The Second World War ended with the victory of the allies and the failure of the axis powers.
The two great powers of the United States and the Soviet Union became allies in the struggle against fascism.
However, when their former opponents Germany, Italy and Japan were knocked down, they became irreconcilable opponents and secretly launched tit for tat struggle, making the post-war world enter a long period of the cold war.
During this period, Asia, especially East Asia, became the focus of their competition, and the first to bear the brunt was North Korea, which suffered from war.
North Korea is a long and narrow peninsula extending from the north of the Asian continent to the southeast and extending between the Yellow Sea and the sea of Japan in the Pacific Ocean, forming a narrow peninsula surrounded by the sea on three sides and back to the mainland.
Due to its important strategic position and rich mineral resources, it has been trampled and occupied by foreign powers repeatedly.
In 1895, Japanese imperialism extended its claws to the peninsula country and colonized the Korean people for half a century.
Half a century later, the Korean people finally hope for independence and freedom, but what awaits them is aggression and trampling.
Just as the Second World War came to an end, but the rumbling artillery fire was still ringing, the United States had already begun to think about North Korea.
As early as March 27, 1943, when the president of the United States met with British Foreign Secretary Aydin, he made a bold proposal to regard North Korea and Indochina as a region that could be trusteeship immediately after the war.
The clever Englishman saw through the medicine sold in the American gourd at a glance.
At the famous Tehran conference held by the heads of anti fascist allies, Roosevelt told the Soviet Union: “North Korea does not have the ability to exercise and maintain an independent government, and should be under 40 years of guardianship.
” The implication is self-evident.
Although the Cairo Declaration signed by the United States, China and Britain on December 1 of the same year said: “my three major allies, mindful of the enslavement treatment suffered by the Korean people, have decided to make Korea free and independent for a considerable period of time.
” However, the US State Department secretly suggested that the military departments should create conditions for actively “participating in the internal affairs of the DPRK”.
They envisaged that the future military government could be participated by the United States, Britain, China and the Soviet Union, but the number of representatives of the participating countries should not hinder the “effectiveness” of the US action.
During the Yalta conference in 1945, Roosevelt in a wheelchair repeated the old tune of “North Korea trusteeship” during the meeting with Stalin, and proposed that “North Korea should be trusteeship by a representative of the Soviet Union, a representative of the United States and a representative of China” after Japan’s defeat, and “the trusteeship period may be 20 to 30 years”.
Stalin said that “the shorter the trusteeship period, the better”, and suggested that “Britons should be invited”.
After some bargaining, the United States and the Soviet Union reached an understanding on the issue of four countries trusteeship with North Korea.
In fact, the wishful thinking of the United States is to exercise its own hegemony in the name of the trusteeship of the four countries.
On July 25, 1945, during the POC í Tan meeting, General Marshall, the chief of staff of the U.S. Army, wrote to President Truman, Roosevelt’s successor, proposing to deal with the Korean issue according to the opinions of the Joint Chiefs of staff, and quickly occupy the capital Seoul, Busan, Qingjin and other strategic places after the war, so as to control North Korea.
Shortly after the end of the POC í Tan meeting, with the United States dropping two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan announced its unconditional surrender on August 10.
At this time, the Soviet army quickly marched from the battlefield in Northeast China to North Korea.
This is worrying the generals of the US Joint Chiefs of staff.
They began to worry about where the Soviet Union would stop advancing? They took great pains to think of a good strategy to curb the offensive momentum of the Soviet Army: fast versus fast, the U.S. military lacks troops available for immediate use, and due to the factors of time and space, it is very difficult to advance farther north before the Soviet Union enters the region.
Let the Soviet Union drive in and give in to the “fat meat” that was about to arrive.
What should I do? At a time of desperation, two small figures, Dean Lasker and bonistil, the major staff of the Pentagon, stared at the map and had an idea.
On the grounds that the United States and the Soviet Union had an understanding of jointly trusteeship with North Korea at the Yalta meeting, they put forward a proposal to use the 38th parallel of north latitude as the dividing line for the United States and the Soviet Union to accept Japan’s surrender.
The 38th parallel of north latitude not only passes through the central part of North Korea, but also the capital Seoul and the two important seaports of Incheon and Busan are designated in the surrender area of the United States.
According to the strength of the United States at that time, it is impossible to compete with the Soviet army to reach such a place to the north.
The two major’s proposal was just in line with the appetite of the weak US ruling group trying to occupy North Korea, and was immediately approved by Truman.
On August 15, Truman sent a top secret letter to Stalin, proposing to take the 38th parallel of north latitude as the dividing line between the United States and the Soviet Union to accept the surrender of the Japanese army.
For some reason, Stalin simply and happily accepted it, which made Truman overjoyed and happy for a while.
Then, the general, the supreme commander of the United States in the Pacific theater, officially issued an order: Japanese officers and soldiers north of the 38th line surrendered to the Russians, and Japanese officers and soldiers south of the 38th line surrendered to the Americans.
At this time, the 25th group army of the Soviet army, under the command of general chistyakov, had crossed the 38th parallel and occupied Seoul, Incheon and other cities.
However, as soon as they received the order on the demarcation line, they quickly withdrew to the north of the 38th parallel.
The 38th parallel easily demarcated by two American major on the map was originally temporarily divided for the surrender of the United States and the Soviet Union, but no one expected that it would divide North Korea into two, forming a “” on the peninsula and almost becoming the fuse that triggered the Third World War.
After entering the south of North Korea, the U.S. military immediately began to support the pro american forces and establish a pro american regime, so as to achieve the purpose of international trusteeship of North Korea manipulated by the United States.
On December 21, 1945, MacArthur used a plane from the Allied headquarters in Tokyo to take Lee Seung Wan, who had been wandering abroad for a long time, back to North Korea from the United States, instructing him to form the core of a pro american government.
Who is Li CHENGWAN? He was born in 1875 and claimed to be a descendant of the Lee Dynasty.
At the age of 20, he entered the American church school to study.
The following year, he was detained in 1904 for colluding with the Japanese.
After his release, he went to the United States through the church’s lead.
He successively studied at University, Harvard University and Princeton University, and received a doctorate in 1910.
In 1919, the “March day” Anti Japanese Movement broke out in North Korea.
Li CHENGWAN went to Shanghai, China from the United States, gathered some North Koreans and established an “interim government”, just like a “President”.
Later, he proposed to “hand over North Korea to the United States”Then he fled back to the United States and pretended to be the representative of the “South Korean interim government” in the United States and engaged in political fraud.
The United States appreciates Li CHENGWAN’s extreme right position against the Communist Party, but it is also worried that he is arbitrary, capricious and unpopular, which may become an obstacle to the implementation of the American colonial policy.
It is said that Cheng Zhong has a positive attitude towards Arthur, but he doesn’t have a headstrong attitude towards him.
This is called “the president of the United States in the Far East” by the US military circles, which has fulfilled Li CHENGWAN’s desire for power.
At this time, Li Cheng was 70 years old in his later years, of which 37 years were spent in the United States.
He forgot his ancestors and was proud of being able to speak “Hawaiian Korean”.
He was servile in front of the American master and soon became the darling of the military government.
Although the United States has the ambition of dominating North Korea, it cannot ignore the international commitments made after the war and has to carry out the banner of international trusteeship for North Korea.
From December 16 to 26, 1945, the foreign ministers of the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain held a meeting in Moscow.
At the meeting, they reached the following agreement: the representatives of the headquarters of the occupation forces of the United States and the Soviet Union formed a joint committee to consult with democratic parties and social groups in North Korea and assist in the formation of the interim government of North Korea.
Before that, it will go through a five-year trusteeship period.
After the announcement of this agreement, it aroused the dissatisfaction of the vast number of Korean people who yearned for independence.
Seeing the opportunity, the United States immediately instigated the rightist ruling forces in South Korea to form the so-called “anti trusteeship committee”, instructing them to promote the saying that “North Korea is completely independent” and that “the Soviet Union rather than the United States is insisting on trusteeship”.
Later, during the consultations of the US Soviet Joint Committee, the United States deliberately tangled over the treaties of democratic organizations, and the consultation list of democratic political parties and social groups in South Korea proposed by them reached as many as 425, so as to piece together the right-wing majority to control the future political situation of North Korea.
This unreasonable request was naturally rejected by the Soviet side.
The US Soviet Joint Commission had to be dissolved in October 1947 due to the obstruction of the United States.
At the second UN General Assembly held in November 1947, the United States rejected the proposal of the Soviet Union to “withdraw troops from North Korea” and the proposal of “inviting representatives of North and South Korea to participate in the discussion of the Korean issue”, manipulated the voting machine to forcibly pass an illegal resolution on the Korean issue, and decided to establish a UN Interim Commission on North Korea to be stationed in North Korea, Under the observation of the committee, parliamentary elections will be held throughout North Korea, and then a national government will be established.
The resolution ran aground after North Korea refused the entry of the “UN Interim Commission on North Korea”.
If one plan fails, another plan will arise.
The United States played a new trick and manipulated the “mini UN General Assembly” to adopt an illegal resolution on holding separate elections in South Korea on February 26, 1948.
Saying that this resolution is illegal is by no means groundless, but for a reason.
The “fishy” lies in the “small UN General Assembly”.
The so-called “small UN General Assembly” is the “UN Interim Committee” proposed by the United States at the second UN General Assembly to carry out relevant tasks authorized by the UN General Assembly when the UN General Assembly is not in session.
The purpose is to bypass the Security Council and avoid the veto power of the Soviet Union, a permanent member of the Security Council.
The so-called “small UN General Assembly” was originally from a wrong origin, and there was no clear mandate of the UN General Assembly, so the resolution adopted in this way makes no sense in law and reason.
The US government, fearing that there will be too many dreams in the night, announced the general election on May 9 on its own in order to preempt and create a fait accompli.
Perhaps he has sinned against God by doing more injustice.
On May 9, there happened to be a solar eclipse.
The military government and Li CHENGWAN group thought it unlucky and had to postpone the voting day for one day.
In this way, under the protection of American bayonets, Lee Seung Wan was elected “President”.
On August 15, the puppet government led by Li CHENGWAN came on stage.
MacArthur made a special trip from Tokyo to cheer up for the puppet government.
With a big pipe in his mouth, big sunglasses and an arrogant look, MacArthur shouted proudly: “I am willing to do everything I can to help and defend the Korean people.
I will defend them as I defend the United States or California from aggression.
” After concocting the puppet regime, the United States could not wait and used both soft and hard means.
At the Third United Nations General Assembly held on December 12, 1948, despite the opposition of the Soviet Union, the United States adopted an illegal resolution, which labeled the Li CHENGWAN government as “recognized by the United Nations”.
So far, the farce directed by the United States to split the Korean Peninsula came to an end.
In order to smash the conspiracy created by the United States to split Korea in the south, at the initiative of Kim Il Sung, North Korea’s Anti Japanese leader, representatives of 56 political parties and social organizations from north and South Korea gathered in Pyongyang to hold a joint meeting in April 1948 to oppose South Korea’s separate election, expressed that they would never recognize the results of South Korea’s separate election, demanded the withdrawal of foreign troops stationed in North Korea, and proposed North South joint elections The policy of establishing the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
With the response and support of the broad masses of the Korean people, North and South Korea conducted the Supreme People’s assembly election together, and the voters accounted for 85.
25% of all voters.
On September 2, 1948, the first session of the DPRK Supreme People’s assembly opened in Pyongyang and adopted the national constitution.
Kim Il Sung was elected as cabinet prime minister and head of state.
On September 9, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea was officially established.
The name of North and South Korea came from this, and the confrontation between North and South Korea began from this.
The two sides stepped up their preparations for the war, and their military forces were equal: the South Korean army had 8 infantry divisions and 22 detachments, each equivalent to a regiment, together with 24 detachments including the mecha detachments and the artillery detachments.
Together with other special forces, the Navy and the air force, the total number of regular forces was 105000, and another 50000 irregular forces and armed police, totaling about 150000.
The strength of North Korea is slightly stronger.
The people’s army has 10 infantry divisions, a tank brigade and a motorized regiment, plus special forces such as the Shanghai army, air force and artillery, and seven guard teams of the Ministry of internal affairs, with a total strength of about 200000.
With the support of Americans, Li CHENGWAN’s government has repeatedly made war clamors.
Lee Seung Wan repeatedly shouted, “if you occupy North Korea, you can achieve reunification.
” “Without bloodshed, reunification and independence cannot be achieved.
” He delivered a speech on the cruiser “St.
fall” of the United States, claiming that “the North-South Division must be solved by war”, and then stepped up war preparations and armed provocation activities on the March 8th line, resulting in increasing tension on the Korean Peninsula.
While conniving at Lee’s war clamor, the United States is also secretly preparing for the war against Korea.
In February 1950, they held a secret meeting of American far east diplomats in Bangkok, ThailandThe purpose of the meeting was to adjust and deploy the diplomatic work after the war against North Korea was launched.
At the same time, Li Cheng went to Tokyo late to sign a secret agreement on the “Northern Expedition” with MacArthur. U.S. Defense Secretary Johnson, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff Bradley and other U.S. generals also went to South Korea for War deployment.
On June 17, 1950, war madman Dulles, as the special representative of US President Truman, fled to South Korea to inspect the 38th parallel in person, and finally examined and approved the plan of the “Northern Expedition” in the trenches of the 38th parallel.
As the saying goes, fire and water are incompatible.
With the escalation of the military confrontation between North and South Korea, the air of war has gradually heated up.
At dawn on June 25, 1950, the Korean civil war finally broke out.
When the Korean civil war broke out, Dulles, as an adviser to President Truman, was in the office of the Allied Command in Tokyo to exchange views with MacArthur on the Korean issue.
MacArthur, the hero of the Second World War, who enjoyed a high reputation in the American military, was holding a familiar corncob pipe in his mouth, his shirt collar was open, and he looked extraordinary.
He listened to Dulles’s chattering, showing an indifferent look.
This is by no means that he has become a Buddha and changed his belligerent nature, but that he doesn’t think North Korea can become a climate at all.
After saying goodbye to MacArthur, Dulles sent a telegram to Secretary of state Acheson at the hotel where he stayed.
The cable pointed out: “the South Koreans may use their own strength to stop and repel the attack.
If this is the best.
But if they are unable to do so, we believe that we should use American forces.
Watching South Korea suffer an unprovoked armed attack will produce a series of disasters and may eventually lead to the Third World War.
” This message made Dulles the first person to use force against North Korea, making him the first person to use force against North Korea.
Shortly after receiving Dulles’ telegram, Acheson presided over a meeting of the State Department at 11:30 a.m. Eastern time on June 25 (12 hours difference from the eastern hemisphere due to time difference).
In addition to Acheson, deputy secretary of State James Webb and assistant secretary of state Rusk also attended the meeting.
The Pentagon has army chief of staff general Lawton Collins and deputy chief of staff Brigadier General Thomas timberman.
The meeting was chaired by Acheson.
Acheson is tall, handsome and sarcastic.
He is known as the leader of the power group in the eastern United States.
The lawyer politician became Secretary of state at the age of 56 due to Marshall’s resignation and recommendation.
After some urgent consultations with his colleagues, he put forward the following suggestions: the U.S. Air Force and Navy should establish defense circles around Seoul, Kimpo airport and Incheon to ensure the evacuation of U.S. family members.
– authorize MacArthur’s forces to provide any equipment to the DPRK according to the suggestions of the local US mission, which is not limited by the current plan.
— as long as the South Korean forces remain effective, the US military advisory panel must be with them.
— MacArthur’s authority should include directing all U.S. military operations in North Korea.
– once the UN Security Council has voted to take joint action in North Korea, it will authorize and instruct MacArthur to use all forces, including the 7th Fleet, to stabilize the situation, including restoring the original dividing line of the 38th parallel where feasible.
In view of the tense war and emergency situation in North Korea, Acheson transmitted these suggestions to MacArthur in Tokyo through teletype conference without submitting them to the president for approval.
However, Acheson kept his hand.
After the teleconference, he reminded MacArthur that the above proposal had not been approved by the president and was only for “reference during formulation”.
Nevertheless, he did a little ultra vires: he suggested that MacArthur send an “observation team” to South Korea to determine how many troops needed to turn the war around and keep Lee Seung Wan’s army.
MacArthur was very satisfied with and encouraged by Washington’s proposal.
He had long looked forward to the day when the Korean issue could be solved by war, and now he finally looked forward to it.
Officials from the U.S. State Department and Pentagon were “kicking the back of the head” about the North Korean War, but President Truman was spending the weekend away from Washington’s hometown independence city.
At 12:35 noon on Sunday, he received an emergency call from Acheson, which made his leisure mood disappear, and immediately decided to return to Washington quickly.
At 1:57 p.m., Truman’s plane “independence” took off from Kansas City Airport.
Reporters were scattered everywhere because there was no news to pick up.
They also indulged in the leisure and relaxation of weekends and holidays.
The scheduled charter flight of American Airlines didn’t take off until 5 p.m. Several of Truman’s aides also seized the opportunity to board the reporter’s charter plane and fly out of Kansas City after the president.
During the flight, Truman, starting from his thinking set in the Cold War era, concluded that the war was instigated by the Russians and challenged by the Communist forces to the United States.
The United States must not sit idly by and try to keep Lee Seung Wan’s regime and the anti Communist front of North Korea.
In order to buy time, he sent a telegram on the plane asking Acheson and other military and political dignitaries to hold a strategic meeting in the Blair building that night.
Blair building, located at 1651 Pennsylvania Avenue, was originally a private luxury house.
The original owner dedicated it to the government as a hotel.
It’s just a block west of the presidential palace and the White House.
Because the White House was being repaired at that time, President Truman temporarily stayed in the Blair building as a temporary official residence.
The Blair building strategy meeting was held as scheduled.
Present at the meeting were Secretary of defense Johnson, Secretary of the army Frank pace, Secretary of the Navy Francis Matthews, Secretary of the air force Thomas finlet, chiefs of staff of the armed forces Sutton Collins, Forrest Sherman and Hoyt Vandenberg, as well as Omar Bradley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff.
Participants from the State Department included Acheson, Webb Lasker, Hickson and Philip Jessup as record secretary.
At the meeting, Truman first asked everyone to express their opinions and exchange information.
Bradley left the theme of the meeting and first read out the memo on the issue sent by MacArthur from Tokyo.
The five-star general compared Taiwan to an “unsinkable aircraft carrier and ship supply ship” and believed that it was “right” to hand it over to the Communist Party of ChinaThe United States will be a great disaster “, strongly advocating military occupation of Taiwan.
Then Acheson reported the information since the outbreak of the Korean War and put forward the matters previously prepared for the president’s decision, that is, the contents transmitted to MacArthur through teleconference.
Then the military and political dignitaries discussed the development of the war situation, the possibility of the Soviet Union sending troops and how to use the forces of the US three services to enter the war, and formed the following decisions and orders: authorize MacArthur to supply Li CHENGWAN’s troops with all weapons and ammunition.
– use the air force to cover the withdrawal of American women and children and fight back against all North Korean aircraft and tanks trying to obstruct the withdrawal.
– order the 7th Fleet to move northward from the Philippines to prevent the Communists from attacking Taiwan.
These decisions and orders are actually a declaration of war against North Korea and a signal to invade China’s Taiwan.
Issues like this should usually be approved by Congress.
At this time, the dignitaries in the US Senate and house of representatives are still in the dark.
It was not until the Congressional briefing on Tuesday morning that Truman informed congressional leaders of the decision to use the US Navy and air force to join the Korean civil war, which was 12 hours after President Truman made the decision.
Before that, Truman instructed the participants to keep their mouths shut and not to disclose to the press, even the background.
Even at the congressional appropriations hearing on Monday, Acheson and Johnson also shut up on the North Korean issue.
The wily Truman knew very well that to fight a war, it was not as easy as playing golf.
He had to win broad political support.
He did not want his allies in Congress to lose their support by seeing developments in the Washington Post early Tuesday morning.
Now that everything is done, Truman’s next job is to appease the dignitaries in Congress with his three inch tongue to put out the possible complaints.
He summoned 15 congressional leaders to exaggerate the Korean war situation, explaining that the interests of the United States would be damaged if troops were not sent urgently, so he had to exercise his power as commander-in-chief of the three armed services in an emergency.
He read the text of the prepared public statement to congressional leaders and told them: “I have ordered American forces to support South Korea to the end.
” None of the congressional leaders expected the president’s move.
These “political slickers” know in their hearts: Truman cut first and then played, creating a fait accompli.
What’s the use of disagreeing? In order to put a legal cloak on his aggression, Truman and his colleagues have been playing the “United Nations” card while forcing Congress to comply.
As early as the day after the outbreak of the Korean War, the United Nations Security Council, controlled by the United States, adopted a resolution with 9 votes in favour, 1 against and 1 abstention, condemning North Korea morally.
Now, if we want to intervene in the Korean civil war with real weapons (actually involved), we need to pull the “big flag of the United Nations as a tiger skin”.
They began to ponder how to let the United Nations issue a “legal” pass for their actions in the next step.
Ironically, Truman announced at the Congressional briefing on the morning of June 27, Eastern time that the United States was entrusted by the United Nations, Member states are required to “provide assistance to South Korea to help repel armed aggression and restore international peace and security in the region”.
The truth is that more than 10 hours later, the Security Council passed the bill proposed by the United States.
Saying it was lucky is by no means alarmist.
The story goes like this: early in the morning of June 27, U.S. diplomats to the United Nations tested the response of Security Council members to the U.S. proposal in order to obtain general support.
As the representative of India suggested that it would take time to get formal instructions from his government, the Security Council had to postpone its meeting to the afternoon to discuss the bill proposed by the United States.
And the State Department’s politicians are confident that the bill will be passed by, but not the United States has the final say.
Therefore, he has no scruples about setting the time for Truman to brief the Congress and make a public statement on the morning when the Security Council passes the resolution.
This sudden change of time caught the United States off guard and put it in a passive position.
Therefore, there was a ridiculous situation in which Truman announced the support of the United Nations first and the resolution made by the United Nations later.
The complexity and seriousness of the matter go far beyond that.
This complexity and seriousness is due to the erratic whereabouts of Soviet representative Malik on the Security Council.
As the United States manipulated the United Nations, obstructed the restoration of the permanent seat of the people’s Republic of China in the United Nations and the Security Council, and protested against the hegemonic acts of the United States and claimed international justice, the Soviet Union adopted a boycott attitude towards the Security Council, and Malik has always refused to attend the Security Council.
This has enabled the United States to manipulate the United Nations and the Security Council to pass a series of illegal resolutions.
It is precisely this kind of success that makes the United States forget itself and have no scruples.
No coincidence makes a book.
The day of the Security Council meeting coincided with a private luncheon held by Konstantin lukenko, a Soviet diplomat to the United Nations, at the Stockholm Hotel on Long Island.
This was one of the regular social activities of the Soviet Union during its boycott of the Security Council, so as to maintain close contact with other members of the Security Council.
During the dinner, UN Secretary General Ray sat between the representative of the United States Ernest gross and the representative of the Soviet Union Yakov Malik.
During the conversation, the North Korean issue became the main topic.
Malik insisted that the North Korean action was a response to the South Korean armed “border attack”.
Rai and gross insisted that the fundamental nature of the war was the invasion of North Korea.
Both sides are bound to have a tongue gun and a sword.
After coffee and dessert, rai told Malik that he would go to the Security Council with other diplomats.
And asked Malik, “are you going? I think your interests require you to attend.
” The speaker is careless and the listener is intentional.
Lai Yi’s words scared gross into a cold sweat.
Suddenly, he turned pale, stunned and complained to himself: “Lai Yi, you’re dizzy.
Malik will exercise the veto at the meeting.
Isn’t it bad for my great event in the United States!” Then he motioned him not to touch the ground with his feet.
But at this critical juncture, Malik shook his head unexpectedly and said, “no, no, I won’t go.
” Gross, a stone just fell to the ground,.