaction in the international community, and more afraid that the Soviet Union and China will send troops to cause World War III, so they can’t make up their mind.
MacArthur was determined to gamble politically and militarily for the second time north of the 38th parallel.
Even after learning of the information that the Chinese army has frequently gathered along the Yalu River, the stubborn MacArthur still did not change his determination to cross the 38th parallel.
At a critical moment when the “United Nations forces” frequently approached the 38th parallel and the war was about to escalate, the US Joint Chiefs of staff issued a clear, specific and binding order to MacArthur on September 27, authorizing him to conduct military operations north of the 38th parallel.
The decision of the Joint Chiefs of staff was right in MacArthur’s mind.
He couldn’t wait to report to him the battle plan to march into the 38th parallel: Walker’s 8th group army went north along the west coast and occupied Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.
The 10th army under Almond’s command, as an independent force under MacArthur’s personal command, carried out an amphibious landing in Yuanshan on the east coast opposite Pyongyang.
After meeting with the 10th army, the 8th group army pushed northward through the bee waist area of the peninsula and stopped on the Dingzhou Ningyuan Xianxing front line.
Outside this line, the South Korean forces carry out operational plans in the northern border provinces.
As MacArthur’s successful landing in Incheon shocked his reputation, and the generals of the Pentagon also cast a layer of superstition on his military command ability, he was not as picky as “operation soldering iron” when considering this battle plan, and soon reported it to President Truman.
Truman immediately approved MacArthur’s war plan to annex the whole of North Korea.
On October 1, MacArthur gave Walker an order to break through the 38th parallel.
Faced with the escalation of the US war, the Chinese government made a strong response and issued a serious warning.
In the early morning of October 3, the prime minister urgently met with Indian Ambassador Panitchpakdi to convey the solemn position and warning of the Chinese government to the United States, which has no diplomatic relations with China, through the third country that takes a neutral position on the Korean War: if the United States crosses the 38th parallel and expands the war, the Chinese people cannot sit idly by.
We stand for a peaceful settlement of the Korean issue.
Not only must the Korean War stop immediately and the invading troops must withdraw, but also the countries concerned must discuss a peaceful solution to the Korean issue in the United Nations.
The dignitaries of the White House and the Pentagon, eager to implement their global hegemony strategy, were so arrogant that they did not pay attention to the warning of the Chinese government.
In their view, China’s civil war has just ended, and the wounds of the war need to be repaired urgently.
If they want to send troops, North Korea is also powerless to compete with the United States.
Although the intelligence collected by the US Central Intelligence Agency shows that the Chinese army has gathered in large numbers in the northeast and is obviously making military preparations, they ignore it and still believe that the warning of the Chinese government is “false intimidation” and “diplomatic political blackmail”.
Facing the warning from the Chinese government, Secretary of state Acheson said in a contemptuous tone that if the Chinese are going to play poker, they should play more cards than they do now.
The United States categorically rejects the peaceful settlement of the Korean issue and adheres to the plan of occupying the whole of Korea.
Seeing that the Korean War was profitable and with the “license” of the United Nations, some countries joined the Korean war one after another, including two British brigades, one each from Turkey and Canada, one each from Thailand and New Zealand, and one battalion each from Australia, the Netherlands, France, the Philippines, Greece, Belgium, Colombia and Ethiopia, A platoon from Luxembourg participated in the war.
These troops were incorporated into the 8th group army under Walker’s command to form the so-called “United Nations army”, which was fierce and killed to the north of the 38th parallel.
After the escalation of the Korean War, on October 5, Truman and a group of senior military and political dignitaries flew from Washington to Wake Island in the central Pacific and held a secret meeting with MacArthur to decide what strategy the US military should adopt in the “final stage” of the Korean War and study the possibility of China sending troops.
Confident that China would not enter the war, they authorized MacArthur to step up his attack and end the Korean War.
However, at this time in Zhongnanhai, the CPC Central Committee, which thought it was the first, was brewing a grand plan to resist US aggression and aid Korea.
The “United Nations army” has accelerated its northward advance, and the Korean people’s army is at a very critical juncture.
At this moment, Kim Il Sung first thought of his friendly neighbor – China.
Good morning!On September 30, he expressed his willingness to ask China to send troops to support North Korea to Chinese ambassador to North Korea Ni Zhiliang and Chai Chengwen.
Late at night on October 1, after MacArthur announced that he would march north of the 38th parallel and issue a “final spy” to the Korean people’s army, Kim Il Sung and foreign minister Po Luoyong jointly sent a telegram to Chairman Mao Zedong for help.
Electric medium scale: “At present, the enemy is taking advantage of our serious crisis and does not give us time.
If we continue to attack the areas north of the ’38th line’, it will be difficult to overcome the crisis by relying on our own strength.
Therefore, we have to ask you for special assistance, that is, when the enemy attacks the areas north of the ’38th line’, we urgently hope that the Chinese people’s Liberation Army will send direct assistance Our army is fighting.
I would like to put forward the above opinions to you for your advice.
” The military situation is like fighting a fire.
The telegram was quickly sent to Mao Zedong’s desk in Zhongnanhai.
The supreme leader of new China is facing the most difficult decision again in his life.
In the long revolutionary war, Mao Zedong ignored his own safety.
No matter what kind of danger he encountered, he was always fearless in the face of danger.
But whenever he encounters a decision-making of major problems, he stays up all night, thinking repeatedly and preparing for the pain of decision-making.
This decision was the most difficult one for him to make a decision in his life.
As far as the domestic situation is concerned, new China has just been established.
It is full of holes and waste.
The army needs to rest, the national economy needs to be restored, and social order needs to be rectified in further eliminating the harassment of the scattered soldiers and bandits of the Kuomintang.
In addition, there are two severe struggle tasks of marching into Tibet and liberation.
In any way, it is difficult to send troops to North Korea.
In terms of the comprehensive strength of the enemy and our two sides, it is still an unavoidable fact that the enemy is strong and we are weak.
According to the statistics at that time, in terms of economic strength, the steel output of the United States was 87.
72 million tons, and the total industrial and agricultural output value reached 150.
7 billion US dollars, while China’s steel output was only 600000 tons, and the total industrial and agricultural output value was equivalent to 57.
4 billion yuan.
In terms of weapons and equipment, the United States has atomic bombs and world-class conventional weapons, while the weapons and equipment of the Chinese people’s Liberation Army from Xiaomi and rifles are basically miscellaneous weapons seized from the battlefield.
Just take artillery as an example.
A Chinese army has only 198 artillery with a caliber of more than 70mm, while a US Army (calculated by three divisions) has up to 1428, that is, the artillery of a US Army is seven times that of a Chinese army.
Whether in terms of financial or military strength, such a wide gap, once the Chinese and American armies fight, the risk borne by China is obvious.
Even the Soviet Union, which had an atomic bomb and comprehensive strength to compete with the United States at that time, was unwilling to risk conflict with the United States by assisting North Korea.
The worst plan for North Korea is to let Kim Il Sung organize an exile government in Northeast China and carry out guerrilla warfare in enemy occupied areas.
There is a famous Chinese saying: help each other in the same boat and share weal and woe.
In the face of the Korean people in distress, how can the Chinese people sit idly by and refuse to save their lives? After the difficult decision of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee of the people’s Republic of China to host the South China Sea war aid in February 1950, Mao Zedong made a great political decision to go out to the South China Sea for the first time.
next, Mao Zedong telegraphed Stalin in his own name: “We decided to send troops in the name of the volunteer army to fight against the army of the United States and its running dog, Lee Seung Wan, and assist the comrades of North Korea.
We think it is necessary to do so.
Because if the whole North Korea is occupied by the United States and the Korean revolutionary forces are fundamentally defeated, the American aggressors will be more rampant and detrimental to the whole East.
” Stalin was moved for a while after receiving the news that China sent troops to North Korea.
In order to make a gesture, on the one hand, he explained to China that the reason why the Soviet Union could not send troops was mainly because he was worried that sending Soviet troops to support North Korea to directly confront the US military would lead the war to Europe and all over the world and destroy the world pattern formed after World War II.
On the other hand, it promised China that once China sent troops, the Soviet Union could provide air support to China.
However, big brother’s promise has not been fulfilled.
On the morning of October 9, accompanied by Soviet marshal Bulganin, Zhou Enlai flew to Crimea by special plane to meet Stalin who was on vacation here and negotiate with the Soviet side on the entry of volunteer troops into the DPRK.
However, Stalin, the Soviet Grand Marshal who led the Soviet army and people to defeat the invincible German Fascism and win the great victory of the patriotic war under extremely difficult conditions, hesitated on the issues of how many fighter planes and bombers the Soviet Union could send out, how to implement air cover, and how to replace Soviet made weapons by Chinese ground forces.
He has many misgivings about our army sending troops to North Korea.
Although China has won the civil war, it has no idea whether China can win the war with the Americans who have the support of the United Nations and have advantages in all aspects.
He worried that if the Soviet air force appeared on the border between China, the Soviet Union and North Korea to fight with US aircraft and ground forces, it might lead to military conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States and even World War III.
After repeated weighing, he made it clear to Zhou Enlai that the Soviet Union could first give China 20 divisions of weapons and equipment, but the Soviet air force was not ready and could not send planes to cover the volunteers entering the Korean War for the time being.
In fact, this is an excuse for prevarication.
The preparation for dispatching the air force can be completed in only three days.
This sudden change surprised Zhou Enlai: the agreement reached between friendly countries has changed unilaterally, which is difficult to justify both emotion and reason.
Zhou Enlai knew that without the support of the air force, what would it mean for our volunteer army to enter the Korean War and lose air control.
In order to take the overall situation into consideration and not to hurt peace, Zhou Enlai urged Stalin to take back his order.
However, no matter how persuasion and request, Stalin just didn’t change his mind.
The matter is not only significant, but also urgent.
Zhou Enlai, who was in the Soviet Union, immediately telegraphed Mao Zedong about this change and asked the Central Committee to study the dispatch of troops to North Korea again.
On the afternoon of October 10, Chairman Mao Zedong presided over an emergency meeting of the Political Bureau at the summer palace in Zhongnanhai to study the issue of sending troops to North Korea again.
When a large number of troops were pressing on the border and troops were about to be sent, Stalin suddenly changed his mind, making the difficult decision-making face another severe test.
However, in the face of difficulties and pressure, the Chinese Communists with the spirit of proletarian internationalism, knowing that the journey was difficult and dangerous, the more difficult and dangerous, the more forward, firmly said that we would send troops even without the air support of the Soviet Union.
This further shows the deep friendship of the Chinese Communists towards the Korean people and the firm proletariatDespite the spirit of internationalism, the Chinese people’s volunteers have made great sacrifices in the face of the indiscriminate bombing of American aircraft, including Mao anying, the son of Chairman Mao Zedong of the Republic.
On October 19, 1950, “United Nations forces” occupied Pyongyang.
MacArthur therefore became more arrogant.
He boasted that he would occupy North Korea before Thanksgiving and promised to “let the children go home for Thanksgiving”.
In order to fulfill his promise of “let the children go home for Thanksgiving”, MacArthur changed his plan of meeting the East and west front forces on the Korean peninsula from Pyongyang to Yuanshan and fighting only by the South Korean army in the area north of Dingzhou Ningyuan Xianxing, and ordered the East and west front forces to accelerate the advance speed and advance towards the Sino Korean border in multiple ways.
Just as MacArthur led the “United Nations army” and Li CHENGWAN’s troops to rush into the China DPRK border, North Korea began to magically appear a large number of Chinese troops.
On October 18, 1950, the heroic 13th regiment of the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army crossed the Yalu River, stepped on Korean territory and began to fight against the United States.
The commander and political commissar of the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army, who was ordered at the time of crisis, also crossed the river the next day.
The first batch of combat troops of the volunteer army into the DPRK are 12 infantry divisions and 3 artillery divisions, with about 250000 people.
Another 24 divisions are being mobilized to join the Korean combat forces as the second and third batches.
The intention of the volunteers before entering the DPRK is to build fortifications in the north of Pyongyang and Yuanshan line and south of Dingzhou and Ningyuan line, so as to curb the offensive momentum of the US military, and then stand by for attack.
At this time, the total strength of the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army reached 420000, with 1100 aircraft of all types and more than 300 warships of all types, including more than 230000 ground troops.
In addition to some troops used to deal with the North withdrawal troops and guerrillas of the Korean people’s army in the south, there were 4 armies, 10 divisions, 1 brigade and 1 airborne regiment used to fight north of the 38th parallel, totaling more than 130000 people.
From October 20 to 24, the US military advanced more than 100 kilometers northward from Pyongyang, less than 100 kilometers from the nearest place to the China DPRK border.
However, MacArthur, who was determined to win quickly, still didn’t think the speed was fast, and ordered his two generals walker, commander of the 8th group army, and almond, commander of the 10th army, to lead the troops to push forward to the China DPRK border as quickly as possible.
His strategic intention is to control key border areas, block the retreat route of the Korean people’s army to the north, prevent the intervention of the Chinese army, and then eliminate the people’s army on the Korean Peninsula, so as to realize its plan to occupy the whole of Korea as soon as possible.
Under such circumstances, the volunteer army has been unable to reach the predetermined defense area first.
When the enemy changed and we changed, the Volunteer Army decided to change the original defense plan to the policy of moving to annihilate the enemy.
Due to the volunteers’ secret entry into the DPRK, all departments took a series of measures such as traveling at night, sleeping at dawn, tight camouflage and blocking information to hide their actions and attempts.
Under the constant reconnaissance and search of the enemy day and night, hundreds of thousands of troops marched for a week without being detected.
The “United Nations army” and the South Korean Army thought it was safe, emboldened, marched forward for a long time, and their forces were gradually dispersed.
The 6th, 7th and 83rd divisions of the Second Corps of the South Korean army in the middle road made bold advances, and the battle gap between the East and West lines became larger and larger.
The emergence of this situation has created favorable conditions for our campaign to annihilate the enemy.
Mao Zedong judged the situation and made a quick decision.
On October 21, he telegraphed the headquarters of the volunteer army twice to complete the battle deployment as soon as possible, seize the fleeting fighters and fight the first battle abroad.
Peng Dehuai resolutely implemented the instructions of the, timely adjusted the deployment of troops, and made preparations for annihilating the enemy.
On October 25, a battalion of the South Korean army broke into the Wenjing area along the road.
On both sides of the highway are continuous Highlands, with vertical and horizontal ditches and ridges and complex terrain.
In addition, the area was filled with fog and poor visibility before 9:00 a.m. for several days, and the enemy’s activities were limited, which was convenient for sudden attack on the enemy.
When the enemy entered the “pocket”, the 40th army of the volunteer army ambushed in the highlands on both sides of the road suddenly opened fire and annihilated it with the tactics of blocking the head, cutting the tail and cutting the waist.
The next day, the army wiped out most of the 7th regiment of the 6th Division of the South Korean army, which fled to Chushan by the Yalu River, and fled south.
This opened the prelude to the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army’s war to resist US aggression and aid Korea.
The volunteer army has exchanged fire with the South Korean army for several days, but the headstrong MacArthur disagreed.
He still believes that this is China’s “symbolic troop dispatch”, which is unlikely to pose any real threat.
Instead of stopping the rash advance of troops, he replaced the defeated South Korean fresh army with the US army.
The 1st division of the arrogant American cavalry continued to advance to Yunshan, 60 kilometers by the Yalu River, to support the fresh army of the Southern Dynasty there.
The 1st division of the American cavalry enjoys the reputation of “ace army” in the United States.
Since the establishment of the American War of independence, it has made many achievements in previous wars.
Therefore, no matter how the weapons and equipment are changed, the designation of the 1st division of the American cavalry remains unchanged.
The 39th army of the volunteer army was ordered to launch a siege and annihilation war against the enemy in Yunshan.
The troops were brave and quickly cut off the road from Yunshan to ningbian, stadium and Wenjing, and reached a siege of the enemy of Yunshan.
Without fire preparation, they suddenly rushed into Yunshan town with a force to disrupt the enemy’s command.
In the meantime, the 1st division of the American cavalry just took defense with the fresh army of the Southern Dynasty.
I didn’t expect that the volunteer army “fell from heaven” and was caught off guard.
The brave volunteer soldiers opened fire on the enemy before they burst into a battalion of the US Army.
The enemy panicked and ran away.
Due to close contact with the enemy, it was difficult for the US military to give full play to its firepower advantage.
It was forced to abandon most of its equipment and began to break through under the cover of tanks after midnight.
On the way to break through the encirclement, the 8th regiment of the US Cavalry was intercepted again.
Major Ormond, the commander of the 3rd Battalion of the regiment, led more than 200 remnant people and was chased to zhurenqiao and annihilated.
Since then, the volunteer army has adopted the tactics of concealing during the day and launching attacks at night to launch continuous fierce attacks on the enemy.
During the battle, the 39th army fought in Yunshan.
The Communist Party of China wiped out most of the 8th regiment, the 1st regiment of the 1st division of the US Cavalry, the 1st regiment of the 5th regiment and the 12th regiment of the 1st division of the South Korean army, wiped out more than 1800 US troops and seized a large number of weapons and equipment.
At the same time, the 42nd main force of the volunteer army, with the cooperation of the Korean people’s army, fought for 13 days and nights on the eastern front battlefield, resisted the fierce attack of three divisions of the US Army and the South Korean army, annihilated more than 2700 enemies, smashed the enemy’s attempt to detour the river boundary, and effectively coordinated the attack on the western front.
On November 7, the first battle was declared over.
In this battle, the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army pushed back the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army from the Yalu River to the south of the Qingchuan River, which ruined MacArthur’s plan to occupy the whole of Korea before ThanksgivingThe myth that the US military is invincible.
On November 7, Xinhua News Agency publicly reported for the first time that the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army entered the Korean War, made a strong counterattack and achieved a major victory.
The White House and the Far East US military headquarters were shocked by the news.
Albert weidemai, a former commander of the US military in China, said in a statement on November 8 that the Chinese people have insurmountable advantages and that “we may never defeat this army”.
Bradley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, said publicly at the Associated Press Association in Atlanta: “it is a terrible fact that after the U.S. military is put into the Korean battlefield, the remaining military strength is not enough to deal with the enemy at any other point.
” However, the dignitaries of the White House and the Pentagon did not wake up from the attack.
Fueled by the war madman MacArthur, they mistakenly believed that China did not send troops when the “United Nations army” retreated to the beach of Busan and at the critical moment of the US military’s Incheon landing, but did not send troops until the “United Nations army” pursued the border between China and North Korea, This shows that China has no intention of showdown with the United States out of self-defense, and the volunteers did not pursue the victory after winning the first battle, which strengthened their wrong judgment.
At this time, MacArthur repeatedly advocated the expansion of the scale of the war and strongly demanded the bombing of military bases in Northeast China and all bridges on the Yalu River, so as to prevent the Chinese people’s volunteers from continuing to enter the Korean battlefield.
On November 9, the U.S. National Security Council held a meeting and proposed to President Truman: before China’s intention to send troops is proved, continue to adhere to its original plan of military attack and rapid occupation of North Korea, agree that MacArthur “can act according to military circumstances”, and approve MacArthur’s plan to bomb all bridges on the Yalu River.
This proposal was endorsed by Truman.
The ambitious MacArthur began a new round of gambling.
He launched a new battle plan: first, conduct a tentative attack with ground forces to find out the strength and action attempts of the volunteer army.
At the same time, use airmen to destroy and block all bridges and ferries on the Yalu River and prevent China from further increasing its troops to North Korea.
Then launched a strong offensive, with the 10th army of the US army moving westward through Changjin lake, and the 8th group army of the US army moving up from the north of the Qingchuan river.
After the two armies joined up in wupingli, south of the river boundary, they surrounded and annihilated the volunteers and people’s army in the north of Korea, pushed forward to the China DPRK border, and occupied the whole of Korea before the Yalu River was frozen.
To this end, his troops deployed on the front line amounted to 5 armies, 13 divisions, 3 brigades and 1 airborne regiment, with a total of 220000 people, mainly the US military.
He is determined to “destroy the last remaining group of North Korean people’s army and calm the Korean peninsula” once and for all.
The second confrontation between the volunteer army and the Korean people’s army with the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army is ready to go.
On November 6, the U.S. military launched a tentative attack.
Peng Dehuai decided to make a plan and deliberately show weakness to lure the enemy to the scheduled battlefield, so as to create a good opportunity to annihilate the enemy.
In order to lure the enemy successfully, general Peng Yi opposed the practice of using non main force to lure the enemy, and selected the main division of the main force, the 112th division of the 38th army, to undertake this important task.
The brave and tenacious 112 division fought back more than 100 enemy attacks 57 times in the Feihu mountain resistance battle, held the position until it was ordered to evacuate.
Because the top was too hard, Walker, who was in command of the Western Front Army, was frightened.
He sternly asked the intelligence department, “didn’t you say that the small forces of the Communist Party of China are so powerful and can fight so well?” In case of accidents, he learned a lesson and made the troops slow down.
When President Peng learned of this situation, he immediately sent a telegram to all the troops: “do not carry out counter attacks on the attacking enemy, take the initiative to retreat, and then retreat more than ten kilometers back.
” This move was indeed effective.
Confused by the volunteer army, the US Army mistakenly judged that the Chinese army “retreated timidly”, so it boldly accelerated its northward advance.
At this time, the main force of the volunteer army has been transferred to the scheduled assembly site and completed the preparations for the second battle.
In particular, after the 9th Corps led by song Shilun entered the DPRK to take over the combat mission on the eastern front, the volunteer army has an absolute advantage in both the East and West lines.
However, MacArthur was arrogant that the war was approaching a decisive stage.
On November 24, after Thanksgiving in Tokyo, he flew to the headquarters of the 8th group army on the Korean Peninsula and issued the general offensive order of “ending the Korean War at Christmas”.
The five-star general repeated his old trick.
He raised his voice and repeatedly made a wish to the soldiers: “the total offensive will end in two weeks, and then the children can safely go home for Christmas.
” MacArthur was too happy.
On the evening of November 25, accompanied by the marching trumpet that frightened the enemy, the volunteer army on the western front, which was good at close combat and night combat, launched an attack on the US military at the same time on a 200 kilometer wide front and launched the second battle.
On the 27th of the war, general manager Peng sent an urgent telegram: the main force of the 38th army attacked in the direction of Yuanli and junyuli, and attacked the sansuoli south of junyuli with one part to block the fleeing enemy in junyuli and jiechuan in a detour.
After receiving the task of circuitous interspersed with the three institutes, the 113th division moved forward at full speed along the mountain path that night.
After excluding the sporadic resistance of a few enemies at night, it fought and entered the enemy’s depth before dawn.
In order to occupy sansuoli first, they ignored the bombing by enemy planes and decided to march in the daytime.
In order to confuse the enemy, they simply threw away their camouflage, turned off the radio and swaggered along the road.
American planes hummed overhead.
They were also without fear.
The US Air Force thought they were the defeated South Korean army and ignored them.
In this way, after 14 hours and 72.
5 kilometers of rapid march, the 113th division was inserted into the third key station of the highway from jiechuan to shunchuan.
Later, it was found that there was another passage to the west of sansuoli, and they took the initiative to occupy longyuanli on this passage, so that the American 9th army in the north of the south of the Yangtze River in Qingchuan was surrounded by our army.
At this time, MacArthur suddenly fell into the abyss of depression from the peak of optimism.
He lamented that the Chinese wanted to “wipe out all his troops” and urgently called Walker and almond to Tokyo to discuss countermeasures.
According to MacArthur’s deployment, on November 29, the enemy north of the Qingchuan river began to retreat.
In order to open the retreat of the 9th US Army, the 2nd US division went from north to south, the 1st US Cavalry Division went north from Pyongyang, and the north and South attacked the third Institute.
A fierce battle began.
At that time, the 113th division of the 38th army was sandwiched in the front line of sansuoli and longyuanli.
The enemy between the north and the South was less than 5 kilometers away, and the sound of chickens and dogs was heard.
In order to open the ghost in sansuoli and LongyuanWhen the gate was closed, the enemy sent hundreds of planes to bomb, and hundreds of tanks attacked from the land.
The 113th division fought tenaciously.
When they ran out of ammunition, they supplemented them with captured weapons, fought with the enemy in a tenacious spirit, and made great contributions to the annihilation of a large number of US troops.
In order to reduce the pressure of the 113th division, the main force of the 38th army moved closer to the 113th division.
At dawn on the 30th, the third company of 335 regiment, 112 division of the army seized the southeast highland of Songgu peak and intercepted the first division of the second division of the United States.
Under the leadership of the company commander and instructor, the whole company fought with a common hatred of the enemy and bravely blocked the attack.
Four group attacks of the enemy were defeated successively.
The company commander, instructor and a large number of soldiers died bravely, leaving only more than 20 people in the whole company.
The enemy’s fifth attack blasted the position of the third company into a sea of fire with 32 aircraft, 18 tanks and dozens of howitzers, and then launched an attack with thousands of infantry.
Facing the attack of 50 times my enemy, the soldiers of the third company were not afraid.
They knocked down row after row of enemies.
After the ammunition was finished, deputy company commander Yang Wenhai and several soldiers rushed to the enemy with roaring flames on their hats, hugged the enemy and burned the enemy with their torches.
Finally, only the Deputy instructor and six wounded soldiers remained in the position of the third company.
They stubbornly held the position until the main force annihilated the encircled enemy.
While cleaning the battlefield, many volunteer soldiers who died with the enemy were found among hundreds of American corpses: some were clutching the enemy’s machine guns.
Some hold grenades tightly in their hands, which are stuck to the burst brains of the enemy.
Some bodies press the enemy’s corpse, and their teeth and nails are embedded in the enemy’s skin and flesh.
When burying the remains of the martyrs, because they clasped their hands around the enemy, they could not be separated, so that some people’s fingers were broken.
The scene was heroic and touching.
In recognition of the company’s heroic deeds, the leading organ of the volunteer army gave the company a collective special merit and awarded a banner of “both offensive and defensive”.
Wei Wei, a famous writer interviewed by the 38th army during the war, wrote the well-known “who is the most lovely person” based on the heroic deeds of the third company, which aroused strong repercussions throughout the country.
Since then, “the most lovely person” has become synonymous with the volunteer army.
In this campaign, the enemy’s retreat route was quickly cut off by the rapid assault, which played a key role in defeating the enemy in the West.
Commander Peng Dehuai was very satisfied with this.
He personally wrote a commendation order on December 1 to encourage the army.
After the award order was issued, general manager Peng still felt that his words were still incomplete.
He asked the staff to take back the telegram and added two sentences after it: “long live the Chinese people’s Volunteer Army! Long live the 38th army!” The victory of the Western Line inspired the volunteer army on the eastern line.
The 9th Corps seized the favorable opportunity of the dispersion of the enemy’s forces and did not find the gathering of the Corps.
At the dusk of the 27th, it braved the severe cold, wind and snow to launch an attack on the enemy, surrounded the enemy in xiaguoyuli, liutanli, xinxingli and other areas, creating favorable conditions for the annihilation of the besieged enemy in the next step.
In the battle to prevent the enemy from fleeing to the south, Yang Gensi, company commander of the third company of the 172 regiment of the 58th division of the 20th army, led the whole company to stick to xiaogaoling, the only way to escape the enemy.
Until the battle, there were only two wounded in the whole company, and the position was still in my hands.
When the enemy launched the ninth charge and more than 40 enemies had climbed to the top of the mountain, Yang Gensi, who had been wounded, picked up only 5kg explosive bags, rushed to the enemy group and died with the enemy.
The heroes built an indestructible defense line with flesh and blood, which frightened the enemy and played the military power of the volunteer army.
The volunteers and the Korean people’s army took advantage of the victory to recover all the territory north of the 38th line except Xiangyang, liberated the ting’an Peninsula and Wengjin peninsula south of the 38th line, and achieved a major victory in killing and capturing 36000 enemies, including 24000 US troops, and walker, commander of the 8th group army, also died in the defeat.
The results of the second battle greatly exceeded the scheduled plan and smashed the strategic attempt of the US aggressors to occupy the whole of Korea.
MacArthur lost, and worse than the first battle.
However, the US government was unwilling to fail.
After the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army retreated to the 38th parallel, while rectifying the army and establishing a deep defense line, they played with the strategy of “ceasefire first and then negotiation” in order to get breathing time.
Mao Zedong saw through the American trick.
He called Peng Dehuai and asked the volunteer army to overcome unbearable difficulties and cooperate with the Korean people’s army to cross the 38th parallel.
He pointed out that at present, the United States is asking the volunteer army to stop North of the 38th parallel in order to facilitate the whole army to fight again.
If it is stopped to the north of the 38th parallel, it will give us a great political disadvantage.
From a military point of view, our army has only entered the DPRK for more than a month.
It has fought two consecutive battles and has reached the 38th parallel.
The war has developed faster than expected.
At this time, the six armies of the 13th Corps on the western front were very tired and needed rest and supplement.
The 9th corps of the eastern front has not been replenished in time in terms of personnel, ammunition and food.
Some troops do not even have cotton padded clothes for winter.
It is very difficult and it is unfavorable to fight immediately.
However, the political situation calls for fighting.
Although there are many difficulties in fighting, we must resolutely break through the 38th parallel.
After repeated study, general manager Peng and other leading comrades of the volunteer army made a final decision on December 15: give up the original Winter Rest plan, resolutely overcome all difficulties, launch the third campaign and cross the 38th line.
At this time, although it was very difficult for the volunteer army to prepare for the battle, there was also good news: the Korean people’s army troops separated from the South have successively gathered back three regiments.
After rectification, the combat effectiveness has been restored and actively asked to participate in the war.
The Central Military Commission decided to step up preparations for the 19th corps to enter the DPRK.
The Corps has carried out political mobilization for fighting in the DPRK and mobilized 84000 domestic veterans to supplement the front line.
On the evening of December 20, dazzling flares cut through the night of new year’s Eve.
The volunteers gathered more than 100 guns and made short fire preparations in the main direction.
Then, braving the heavy snow and the severe cold of minus 20 degrees Celsius, they launched a fierce attack on the defensive positions of the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army on the front about 200 kilometers wide, The enemy never expected that our army would launch another attack so soon.
The US Army has failed one after another.
It is afraid of the volunteers and dare not resist in the front line.
The front-line deployment is the fresh army of the Southern Dynasty, which acts as a substitute for the dead.
They are more afraid of the volunteer army.
In front of my strong offensive, they only try their best to escape, and the whole 38 defense line soon collapsed.
On January 4, 1951, the volunteers entered Seoul amid fireworks and explosions.
In order not to make the enemy defend the South Bank of the Han River and control Jinpu airport and Incheon port, so as to threaten Seoul and prepare for the next battle, the volunteer army and the people’s army jointly pushed back the enemy on the South Bank of the Han River.
On January 8, the “United Nations army” and the South Korean army were rushed to the front line near the 37 degree line.
The volunteers and the people’s army made concerted efforts and, after eight days and nights of hard work, pushed 80 to 100 kilometers south, killing and wounding more than 19000 people defending the enemy, smashing the attempts of the “United Nations army” to defend the 38th parallel, reorganize the army and prepare for another attack.
Since the volunteer army entered the DPRK, it has won three victories in three wars.
The “United Nations army” and the South Korean army have been defeated repeatedly.
MacArthur, a five-star general who has made great achievements in the war, has also lost his aura in the past.
The US government and the public have a crisis of trust in him.
They doubt whether the rebellious general will further lead the US Army to the abyss of failure.
However, the general, who was ignorant of current affairs, was very angry.
Instead of reflecting on his command mistakes, he put the responsibility for the failure on the White House and the Pentagon, which exacerbated his internal contradictions and conflicts with us dignitaries.
In this internal struggle, it is not difficult to guess the future and fate of MacArthur, the defeated general.