Since taking office in the White House, Clinton has been dealing with issues such as Somalia and Bosnia and Herzegovina while observing the public opinion of the society.
Public opinion holds that although the new president is proficient in internal affairs, he does not understand military affairs and does not handle relations with major powers well.
Isn’t that the same statement as in the 1991 presidential election? Clinton thought deeply about how to change all this.
Clinton is young, proficient in politics, and has many achievements in the position of governor, which is unmatched by many people of his age or equal status.
During his tenure as governor of Arkansas, he did several sensational and even risky things, such as boldly reforming education, strictly cracking down on crime and strengthening public utilities management, which determined his favorable position in the political arena.
When he officially announced his candidacy for president, the people of Arkansas, located in the southern United States and not valued by others, immediately became boiling and excited.
Because there hasn’t been a president here, they see hope in the young Governor Clinton.
Clinton did not disappoint Arkansas villagers, raised the banner of change, put forward the slogan of revitalizing the United States, and challenged then President Bush.
Thus, Democrats called him a “political prodigy” and Republicans called him a “skilled political animal”.
Republicans call him a “political animal”, which essentially refers to Clinton’s pragmatism.
In other words, his programs and policies represent the American middle class and aim at “usefulness”.
In his eyes, “useful” is conducive to achieving its political goals and realizing the interests of the United States.
He said that as long as “useful”, politicians can do anything.
The relations and exchanges between countries and the interests and forces of other countries are all based on the needs of the interests of the United States.
They are all “tools” that can be selected and discarded at will.
Clinton is well aware that the United States is a country that likes to pursue new and different things.
People often weave their dreams by capturing beautiful fantasies.
For decades after the war, Americans have been living in prosperity.
If they are faced with many difficulties, they will feel disappointed, think their dreams are dashed, and resent the government.
Starting from the American mentality, Clinton designed a perfect dream for the Americans and vowed to be responsible for rebuilding the American dream.
He named his policy agenda after the infectious concept of “new contract”.
He also said that achieving the goal of the “new contract” depends on a condition that Americans believe in the determination of the future.
In order to realize the political platform of the “new contract”, he called on the American people: “the politics of the new contract with one heart and one mind is our hope today.
When the people restore their sense of responsibility and unite with one heart and one mind, they will gain unprecedented dignity.
” Clinton, who started from “internal affairs”, whether he is familiar with military affairs or not, must put forward new theoretical guidance on security and military issues.
After Clinton took office, inspired by the slogan of “revitalizing the American economy”, he carefully considered the adjustment of security policy and military strategy while organizing the operation of various measures of the “new contract”.
Especially since the second half of 1993, he has made a series of important speeches on the US foreign strategy after the cold war, and put forward a “more ambitious” new global strategy, namely “expansion strategy”.
Clinton believed that after the cold war, more and more countries in the world agreed with the “principles of democracy, freedom, market economy and the rule of law”.
This development trend replaced the serious East-West confrontation during the cold war.
Therefore, the United States must seize the opportunity and adjust its strategy to ensure American security and world peace.
How to promote the realization of this new expansion strategy? Clinton’s basic idea is to consider both domestic and foreign affairs.
He believes that diplomacy and internal affairs are inseparable in solving the security problems of the United States and the world.
“The collapse of the Soviet Union was not caused by being defeated on the battlefield, but by domestic economic, political and spiritual factors.
Therefore, if the national strength of the United States is not strengthened, it will not be able to lead today’s world established through great sacrifice.
In terms of diplomacy, the United States should not retreat, but face its opponents, consolidate and play a leading role,” he said Clinton supported former President Bush in many foreign affairs.
For example, support the Gulf War that drove Saddam out of Kuwait.
Support the principled position on promoting the Middle East peace conference.
Support the decision to retain NATO and continuously strengthen its military strength.
Support the negotiations on the establishment of a free trade area with the Mexican government.
However, Clinton disagreed with Bush’s excessive use of personal relations with leaders of other countries to deal with international affairs.
At the same time, he believed that multinational forces should not be withdrawn from the Middle East too early.
Starting from the idea of combining domestic and foreign affairs, Clinton put forward the concept of American security strategy.
He believes that: “The collapse of communism is not a dangerous end.
In today’s more unstable world, a series of threats will force the United States to remain vigilant when it can rebuild its national defense at any time.
The United States must regain strong economic power to maintain its leadership in international security.
Military power is important for national security, but it is practical In terms of economic strength, it is much lower.
We should invest less in “firepower” and more in “brain power”.
Otherwise, the United States will not be able to bear.
The concept of “threat” in the United States’ security definition should include a common threat to all.
On environmental and global issues, the survival of the United States depends on its leadership over the world.
” So what is the goal of the US security strategy? Clinton put forward three points: first, it is necessary to build a military force it needs in a new era.
Second, we must work with allies around the world to promote the consolidation and development of the democratic movement.
Third, the US economy must regain its leading position in the world.
In September 1993, Clinton announced a new five-year national defense plan.
The plan calls for maintaining the world’s most powerful military force to ensure the implementation of the “new contract” policy, maintain the status of a superpower, and implement the policy of reducing troops by improving the quality and accuracy of weapons.
He also proposed to rearrange the strategic deployment according to the idea of “winning two wars at the same time”, and planned to reduce the number of troops from 1.
7 million to 1.
4 million within five yearsThe expenditure on fees is 34% lower than that at present.
The White House spokesman believes that President Clinton’s new military plan is the first military strategy after the cold war, but it is not a major change in military policy, because the new plan expresses its willingness to protect the military industry foundation.
Nevertheless, public opinion still has doubts about Clinton’s new military plan: whether the army is enough to implement its strategy of winning two non nuclear wars almost at the same time.
Defense Secretary Aspin and chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Powell are obviously supporters of Clinton’s new military plan.
They made a televised speech expounding the new military plan.
They said that in order to implement the strategy of winning two wars with fewer troops, the Clinton administration plans to store enough weapons and equipment for several Army brigades in several overseas locations for use in the Persian Gulf or North Korea conflict, spend more money on the development of precision guided missiles and bombs, and increase ships for the transportation of troops and equipment.
However, some members of Congress and generals of the Navy, land and air force still expressed doubts about fighting two wars at the same time.
On September 20, at the hearing held by the Senate to discuss the five-year military plan, members of Parliament obviously did not agree, and they all wanted to make their views supported by the military.
Meryl mcpock, chief of staff of the air force and commander of the US military in South Korea, said at the hearing that if the conflict broke out in the Middle East and the war broke out on the Korean Peninsula at the same time, Seoul may have been ravaged before the arrival of us reinforcements.
Army General Gary luck said: “we are very worried about this issue.
The commander of the U.S. military in the Pacific and the Middle East has begun to study how to send enough troops to each war to avoid unstoppable losses at the beginning of the war.
” He also said that at present, the greatest danger of war is on the Korean Peninsula.
If war may break out, the United States will immediately send nearly 400000 troops there.
Critical Republicans doubt whether President Clinton can fight two wars after cutting defense spending.
They said that 184 bombers and 346 warships were needed to carry out the two wars, but by 1999, Clinton’s defense budget could only produce 107 bombers and 330 warships.
The generals of the four services told Congress that the main risks of the two war strategies were: concentrating enough ships and aircraft to transport the US combat forces to the two battlefields in time.
Provide sufficient bombing for two wars.
Mobilize trained reserve forces and put them into war.
Aspin made an analytical explanation at the hearing.
He said: “The new military plan is intended to replace the cold war nuclear conflict strategy.
Those who formulated the defense plan considered the policy of ‘combat plus containment’, which is to conduct a war while retaining only enough troops to stop or attack major attacks by other enemies.
Only by implementing a strategy that can carry out two Gulf war like wars can we prevent another enemy from being attacked by U.S. troops at the same time We can’t fight two wars and start a second war.
” Although the debate can continue, the strategic adjustment must be implemented.
According to the requirements of the new military plan, the National Security Council and the Ministry of national defense quickly put forward reform suggestions: reduce the army from 14 divisions to 10 divisions by 1999.
The National Guard was reduced from eight divisions to five.
— the number of naval aircraft carriers will be reduced from 13 to 12, one of which will be used as a training ship for naval aviation and play a reserve role.
Build the third “sea wolf” nuclear attack submarine, one more than originally planned.
– the air force was reduced from 28 wing units to 20 wing units.
B-1 and B-2 bombers can drop non nuclear bombs.
The air force will maintain 184 bombers.
— cancel two weapons programs: one is the Navy’s proposed plan to replace the a-6 “intruder” based on aircraft carrier and the af-x medium range bomber that can avoid radar.
The other is an air force multipurpose fighter that has not yet been developed.
In addition, the air force F-16 Falcon fighter ceased production after 1994.
— start manufacturing the new generation F-22 “secret fighter” fighter of the air force and the E-type and F-type of the proposed Navy FA-18 carrier based attack aircraft.
— in terms of ballistic missile defense, the focus has shifted to anti missile weapons that can defend short-range missiles such as “Scud” missiles.
In October 1996, Clinton summoned Aspin to the White House and asked him to preside over the establishment of a force with more mobility, flexibility and rapid adaptability than today.
To some extent, this means that the Navy and Marine Corps will play a greater role in future overseas operations.
As part of this strategy, Clinton reiterated the need to maintain nearly 100000 U.S. troops in Europe and Southeast Asia.
At the end of 1996, Cohen succeeded Aspin as defense minister.
The active supporter of Clinton’s military policy combined Aspin’s military reform proposal with future operations and put forward three plans for the future structure of the US military.
Shortly after taking office, Cohen presented the strategic document drafted by his organization to President Clinton.
The first option is to generally maintain the existing plan, that is, to invest in new weapons and equipment at a moderate speed.
It requires a slight reduction in the size of the army in order to save money for the purchase of new equipment and the replacement of old equipment.
The second option is to make the Pentagon’s military and command systems “faster in the era of revolution”.
It may ultimately mean a fundamental change in the way the US army fights.
The third option is to make a compromise between the above two schemes.
It requires the military’s weapons and equipment to adopt military revolutionary technologies in sensing, aiming and communication to meet many tasks predicted by Pentagon strategists.
After the experts’ evaluation and the president’s determination, it is believed that the second scheme is closer to the new military plan and more suitable for the requirements of the United States in global interests.
However, senior Pentagon officials understand that choosing the second option requires high-tech support.
After the Gulf War, according to the national security strategic policy, the US Department of defense studied how to ensure the “technological advantage” of the US military, promulgated a new national science and technology strategy, and determined the “seven key technology areas” as the goal of military technology policy.
First, global surveillance and communication.
The US military has decided to build the existing independent system into an integrated system with large-scale regional detection capability in about eight years.
Limited capacity and independenceLi’s information service has been transformed into a global trunk system with ultra-high capacity, and the support of operations and intelligence has been improved into a rigorous intelligence information flow.
Improve the limited capacity response capacity into a rapid capacity response capacity that can be deployed globally.
In this way, the US military will have global surveillance and intelligence, communication, command and control capabilities.
Second, precision strike.
It is difficult for the US military to develop the all-weather joint strike system and the all-weather joint strike system into the existing one in 2005.
Make the existing systems that are not sensitive and fast enough to build a joint rapid response and killing system for time sensitive targets.
Improve the system that transmits battlefield information slowly into a system that can transmit information to operators in time and according to requirements.
The new system will be able to operate day and night under the conditions of night vision, camouflage and shelter.
Third, air superiority and defense.
It is expected that it will have the defense capability of counterattack against the low coverage of future tactical ballistic missiles in five years.
In the expanded operational airspace, it can effectively deal with stealth aircraft and stealth cruise missiles equipped with advanced countermeasure systems.
It has the ability of high kill probability for helicopters and missiles flying across the sea.
Networked weapon system with optimal resource allocation and cooperative operation.
Fourth, sea surface control and underwater advantages.
It is expected that by 2005, the US Navy will have strong defense capabilities in regional, shallow water and sensitive areas of the third world.
Perfect shallow water and regional combat capability.
Multi weapon platform protection and key defense.
Advanced environmental sensing system, unmanned underwater vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle.
Fifth, advanced land warfare.
In this field, the future US land forces will be easy to deploy and able to perform various tasks outside the operational range of the enemy forces.
Comprehensive survival system.
It can find targets, identify targets and kill targets in extended range.
It is equipped with advanced systems such as electronic map, war situation perception and intelligence aided decision-making.
Sixth, synthetic environment.
In about 15 years, the US military will build a synthetic environment suitable for the requirements, accurately reproduce some parts of the world, and enable military systems with computers to communicate in the synthetic environment.
The synthetic environment network will connect troops, researchers, scientists, engineers and manufacturers, and synthesize and simulate them on the battlefield.
Seventh, the economic production mode should be technological.
In this field, an integrated military production mode will be developed, and flexible manufacturing systems and intelligent control technologies will be widely used to greatly reduce management costs and production costs, and ensure product quality and quantity.
With the breakthroughs in these high-tech fields and the gradual injection into the US military, the combat capability of the US military will be greatly improved.
Shalikashvili, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, said to senior generals and lower level officers: “once you are equipped with high and new technology, you can complete tasks wherever you go.
Weapons are your God and the world is your home.
” In order to convince us military officers and soldiers of what high and new technology will provide for their future operations, the Pentagon held a speech in August 1997.
General Owens, a futurist and senior planner of the Ministry of defense, made the following speech.
He said: in terms of attacking targets, the US military will likely destroy tanks from the air.
He said that the war largely depends on the situation in the initial stage.
It is possible to use smart bombs to make up for the shortcomings of the US military in other aspects.
In the future, the ability of the US military to attack and destroy the enemy has exceeded the ability of the “Desert Storm” to defeat the Iraqi army.
The 55 tactical aircraft carried by aircraft carrier “” are equipped with smart bombs.
The bomb load is five times more than the similar bombs equipped by Saratoga and independence when the Gulf War broke out.
The army has also become increasingly effective by increasing the use of sensitive weapons.
In the future, tanks can hit targets 4800 meters away at night, and helicopters can search and hit targets 12 kilometers away.
By that time, a tank brigade will have more lethal strike capability than a tank division today.
In terms of coordinated action, the advanced radar system has made the four services form a whole.
The US military’s recent exercise off the coast of North Carolina aims to prove that the four services can achieve stronger strike capability through coordinated action.
The army “Patriot” missiles deployed on shore use the “Aegis” radar system equipped on naval ships to track incoming missiles.
This way of connecting and coordinating the two weapon systems has greatly strengthened the combat effectiveness.
In the case of a crisis in the Gulf region, the United States only needs to transport the “Patriot” missile to its destination without transporting the bulky “Patriot” radar system.
Instead, the navy ships anchored in the nearby waters complete this task.
In terms of reconnaissance, satellite systems are the eyes of the whole world.
Through satellites, drones and sensors, commanders can immediately know everything on the 200 square mile battlefield.
This effect makes it difficult to imagine its power.
The army has developed a plan to “digitize” the battlefield, linking tanks, troop carriers and everyone’s position on the battlefield with accurate information.
Deploy unmanned aircraft that can stay for 12 hours over the battlefield to spy on the enemy’s position and intercept the enemy’s communication intelligence.
Owens concluded that information is not just a tool, and the future army will increasingly fight for control of information.
Computers are the battlefield.
In future operations, we will be able to let our opponent know that he has completely lost control without going through battle.
For example, when an opponent gives an order, but his subordinates receive it, it has become the opposite meaning.
Fooling the enemy’s computer is a development of electronic warfare in the future.
High and new technology will change the battlefield in the future and the training mode of troops in peacetime.
General Franks of the army training and Doctrine Command said seriously to the staff of its command: “the future battlefield is a digital battlefield, but digitization cannot win the war.
To win the future war, we must rely on well-trained officers and soldiers.
Therefore, high and new technology puts forward higher requirements for army training.
” Today, the training of the US military is carried out in accordance with the requirements of high and new technology and the needs of the future digital battlefield.
From individual tactics and technology to division and regiment tactics, there are new subjects every year, and comprehensive training should be carried out at the end of the year.
The US military not only organizes troops to carry out training and exercises in accordance with the requirements of the new military plan, but also uses high and new technology to speed up overseas cooperation.