Over the past 50 years since the founding of the people’s Republic of China, with the continuous changes of the international and domestic situation, China’s foreign policy has also undergone great development and changes, but there are still several principles to be implemented from beginning to end. I. peace and development are the basic objectives of China’s foreign policy, which is not only the requirement of peace and development as a contemporary world theme, but also determined by China’s national nature, national conditions and strategic tasks.
Safeguarding world peace and promoting common development are the fundamental interests of the people of all countries in the world and the irresistible historical trend of today’s era.
Since its founding, the people’s Republic of China has been committed to safeguarding world peace and has made continuous efforts for it.
Building China into a modern socialist power also requires a long-term and stable peaceful international environment.
China has always opposed the arms race and advocated comprehensive and complete disarmament.
China declares that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons and will not use nuclear weapons against non nuclear countries or regions.
China advocates the conclusion of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty through negotiations and the eventual elimination of nuclear weapons after a period of time.
China opposes the use or threat of force and advocates the peaceful settlement of international disputes.
The development of socialist China is the development of peace keeping forces.
China will never seek hegemony. 2. Independence is the fundamental principle of China’s foreign policy.
Independence is the independence of national sovereignty.
In domestic and foreign affairs, we will not succumb to any external interference and command, and handle all domestic and foreign affairs independently according to our own actual situation and the development of the international situation.
Independence is China’s consistent foreign policy of peace.
Whether in the period of alliance with the former Soviet Union or the period of establishing an international united front against the hegemonism of the former Soviet Union, China adheres to the principle of independence and does not allow any country to meddle in China’s sovereignty or interfere in China’s internal affairs.
Since the 1980s, China has endowed independence with a new content, that is, true non alignment.
China does not form alliances with any country or group of countries, but does not oppose the alliance between other countries.
China pursues an independent foreign policy, which does not mean that we do not need the support and cooperation of international forces to engage in closed door, but to open to the outside world and strengthen cooperation.
We cherish our own independence and the independence of other countries.
We oppose any country imposing its will on us and will never impose its will on others.
The principle of independence applies not only to the relations between countries, but also to the relations between political parties.
It is the criterion for the Communist Party of China to develop its relations with the Communist parties of various countries and other political parties. 3. The five principles of peaceful coexistence are the basic norms for China to develop relations with all countries.
The five principles of peaceful coexistence are: mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, non aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful coexistence.
It was first put forward by Chinese leaders shortly after the founding of new China and based on the idea of peaceful coexistence according to the international and domestic environment in which China was located at that time.
In December 1953, when the prime minister received the delegation of the Indian government, he put forward the five principles of peaceful coexistence for the first time.
In June 1954, the prime ministers of China, India and Myanmar formally proposed the five principles of peaceful coexistence as the principles guiding general international relations in a joint statement.
In August 1954, Premier Zhou Enlai called these five principles the five principles of peaceful coexistence for the first time in his diplomatic work report at the committee meeting of the Central People’s government.
Since then, the five principles of peaceful coexistence have become the basic norms for China to deal with international relations.
In 2001, Comrade Jiang Zemin reiterated this principle in his speech commemorating the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China.
The five principles of peaceful coexistence are interrelated and indivisible.
“Mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity” is the core and main content of the five principles.
“Non aggression” and “non-interference in each other’s internal affairs” are a fundamental guarantee for realizing mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.
“Equality and mutual benefit” is the principle that countries must follow in developing political, economic and cultural relations.
“Peaceful coexistence” is the goal and result of the above four principles.
The five principles of peaceful coexistence highly summarize the basic principles of today’s international relations.
Its essence is to oppose aggression and expansion and maintain national independence.
It is a negation and criticism of the old norms of international relations and power politics for centuries.
It is a new and just norm of international relations.
The five principles of peaceful coexistence put forward by China were originally used to deal with relations with nationalist countries.
After the “Poland Hungary incident” in 1956, China advocated that it should be used to deal with relations with socialist countries.
In the 1970s, western countries established diplomatic relations with China one after another and accepted the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
In the 1980s, China put more emphasis on the universal applicability of the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
Over the past 50 years, the five principles of peaceful coexistence have experienced the test of the changing international political situation.
It has become an internationally recognized common norm in dealing with international relations and modern international law. 4. Strengthening solidarity and cooperation with developing countries is the foothold of China’s foreign policy.
China is a developing socialist country.
It has common historical experiences and suffering with developing countries.
Today, both are faced with the realistic task of developing their own economy and improving their people’s livelihood.
Therefore, we all need a long-term international peaceful environment, Both need to oppose foreign interference and power politics, and work for the establishment of a new international order.
Therefore, China’s destiny is closely linked to the fate of the vast number of developing countries.
Unity is the source of strength for developing countries and the only way for common development.
China has always attached importance to solidarity and cooperation with developing countries, and even raised this policy to the height of its basic foothold.
After the cold war, China still attaches great importance to its relations with developing countries.
China has always supported developing countries in their just struggle for and safeguarding independence and sovereignty.
After the war, the people of developing countries have been actively striving for and safeguarding national independence and sovereignty and waging a heroic struggle against colonialism, hegemonism and racism.
China has always supported them and given them strong political, moral and material support and assistance.
In international affairs, China advocates that all countries in the world, big or small, rich or poor, strong or weak, should be equal, and opposes power politics that bully the small, oppress the poor with the rich, and bully the weak against the sovereignty of developing countries.
China has always supported the efforts of developing countries to oppose the old international economic order and revitalize the national economy.
As an emerging force, developing countries have stepped onto the international stage, it has put forward the requirements for developing the national economy, improving North South relations, developing South South cooperation and reforming the old international economic order, which has received China’s positive response and strong support.
China has put forward a large number of propositions and principles on many international occasions to actively safeguard the interests of developing countries, actively safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries, and promote the establishment of a new international economic order.
Moreover, China has also developed economic cooperation with developing countries in accordance with the principle of “equality and mutual benefit, practical results, diverse forms and common development”, which has effectively supported the economic construction of developing countries.
China has always respected the independence and sovereignty of developing countries and supported and promoted solidarity and cooperation among developing countries.
In the process of exchanges with developing countries, China treats each other as equals, does not pretend to be a big country, and does not interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.
Due to territorial, ethnic, religious and other reasons, there are many contradictions and disputes among developing countries.
With regard to these issues, China has always advocated putting the overall situation, unity and common interests first, exercising restraint, and resolving problems and differences through peaceful negotiations on the principle of mutual understanding and accommodation and seeking common ground while reserving differences.
China has done a lot to this end and promoted unity and cooperation among developing countries.