On December 7, the soldiers waiting for reinforcements were besieged by a large number of white troops while camping. The White army violently bombed the camp of the Red Eagle regiment. Ren Fu Chen commanded the troops to fight hand to hand with the White army who tried to capture the station, and repulsed the White army’s charge again and again. The next morning, when the Red Army reinforcements arrived in vilya, they found that Ren Fu Chen and his thousands of officers and soldiers had all died heroically. When the news reached the headquarters of the Red Army in Petersburg, sverdlov, chairman of the all Russia central executive committee, sighed. Always calm, dzerzhinski stood blankly in front of the desk with a telephone microphone. No one dares to report the news to those in hospital.
a little-known past 90 years ago
the Chinese Labor Corps participated in the October Revolution and the Soviet Russian Civil War
on the afternoon of June 20, 2010, the “anti violence and safety” parade of overseas Chinese broke out in Paris, France, and tens of thousands of overseas Chinese in France participated in the parade. The French mainstream media paid great attention to the parade. The European Times said that the parade set a new milestone in the history of safeguarding the rights of overseas Chinese in France.
for nearly a century and a half, due to the country’s poverty and weakness, overseas Chinese have been repeatedly subjected to unfair treatment and racial discrimination, and the record of humiliation of Chinese workers is endless in history.
however, in the Russian October Revolution more than 90 years ago, Chinese workers not only directly participated in the battle of seizing the Winter Palace (overthrowing the interim government) and the October armed uprising in Moscow, but also formed a “Chinese Legion” in the subsequent Soviet Russian civil war. They jumped their horses and lashed at the enemy, made great achievements in war, and were praised by the Soviet Russian government and Lenin.
Lenin ordered the formation of the “Chinese Legion”
. After the outbreak of World War I, the Beiyang government announced in early 1917 that it would participate in the operations of Britain, France and other allies, and sent a large number of troops to the Russian Austrian border to participate in the war. At the same time, it also sent thousands of workers to Russia to participate in field services. Many of these people later took part in the October Revolution and joined the Soviet Red Army.
according to the archives of the Beiyang government, about 30000 Chinese workers joined the Red Army during the October Revolution. In addition, according to the “Declaration”, it is estimated that “about 50000 overseas Chinese have joined the Red Army, and there are no less than 1000 officers”.
Chinese workers went to Russia in the 1860s and reached a climax in the first World War. During the first World War, Russia’s demand for labor increased sharply and recruited workers in northern China. After arriving in Russia, these people were either sent to logging farms in virgin forests or mines in Siberia to engage in slave labor, or sent to the front line of World War I in the west to dig trenches or engage in field transportation, and died miserably on the battlefield.
on November 7, 1917, the October Revolution broke out in Russia. Inspired by the revolution, Chinese workers in Russia took up arms and joined the October Revolution. In the subsequent Soviet Russian Civil War and the war against foreign armed intervention, thousands of Chinese workers in Russia joined the workers’ Red Guard and the Red Army.
after the founding of Soviet Russia, there was a civil war in Russia and the traffic was blocked. China’s troops and workers participating in the war in Russia are unable to return home and are in a difficult situation. After repeated representations by the Beiyang government, the Soviet Union agreed that the Chinese soldiers stranded in various parts of Russia would return home by train through Siberia in batches.
at the end of July 1918, a group of about 2000 Chinese soldiers stranded in Russia, led by Zhang Furong, took a train to trotsk between Chelyabinsk and Omsk in the Southern Ural region. The Soviet Red Army is fighting fiercely with the dutov department under gorchak of the white guard and the Czech Legion in trotsk. The train was unable to move on because the railway was damaged. Chinese soldiers and laborers are ready to walk across the grasslands of Kazakhstan and return to Xinjiang, China.
in the face of these uninvited guests, both the Soviet Red Army and the White Army wanted to use the Chinese to fight for themselves. The White army ordered them to attack the Red Army, otherwise they would be destroyed; The commander of the Red Army, WA Kang buluher, sent party representative Ni kahilin and a group of Communists to the Chinese people for publicity, hoping that they would stand on the side of the revolutionaries. The Chinese army was persuaded by the Soviet Red Army and joined the Red Army under the leadership of Zhang Furong. Although the Chinese army joined the
, due to the great difference in strength between the two sides, the Soviet Russian Red Army was still unable to withstand the offensive of the other side and was ready to break through in the northwest and join the main force of the Red Army on the Bank of Kama River in kungur region. There are many rivers in this area. At dawn on August 5, the breakthrough began. The White army made a fierce offensive. Buluher and Zhang Furong commanded the Red Army (including more than 1800 Chinese) to fight with dutov department for four days and nights, but they still did not break through. On the night of August 19, the White army crossed the tobor River and attacked the village of irnekhi, where the Red Army was located, in an attempt to capture the strategic point, cutting off the follow-up troops of the Red Army who were forcibly crossing the Zilim River and breaking them one by one.
at the critical moment of life and death, buluher ordered Zhang Furong to lead the Chinese soldiers of the two companies to counter attack the enemy. Carrying bayonets and a saber on their backs, they quickly jumped 20 or 30 steps away from the enemy and suddenly launched a charge. This Chinese Army belongs to the elite division of the Beiyang army in China. The soldiers are between 20 and 25 years old. They are well-trained and selected before going abroad. They have strong combat effectiveness, especially good at hand to hand combat. The Chinese soldiers defeated the White army, drove them across the tobor River and covered the Soviet Red Army to successfully cross the Zilim river.
, a team of more than 8000 people, including the Soviet Red Army and the Chinese army, overcame many difficulties and made a long-distance attack of 1600 kilometers. On September 12, they joined the fifth ural division of the Red Army on the Bank of Kama River in kungur area. On September 14, buluher telegraphed Lenin the legendary March, especially praising the bravery and tenacity of Chinese soldiers. On September 30, the all Russian Soviet central executive committee also heard a special report on the heroic deeds of the Sino Russian mixed forces in the Southern Ural. Due to the sudden success of Chinese soldiers led by Zhang FurongSverdlov, chairman of the Executive Committee, commended him and decided to combine the Chinese international volunteer teams from Russia’s ural Volga region to join the Red Army to form a “Chinese Legion”, and appointed Zhang Furong as the head of the army under the command of buluher. Lenin and sverdlov personally signed the order to establish the “Chinese Legion”. Trotsky (then commander in chief of the Red Army) went to kungur on behalf of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) on October 12, 1918 and awarded Zhang Furong the military flag with the “Chinese Legion”.
“Red Eagle regiment” bloodbath ural
shortly after the outbreak of the Soviet Russian Civil War, on November 25, 1917, in Kama mining area in the upper reaches of Volga, Russia, Ren Fu Chen organized an armed force composed of Chinese workers to support the Soviet Russian regime. This armed force attracted Lenin’s attention. He signed an order to reorganize the unit into the 225th regiment of the 29th Infantry Division of the third army of the Red Army, and appointed an assistant minister as the head.
served as assistant minister (1884-1918). He was from Zhenhe Jiaxin village, Tieling County, Liaoning Province and joined the Bolsheviks in the northeast. In 1914, he was appointed by the organization to lead 2000 Chinese workers to Russia as members of the foreign affairs office.
in the spring of 1918, the Volga River was filled with smoke, and bereur, the division commander of the second division of the Red Army stationed on the West Bank of the upper reaches of the Volga River, was on pins and needles. Facing the well-equipped white guards, the red army fought bravely, but suffered heavy casualties. Logistical support was also cut off. Bereur dialed the call for help from the headquarters of the Red Army. The chairman of the Soviet Russian counter insurgency Committee, dzerzhinski, learned that the front line was in urgent need and sent a delegation of assistant ministers to support bereur.
in Kama mining area, Chinese miners are famous for their diligence, intelligence and willingness to bear hardships. They have very harmonious and friendly exchanges with all local strata and can carry out extensive activities. Taking advantage of this favorable condition, Ren Fu Chen sent scouts into the interior of the white guards to destroy the ferries and tanks of the white guards by taking the opportunity of transporting oil and supplies. In a few days, more than one-third of the equipment was secretly destroyed by scouts.
at dawn on May 29, the White army’s artillery aimed at the Red Army position, and the troop carrier was ready to anchor. Unexpectedly, many guns ready to be loaded had long been tampered with by the Scouts of the regiment, and the boiler pressure gauges of many ferries had also been damaged and could not be ignited and set sail. When the White army was in chaos, Ren Fu Chen issued an order to fire. The White army not only had no power to fight back, but also had no time to escape and escape. The Volga River defense was a great victory. The headquarters of the Red Army received a telegram from bereur asking for merit for his assistant minister. In his spacious office, Lenin habitually inserted his left hand into the waist of his vest, raised his right hand, vigorously waved the telegram asking for merit, turned in circles, and sighed excitedly and briefly: “deputy minister, a red eagle in our Soviet army, a red eagle flying straight into the sky!”
according to Lenin’s instructions, the Military Commission issued a commendation order and awarded the Chinese Legion serving as assistant minister as the “Red Eagle regiment”. The sharp eyed chairman of the Soviet Anti Japanese Committee hugged Ren Fu Chen and repeatedly said, “Gree fan, Gree fan!” (Russian: true friend). He also said excitedly: “… The Chinese regiment once captured the city of perm twice, fought a bloody battle in Alatai, and then defeated the White army many times in the area of dura River and shangdura. The machine guns you captured can equip a division.”
after the grand naming ceremony, dzerzhinski returned to Petersburg and saw Lenin’s first sentence: “what I lack most now is soldiers like the red hawk regiment.” Lenin glanced at his look of expectation, immediately picked up his pen and issued an order to transfer 100 Chinese soldiers from the “Red Eagle regiment” to work in the Soviet security department.
the victory of the Volga defense war made Ren Fu Chen and the red hawk regiment famous. The Communist newspaper at that time wrote: “Ren’s red hawk regiment is the most resourceful and tenacious force in the struggle to defend the Soviet Union. The reason why the red hawk regiment is victorious lies in their infinite loyalty to the revolutionary cause and the class feelings of flesh and blood and life and death between officers and soldiers. As the commander of this detachment, Ren has become a legendary hero in Volga. His name is shining.”
at the beginning of December 1918, Ren Fu Chen, who won the Volga defense war, led his troops to support the blocking war of Vila station. This is a hard battle to defend the logistics channel of the Red Army, and it is also a vicious battle for the enemy to be strong and for us to be weak. The white guards stormed the station with two divisions and a Cossack cavalry regiment. The attacking Cossacks are the most aggressive of the nine Cossack armies in Russia. They like blood wine and harness (used to drag the prisoners to death behind the horse), spit words from their teeth, the whip is coated with asphalt, the green veins on their arms are exposed, and the traditional “shashka” straight blade saber is held in the air. The battle of
lasted seven days and nights, and the red army paid great sacrifices. Ren Fu Chen stuck to the front line and directed two Soviet Russian teams to break through the encirclement, withdraw to the west section of the station where the enemy’s firepower was slightly weak, preserve their strength and wait to meet with the reinforcements. The red hawk regiment held its position at the forefront and confronted the White army.
on December 7, when the soldiers waiting for reinforcements were camping, they were surrounded by a large number of white troops. The White army violently bombed the camp of the Red Eagle regiment. Ren Fu Chen commanded the troops to fight hand to hand with the White army who tried to capture the station, and repulsed the White army’s charge again and again. The next morning, when the Red Army reinforcements arrived in vilya, they found that Ren Fu Chen and his thousands of officers and soldiers had all died heroically. When the news reached the headquarters of the Red Army in Petersburg, sverdlov, chairman of the all Russia central executive committee, sighed. Always calm, dzerzhinski stood blankly in front of the desk with a telephone microphone. No one dared to report the news to Lenin who was in hospital. After the sacrifice of
, the Soviet government sent a special car to take his wife Zhang Hanguang and three children to Moscow. In 1920, Lenin received a report that Mrs. Ren applied to return home and sent someone to take them to the Kremlin. When Mrs. Ren and her children entered the office, Lenin left the officeHe came over from behind the table, shook hands with them cordially, and said, “are you the wife of Comrade Ren Fu Chen? When I learned that you came to Moscow, I wanted to meet you, but I couldn’t find the time. I’m very happy to meet you today.” Speaking of Mrs. Ren and her children returning home, Lenin said: “I suggest you stay in Russia. The Soviet government will try its best to take care of you. There will be many difficulties in returning home.” However, Mrs. Ren still hoped to return home. Lenin comforted: “when the eastern war subsides, we will arrange for you to return to China.” In 1921, the Soviet regime won the victory in Vladimir. The Soviet government sent special vehicles and guards to escort Mrs. Ren and her three children back to China. In November 1989, the government of the former Soviet Union awarded Ren Fu Chen the red flag Medal (the highest battle Medal of the Soviet Union), which was handed over by the Soviet ambassador to China to Ren Dongliang, the son of Ren Fu Chen.
Kirov gave a gun to Bao Qingshan.
in the north Caucasus, Bao Qingshan’s “China battalion” also made outstanding military achievements.
in the spring of 1918, more than 100 Chinese workers led by Bao Qingshan established a Chinese detachment in fratico Caucasus in the north Caucasus. It was an important armed force relied on by the Czech Soviet Republic at that time. It enjoyed a high reputation during the period of civil war and was recited as “the Chinese Red Guards sent by Lenin from Moscow (Caucasus)”. When the Chinese army was established in fraj Caucasus, an important town in the north Caucasus, Kirov, chairman of the provisional Revolutionary Military Commission of Astrakhan border region, personally came to the army to express warm congratulations and personally awarded the red flag; And presented a Mauser gun to Bao Qingshan, the commander of the Chinese independent battalion.
as soon as the team was established, it immediately joined the battle to defend vladicaucasus. On August 1, 1918, after holding on for several months, the Soviet Red Army, as the main force of defending the city, was outnumbered by the white guards and broke through the defense line into the city. After four days of fierce fighting, most urban areas fell into enemy hands, and the Red Army was forced to prepare for evacuation. The situation was extremely critical. The Chinese detachment suddenly raised a red flag from a tall building in the central square in the center of the city. Then, the Chinese detachment shot at the White army violently, and the white guard immediately launched a fierce attack on the Chinese army in turn. Bao Qingshan commanded the Chinese soldiers to rely on the bunker, resist tenaciously, and thwart the attack of the White army again and again. He always held this important commanding height in his own hands. The battle lasted until the sixth day. The reinforcements arrived, drove away the White army and recaptured the Caucasus city of vladi.
baoqingshan detachment also completed the combat task excellently in the “hundred day war” to defend the southern oil base Grozny city. In accordance with Kirov’s order, this team was adapted into the “Chinese battalion” in the early summer of 1919, incorporated into the Red Army sniper regiment and headed for the Volga River and Don river areas.
for baoqingshan detachment, The Soviet government has made the following comments: “Although the detachment commanded by Bao Qingshan has no material guarantee, is far away from his hometown and suffers from hunger and cold, it has completed countless combat missions in the mountainous areas of the north Caucasus without complaint. Whether it is to wipe out sporadic bandits or crack down on the well-equipped White army, they are a model of real internationalist soldiers and a model of loyal guards to protect the rights of working people.”
in May 1919, Lenin personally received all the Chinese soldiers who were compiled into the Third Battalion of the fourth regiment of the Soviet Russian Red Army and praised them for “really good”, and some Chinese soldiers also won the “Lenin Medal”.
Chinese workers in Lenin’s guard
after the establishment of the Soviet government, Chinese workers have gained great trust from Lenin. More than 70 Chinese workers have served as guards to defend Lenin in the Petrograd Smolny Palace, the seat of the Soviet government. Li Fuqing, a Chinese worker from Shenyang, Liaoning Province, is one of more than 70 Chinese guards. He also served as the group leader of Lenin’s guard.
during his tenure as Lenin’s guard in Petrograd, Li Fuqing was afraid to disturb Lenin’s work every time he was on duty. He led other guards to stand guard and watch under the steps outside Lenin’s office, and walked very gently. Once, a guard wanted to cough. For fear that it would affect Lenin’s work, he just covered his mouth tightly and coughed up when he went far away.
Lenin was very concerned about these guards from foreign countries. He had many times talked with Chinese soldiers and asked them if they were used to living, eating and living well. In order to communicate with Chinese guards, Lenin also took time to learn “hello”, “eat” and other daily Chinese from these guards. In order to improve the Russian level of Chinese soldiers, Lenin specially sent a teacher to give them Russian lessons and presented them Russian textbooks.
in May 1923, Li Fuqing was sent to Moscow military school for formal military training. When Lenin died in January 1924, Li Fuqing, as a representative of the military academy, held a wake for Lenin.
with the passage of time, the past events of more than 90 years ago have long been forgotten in the long river of history. The desperate battles of Chinese workers in Russia in foreign countries, in addition to a few words of propaganda in the Soviet and Russian newspapers, they had almost no records because of the chaotic political situation in China and the low social status of overseas workers at that time. In the late 1980s, with the improvement of relations between China and the former Soviet Union, the past history was mentioned again. Due to the long history, it is difficult to find information. Except for a few people who can basically understand their life experience and deeds, most people don’t even leave their names.
at the beginning of the last century, Chinese workers in Russia won the respect and praise of Soviet Russia with their own sacrifice under the condition of not being treated equally and being bullied and insulted. Their deeds cannot be recorded in the long history of the motherland, and their names cannot be remembered by future generations of the motherland.