The United States was originally a British colony in the new continent of America.
It was a new nation-state established after the war of independence.
Its capitalism developed later than Europe.
Due to the history, religion and geographical location of American colonies, in history, especially before the 20th century, the United States has pursued an isolationist foreign policy for a long time to avoid getting involved in political and military conflicts in Europe in its foreign relations.
After the 20th century, with the increasing strength of the United States, the tendency of American Isolationism gradually weakened.
With the rapid expansion of American power, in World War II, the government abandoned isolationism and adopted the idea and practice of “cosmopolitanism”.
Before the end of World War II, President Roosevelt established the global goal of rebuilding a new post-war world order in accordance with the wishes of the United States.
Its core is to establish a United Nations Organization led by major powers and implement a multilateral free trade and financial system.
In the process of rebuilding the new world order according to the wishes of the United States, the global strategy of the United States has made some adjustments according to the changing situation, which can be roughly divided into four stages: the “containment” strategy of the Truman administration, the “contraction” strategy of the Nixon administration, the “beyond containment strategy” of the Bush administration and the “participation and expansion” strategy of the Clinton administration. I. The “containment” strategy of the Truman Administration Truman succeeded as president at the end of the war, and the Truman Administration became the first government of the United States after the war.
In 1947, Truman delivered a state of the Union address.
In the name of assisting Greece and Turkey, he clearly proposed that the United States should bear the obligation to oppose communism in the world, contain the Soviet Union as an opponent, and attempt to control the whole world.
This is Truman Doctrine, which marks the official launch of the American containment strategy and the official beginning of the cold war.
Containment strategy is a major change in American foreign strategy after the war.
While adhering to Roosevelt’s purpose of “cosmopolitanism”, Truman Doctrine abandoned the practice of cooperation with the Soviet Union.
Containment strategy constructs the basic framework of the global strategy of the United States during the whole cold war period, has a significant impact on the formulation of foreign policies of successive American governments after the war, and lays the foundation of the global strategy of the United States in the decades after the war.
Containment strategy is a global strategy implemented by the United States at the peak of its strength after World War II.
It is obviously expansionary and offensive.
It mainly includes the following strategic steps: (1) containment policy against socialist countries such as the Soviet Union and China.
World War II expanded socialism from one country to many countries.
After the war, facing the reality of the growing socialist power, the United States quickly abandoned the policy of major country cooperation envisaged by Roosevelt, regarded the socialist Soviet Union as the main obstacle to its external expansion and hegemony of the world, and a fatal threat to Western civilization and liberal capitalist system, and soon formulated an anti Soviet and anti Communist containment strategy.
Its main contents include: isolating the Soviet Union politically and dividing the relationship between the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries.
Economic blockade and embargo against the Soviet Union and other socialist countries.
Militarily encircle and threaten the Soviet Union.
In terms of ideology, we vigorously carried out anti Soviet and anti Communist propaganda and peaceful evolution.
The later US governments basically followed the basic spirit of containment strategy.
The government put forward the “liberation strategy”, emphasizing the use of all means other than war to deal with the expansion of socialist countries.
The government has determined the “peace strategy” of “holding an arrow in one hand and an olive branch in the other”.
Although there are differences in specific practices, the essence of Cold War containment against the Soviet Union and other socialist countries has never changed.
In addition to the Soviet Union, China is the object of containment of socialist countries by the United States.
In the early post-war period, the United States implemented the policy of supporting Chiang Kai Shek and opposing the Communist Party, supported and helped fight the civil war, and tried its best to obstruct the liberation of the Chinese people.
After the founding of new China, the United States regarded China as a fortress of communism in Asia.
Politically, it adopts an isolated policy towards new China, which not only does not recognize new China itself, but also obstructs the recognition of other countries, and has always obstructed the restoration of new China’s legitimate seat in the United Nations.
Implement a comprehensive economic blockade and embargo on New China.
Militarily, it carried out military encirclement and armed threat against new China.
During the Korean War, the United States burned the war to China’s northeast border and sent the seventh fleet to invade the Strait.
In December 1954, the United States and Chiang Kai Shek signed the common defense treaty.
In just a few years, the United States has successively concluded a series of military treaties against China with Japan, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Pakistan and other Asia Pacific countries, forming a crescent encirclement of China.
(2) providing assistance, support and control to Western Europe and Japan and strengthening the strength of the Western camp.
In June 1947, the United States proposed the “Marshall Plan” to provide $13.
1 billion in economic assistance to Western Europe, which enabled the economies of Western European countries to recover and develop rapidly and opened a market for the surplus goods of the United States, At the same time, it also deepened the dependence of Western European countries on the United States.
In April 1949, under the leadership of the United States, the “North Atlantic Treaty Organization” was officially established, which laid the foundation for the United States to control Western Europe militarily.
After the war, the United States established the transatlantic Western alliance and controlled Western Europe economically, politically and militarily by implementing the Marshall Plan, assisting the reconstruction of Western European countries including West Germany and establishing NATO.
The most important strategic decision of NATO is to deal with the conflict with the Soviet Union in the Atlantic region.
At the eastern end of Eurasia, the United States focuses on supporting Japan.
The United States provided $2.
3 billion in loans and assistance to Japan during its separate occupation of Japan.
During the Korean War and Vietnam War, Japan’s economic recovery and development were stimulated by means of “special orders”.
In September 1951, the American film made peace with Japan and signed the Japan US security treaty with Japan, which made Japan enter the strategic track of the United States.
Through the above measures, the United States has established an alliance with Western Europe and Japan at both ends of Eurasia, formed a strategic encirclement of the Soviet Union and China in geopolitics, strengthened its control over Western Europe and Japan, and formed a capitalist camp in full confrontation with the socialist camp.
(III) competing for the “middle zone” and pursuing a neo colonial policy against Asian, African and Latin American countries.
The victory of the second world war directly promoted the rise of the national liberation movement of colonial and semi colonial people.
Many Asian, African and Latin American countries broke away from colonial rule and achieved national independenceWar plan “.
Its main purpose is to establish a multi-level comprehensive defense system from ground to space by virtue of the advantages of American space technology.
On the one hand, this plan can increase the strategic deterrent force of the United States against the Soviet Union and reverse the passive situation of the United States in strategic nuclear power.
At the same time, it can also disrupt the economic development plan of the Soviet Union, put great pressure on the Soviet Union and bring down the Soviet Union.
Secondly, they also attach importance to the overall coordination with the Soviet Union in the political and economic fields.
Thirdly, the US government has strengthened its fight for the third world.
The main contents include inducing and promoting developing countries to develop towards liberalization and privatization, and further strengthening the influence of the United States.
The so-called “movement for democracy” has been vigorously carried out, trying to bring the third world into the strategic track of the United States.
From the adjustment of the Reagan administration, it is actually the return of the US global strategy from the contraction of Nixon Doctrine to the expansionary and offensive strategy.
Therefore, it can be said that the essence of the US global strategy of containing the Soviet Union and other socialist countries and competing for world hegemony has not fundamentally changed. III. The Bush administration’s “beyond containment” strategy in 1989, the Bush administration came to power, and the international situation further changed.
The trend of multi polarization in the world pattern is more obvious, and the trend of world economic integration is strengthening.
The political and economic reforms of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries are like fire and tea.
Especially since Gorbachev came to power, under the guidance of his “new thinking” reform thought, the Soviet Union has shrunk significantly in global strategy, prominent domestic social, political and economic contradictions, increasingly exposed crises, and the United States has occupied an obvious dominant position in the competition with the Soviet Union.
Under this historical background, the Bush administration has made major adjustments to its diplomatic strategy and put forward the strategy of “surpassing containment”.
On May 12, 1989, Bush delivered a speech entitled “changes in the Soviet Union”, which put forward the new concept of “surpassing containment” for the first time around the relationship with the Soviet Union.
He then further elaborated on this concept at Boston University and at the Coast Guard Academy.
The “beyond containment” strategy inherited the strength policies of various US governments after the war.
Different from previous governments, the Bush administration emphasized more on promoting the Soviet Union to enter the international community and making the Soviet Union evolve in international cooperation.
To this end, Bush called for support for Gorbachev to make it develop in a direction conducive to the West.
Bush also proposed to establish “an open, unified and Free Europe”, announced the “action plan for Poland” and “plan for Hungary”, and supported the “wave of freedom and independence” of Poland and Hungary.
The essence of the “beyond containment” strategy is to take military strength as the backing, peaceful evolution as the soul, take advantage of the opportunity of the reform and opening up of socialist countries, and implement the values and political and economic model of the United States through non military means such as politics, economy, ideology, culture and diplomacy, so as to finally realize the peaceful evolution of socialist countries.
It can be seen from this that compared with the previous US global strategic adjustment, the adjustment of the Bush administration is more fundamental and thorough.
First of all, from the perspective of strategic objectives, the goal pursued by the “beyond containment” strategy is larger.
The goal of the “containment” strategy is limited to containing the influence of the Soviet Union within the territory of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries, while expanding the power of the United States in other parts of the world and seeking world hegemony.
The goal of the “beyond containment” strategy is no longer to limit its expansion, but to completely eliminate the socialist system and integrate the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries into the western international system.
Secondly, strategic means are also more diversified.
The “containment” strategy mainly uses military coercive means and focuses on hard confrontation, while the “beyond containment” strategy focuses on “soft means” while implementing military containment, and puts more emphasis on infiltrating the western political system, values and market economy model into the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and other socialist countries through political, economic, cultural and personnel exchanges, To achieve the goal of “peaceful evolution”.
This leads to another major difference, that is, the “beyond containment” strategy has more room for activities.
The activity space of the “containment strategy” is mainly to confront the Soviet Union outside the “iron curtain”, while the “beyond containment” strategy goes deep into the “iron curtain” for internal evolution. IV. the Clinton Administration’s “participation and expansion” strategy the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 declared the end of the post-war confrontation between the East and the West that lasted more than 40 years and the Cold War era, and the United States became the only superpower in the world after the cold war.
At the same time, the process of globalization has accelerated, peace and development have become the theme of the world, and the competition between countries has turned to the confrontation of comprehensive national strength based on science, technology and economy.
Facing the rapidly changing international situation, the Clinton administration has formulated a new global strategy, which is the strategy of “participation and expansion”.
Its core content is to revitalize the U.S. economy, military strength and expand democracy as the pillar to realize the world leadership of the United States.
It shows that the US government is trying to seize the rare historical opportunity, implement overall diplomacy from the three aspects of economy, security and ideology, and establish a new world after the cold war led by the United States.
In the 1997 national security strategy report, Clinton further summarized the global strategy of “participation and expansion” as “one goal”, “three pillars” and “six priorities”.
One goal, that is, the fundamental goal of the US foreign strategy is to achieve its leading position in the world.
Security, economy and promoting global democratization are the three pillars of the Clinton Administration’s global strategy.
The six key points of American foreign strategy are to realize a peaceful, unified and democratic Europe.
Establish a stable and prosperous Asia Pacific Community.
Maintain the prosperity of the United States in the global economy.
Maintaining world peace.
Dealing with transnational challenges such as arms proliferation and terrorism.
Maintain strong US military and diplomatic capabilities.
Specifically, the “participation and expansion” strategy should mainly include the following contents: first, the overall goal of the U.S. global strategy is to use the recent 15-20 years of strategic opportunities of the United States to maintain and strengthen the leadership of the United States in all fields and regions of the world, and prevent the emergence of any hostile major powers and groups of major powers that can compete with the United States, To establish a “new world order” under the leadership of the United States is to establish a unipolar world led by the United States.
The United States pointed out in the new century national security report in 1999 that before 2015, no major country can pose a threatening challenge to the world status of the United States.
This is an important period of strategic opportunity for the United States to achieve unipolar hegemony.
The United States must shape an international environment conducive to the realization of its strategic objectives during this period of time.
Second, taking the economy as one of the three pillars of the US global strategy is the first time in the history of the United States after the war.
Since the Clinton administration came to power, it has launched an economic revitalization program to reduce the fiscal deficit and trade deficit through various measures and stimulate us economic growth.
At the same time, the United States has strengthened its economic diplomacy and actively explored overseas emerging markets.
Promote global economic liberalization and bring more countries into the world economic system with the United States as the core.
Strengthen policy coordination among the group of seven, especially the three major economies of the United States, Japan and Germany.
It emphasizes giving full play to the role of international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization and the world bank, seizing the time to build an international economic system dominated by the United States, and promoting the process of economic integration in North America and the Asia Pacific region.
All these policies and measures are to ensure the economic prosperity of the United States and its leading position in the world economy.
Third, ensure the security of the United States and maintain the advantage of military strength.
Facing the changes of the international situation after the cold war, the United States adjusted its security policy and military structure in time.
Compared with the cold war period, the Clinton administration has put more emphasis on economic security, information security and various “asymmetric threats”, including terrorism, reflecting the transformation of the US security concept from the traditional military security to the new security concept in the era of globalization.
Of course, the United States still attaches great importance to traditional military security and has put forward a “Trinity” military security strategy according to the changing security situation.
In the early 1990s, the United States closed or reduced 121 overseas military bases, cancelled the Star Wars plan and reduced military spending in order to build a “force suitable for the times”.
In May 1997, the U.S. Department of defense put forward the military security strategy of “shaping”, “responding” and “preparing” in the “four-year defense assessment report”, that is, “helping to shape the international security environment conducive to the interests of the United States, responding to crises at any time and preparing for future challenges”.
Maintaining a strong defense capability can “win two large-scale regional” wars at the same time, make efforts to “build the army with quality”, and improve the combat capability of the army through modern high-tech weapons and equipment.
In January 1999, the US Department of Defense announced a new US plan to develop a missile defense system.
According to the new plan, the cost of the system in the United States will increase by $6.
6 billion in the next 5-6 years.
At the same time, the United States has stepped up the construction of a Eurasian military security system centered on the United States.
In Europe, the “new strategic concept” of NATO was put forward to expand the scope of NATO’s defense and foreign military intervention.
In Asia, strengthen the US Japan military alliance system and bilateral military relations between the United States and South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Singapore and other countries to ensure the leading role of the United States in the strategic balance of the region.
Fourth, actively promote American values such as “freedom”, “democracy” and “human rights” all over the world, and use this as an excuse to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.
The Clinton administration believes that the victory of the cold war is the victory of Western values and ideology.
Therefore, it takes “expanding democracy and market economy” as one of the three pillars of the US global strategy, and pays great attention to the “human rights issues” around the world.
In order to promote its democratic and human rights policies, the United States government requires all countries to open their cultural markets in order to promote American culture and values.
At the same time, the United States has also linked economic issues such as economic assistance and most favoured nation treatment with human rights, and even intervened in other countries’ internal affairs by force and military means.
Fifth, build an international order of major country cooperation led by the United States.
After the cold war, the United States had to pay attention to the cooperative relationship between major powers in order to prevent the emergence of major powers or groups of countries competing with it and the acceleration of globalization.
The United States first attaches importance to strengthening cooperation and coordination with Western Europe, Japan and other strategic partner countries.
After the cold war, the United States continues to seek to strengthen the alliance relationship in the Cold War era, which is an important means for the United States to realize world hegemony.
At the same time, it has also strengthened cooperation and dialogue with Russia, China and other major countries.
The United States has always believed that China and Russia are potential competitors for the hegemony of the United States.
However, in order to bring these two countries into the strategic track of the United States, it should contact China and Russia.
Its main purpose is to divide the attempts of other major powers to jointly oppose or confront the United States through the establishment of various strategic partnerships, and reduce the “risks and costs of leadership”.
To sum up, Clinton’s global strategy is to expand the “free world” by strengthening his own military and economic forces, widely participating in and intervening in global affairs with the help of allied forces and international systems, so as to finally establish a unipolar world dominated by the United States.