China is an ancient great country with a long history of civilization, but since modern times, China has fallen behind among the nations of the world.
The founding of the people’s Republic of China in 1949 ushered in a new era in the history of the Chinese nation and opened a new page for China’s diplomacy.
Since the founding of the people’s Republic of China for more than 50 years, China has always adhered to an independent foreign policy of peace, actively carried out various diplomatic activities and gradually integrated into the world.
China’s position on the international stage has been continuously improved and plays an important role in promoting the common development of mankind and safeguarding world peace. I. The “one-sided” foreign policy implemented by China in the early days of the founding of the people’s Republic of China.
From the founding of new China to the 1950s, the central task of China’s diplomacy was to consolidate national independence and strive for a favorable international environment for economic recovery and socialist construction.
According to the sharp opposition between the socialist camp led by the Soviet Union and the imperialist camp led by the United States, as well as China’s situation and international status, and, etc.
, put forward three guidelines for the implementation of the foreign policy of peace, which laid the foundation for new China’s foreign relations.
The main contents are: (1) “one-sided”.
Is to fall to the socialist side.
Under the specific historical conditions and international environment when the world was divided into two camps at that time, new China “stood within the peaceful and democratic camp led by the Soviet Union” and put the development of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and people’s democratic countries in the first place.
(2) “start a new stove”.
That is to completely break with the humiliating diplomacy of old China, not automatically inherit all diplomatic relations with old China, not recognize the legitimate status of foreign diplomatic institutions and diplomatic personnel stationed in China during the Kuomintang rule, and establish new diplomatic relations on a new basis.
(3) “clean the house and treat again”.
That is to eliminate all the privileges and forces of imperialism in China first, then consider the specific issue of establishing diplomatic relations and establish equal relations with them in accordance with the new principles.
In September 1949, the first plenary session of the Chinese people’s Political Consultative Conference adopted the common program of the Chinese people’s Political Consultative Conference, which fixed these foreign policies in the form of law.
According to this policy, after the founding of new China, the Central People’s government resolutely abolished all unequal treaties, abolished all imperialist privileges in China, dealt with enterprises, culture and education, health, relief and other institutions established by foreigners in China in a planned and step-by-step manner, and eradicated imperialist privileges and forces in China for more than 100 years, It has consolidated the independence and autonomy of new China and opened the way for new China to establish diplomatic relations with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.
In the early days of the founding of the people’s Republic of China, China’s foreign relations developed rapidly.
The first is to strive for the recognition of socialist countries and establish formal diplomatic relations with them.
On October 3, 1949, China established formal diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, the first country to establish diplomatic relations with China after the founding of new China.
Then, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, North Korea, Poland, Mongolia, democratic Germany and Albania successively established formal diplomatic relations with new China.
Mao Zedong visited the Soviet Union from December 16, 1949 to February 17, 1950.
On February 14, the leaders of China and the Soviet Union signed the Sino Soviet Treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assistance, the Sino Soviet agreement on China’s Changchun railway, Lushunkou and Dalian, and the agreement on Soviet loans to the people’s Republic of China in the Kremlin.
A series of treaties and agreements signed between China and the Soviet Union not only played an important role in China’s politics and economy, but also had a significant impact internationally, breaking the blockade and embargo of imperialism led by the United States.
After the signing of the Sino Soviet Treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assistance, the two countries have carried out comprehensive cooperation in politics, economy, military and other aspects.
The Soviet Union provided 141 items of economic and technical assistance to China’s first five-year plan, followed by 15 items.
In October 1954, China and the Soviet Union signed an agreement on scientific and technological cooperation.
In the early days of the founding of new China, the Soviet Union was China’s largest trading partner.
China and the Soviet Union not only support and assist each other in domestic construction, but also support each other and cooperate closely on international issues.
The Soviet Union strongly supported China’s struggle to restore its legitimate seat in the United Nations.
After the outbreak of the Korean War, China and the Soviet Union actively sought a peaceful solution to the Korean issue.
When the Chinese government sent volunteers to fight in the DPRK, the Soviet Union provided weapons and equipment to China.
At the Geneva conference held in 1954, China and the Soviet Union worked closely together to reach a resolution to achieve peace in Indochina.
However, there are still contradictions and problems between the two parties, especially the national egoism of the Soviet Union and the big party doctrine of the Soviet Communist Party, which cast a shadow on the relationship between the two parties and planted the seeds of division for the development of bilateral relations in the future.
During this period, the friendly and cooperative relations between new China and other socialist countries have also been strengthened and developed.
Second, China is actively striving to establish and develop friendly and cooperative relations with some ethnic countries, especially with neighboring independent ethnic countries.
India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal successively established formal diplomatic relations with China during this period.
The five principles of peaceful coexistence between China and India, which were put forward by the Prime Minister of Indonesia in April 1954, were fully reflected in the principle of peaceful coexistence between China and India, and the five principles of peaceful coexistence between China and India were finally put forward by the Prime Minister of Indonesia in April 1955.
In addition, while establishing diplomatic relations with national independent countries, new China has also established diplomatic relations with some developed capitalist countries in Western Europe and Northern Europe on the basis of equality and mutual benefit and mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity.
In early 1950, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Finland, Norway, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and other countries announced the recognition of new China.
After negotiations, China established diplomatic relations with Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland and Finland in 1951.
Because Britain and the Netherlands were unwilling to completely break off diplomatic relations with the Kuomintang government or support the restoration of all legitimate seats of the people’s Republic of China in the United Nations, they could not fully meet the conditions for establishing formal diplomatic relations with China.
Therefore, China only established agency level relations with them in 1954.
When new China was just founded, the United States was at the peak of its strength.
Starting from the strategy of dominating the world, it tried every means to strangle new China in the cradle.
The United States is China’sMajor threats.
Diplomatically, blocking China not only refuses to recognize China, but also prevents other countries from recognizing China and hinders China from restoring all its legitimate seats in the United Nations.
Economically, it imposed a comprehensive blockade and embargo on New China.
Militarily contain China, impose military encirclement and armed threat against China, and even burn the war to China’s door.
In June 1950, the Korean War broke out, and the United States organized the so-called “United Nations army” to invade Korea, posing a security threat to Northeast China.
At the same time, the seventh fleet of the United States invaded the Chinese Strait and strengthened its control over Taiwan, seriously damaging China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
It also unilaterally signed a peace treaty with Japan, rearmed Japan, and signed a series of military treaties against China with some other countries in Asia, forming a crescent shaped encirclement of new China.
New China has waged a resolute struggle against the aggressive policies and acts of the United States.
First, it inflicted heavy losses on the United States on the Korean battlefield, and finally forced the United States to sign an armistice agreement with China and North Korea in July 1953.
In April 1954, when China first participated in the Geneva international conference with five big powers, China used the contradiction between Britain, the United States and France to solve Indochina’s future problem and promoted the signing of the Geneva agreement aimed at restoring Indochina’s peace. II. China’s foreign policy in the 1960s the basic feature of China’s foreign policy in the 1960s was to unite Asian, African and Latin American countries against imperialism and revisionism, which was characterized by “two fists hitting people”, which was both anti us and anti Soviet.
After the mid-1950s, some new situations have emerged in the international situation.
China and the Soviet Union had more and more ideological differences, which led to the debate of the international communist movement and the disintegration of the unified socialist camp.
The national liberation movement in the vast number of Asian, African and Latin American countries has reached an unprecedented high.
Especially in the early 1960s, the national independence movement in Africa surged and formed a new force, impacting new and old colonialism.
Chinese leaders adjusted their foreign policy according to their own strength and the new situation, that is, abandoning the “one-sided” foreign policy and proposing to rely on the vast number of Asian, African and Latin American countries to oppose imperialism, revisionism and reactionaries in various countries, that is, the policy of anti imperialism and revisionism.
Specifically, there are the following aspects. 1. Strengthen relations with Asian, African and Latin American countries.
New China is a country that has achieved national independence from a semi colonial and semi feudal society.
Since its founding, new China has attached great importance to its relations with the vast number of Asian, African and Latin American countries.
By the end of the 1960s, more than 50 countries had established diplomatic relations with China, the vast majority of which were independent Asian, African and Latin American countries.
Especially in the early 1960s, more than 20 Asian, African and Latin American countries established diplomatic relations with China, forming the second climax of establishing diplomatic relations in the diplomatic history of new China.
China has adopted different policies in developing relations with these countries.
Just as the Arab countries have developed relations, China has adopted the policy of being good at waiting, increasing exchanges, doing more work, and reaching diplomatic relations when things come naturally.
In developing relations with countries in the African region, China has taken the initiative and adopted a serious and flexible approach in view of the upsurge of national independence in this region.
In developing relations with Latin American countries, taking into account the special circumstances of this region, China has determined the policy of “establishing friendly ties, developing economic and cultural exchanges, doing more work, making more friends and gradually establishing diplomatic relations”.
In 1960, the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Cuba broke the history of Latin America without diplomatic relations with China.
After China established diplomatic relations with the vast number of Asian, African and Latin American countries, bilateral relations have developed smoothly.
In order to strengthen relations with Asian, African and Latin American countries, China has formed a high-level delegation to conduct three large-scale visits since the mid-1950s.
From November 18, 1956 to February 5, 1957, the Chinese government delegation headed by Zhou Enlai visited 11 countries in Europe, Asia, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, Afghanistan, Nepal and tin.
The total visit time is 80 days and the journey is more than 54000 kilometers.
The visit came shortly after the “Poland Hungary incident” and “Suez Canal incident”.
The Chinese people “visited these countries for the purpose of seeking friendship, peace and knowledge”.
Chinese leaders held cordial, sincere and friendly talks with the leaders of these countries and issued a joint communique.
This visit has played a positive role in easing international tensions and enhancing mutual understanding and trust between the two sides.
From April 13 to May 14, 1960, the Chinese government delegation headed by Zhou Enlai visited Myanmar, India, Nepal, Cambodia, Vietnam, Mongolia and other six countries.
This visit shows that China pursues a good neighborly and friendly policy and develops relations with neighboring countries.
From December 13, 1963 to February 5, 1964, Zhou Enlai led a delegation to visit 10 African countries, including the United Arab Republic, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Ghana, Mali, Guinea, Sudan and Somalia.
From February 14 to 29, Zhou Enlai visited Myanmar, Pakistan and Ceylon.
This is the largest number of visits by state leaders to countries since the founding of new China and another important milestone in the development of friendly relations between China and Asian and African countries.
During the visit, Zhou Enlai put forward five principles for handling relations with Arab and African countries and eight principles for foreign economic assistance.
These principles are the crystallization of China’s diplomatic theory and practice and the specific norms for China’s handling of relations with third world countries.
During this period, China also signed border treaties or agreements with Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and Myanmar, and solved a number of problems left over by history.
(2) opposing Soviet hegemonism, China and the Soviet Union are the main forces in the world socialist camp, and the development of bilateral relations has an extremely important impact on the whole socialist camp.
However, since Khrushchev came to power, Soviet imperialism and national egoism have expanded day by day, trying to force China to integrate its foreign policy into the track of Soviet global strategy, and began to constantly exert political, economic, military and other pressures on China.
In 1958, Khrushchev put forward unreasonable demands to China for the establishment of long wave radio and joint fleet, which were detrimental to China’s sovereignty.
In June 1959, the unilateral cancellation of the provision of atomic bomb samples and technical data to China.
In September of the same year, the Soviet Union openly favored India in the border conflict between China and India.
In June 1960, the Soviet Union tore up more than 250 contracts and agreements between China and the Soviet Union and withdrew all 13900 experts in China.
At the same time, the Soviet Union assembled heavy troops in the Sino Soviet border areas and provoked border incidents”Treaty” is illegal and invalid and should be abolished.
The Chinese and Japanese governments signed a joint statement announcing the end of the abnormal state of bilateral relations and the establishment of formal diplomatic relations.
In August 1978, the China Japan Treaty of peace and friendship was signed, which further strengthened the friendly and cooperative relations between the two sides in the political, economic, scientific, technological, cultural and other fields.
(3) China’s legitimate seat in the United Nations has been restored.
China is one of the founding members of the United Nations.
After the founding of new China, the legitimate seats in the United Nations have been illegally occupied by the Kuomintang regime in Taiwan.
In addition, the obstruction of the US government has delayed the restoration of China’s legitimate rights in the United Nations.
With the vigorous development of the national liberation movement in the 1960s, many newly independent nation states joined the United Nations, which shook the situation of the United States dominating the United Nations.
At the 26th session of the United Nations General Assembly held on October 25, 1971, the proposal put forward by 23 countries, including Algeria and Albania, to restore all China’s legitimate rights in the United Nations and immediately expel the representatives of the Chiang Kai Shek group from the United Nations and all its affiliated institutions was adopted by an overwhelming majority, which was a major victory in China’s diplomatic history, It is also a prominent achievement of China’s diplomacy in this period.
(IV) improved relations between China and Western countries.
With the improvement of China US relations and the restoration of China’s legitimate seat in the United Nations, there was a climax of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Western European countries and China in the 1970s.
From 1970 to 1973, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Iceland, Malta, Greece, Luxembourg and Spain successively established diplomatic relations with China.
In 1972, the relationship between Britain and the Netherlands and China was upgraded to Ambassador level diplomatic relations.
In the same year, the Federal Republic of Germany also established diplomatic relations with China.
In 1979, Portugal and Ireland established diplomatic relations with China.
So far, with the exception of a few small countries, China has established diplomatic relations with 20 countries in Western Europe.
In 1975, China established formal diplomatic relations with the European community.
In addition, China has established diplomatic relations with Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
(V) proposal of the strategy of dividing the three worlds in February 1974, when Chairman Mao Zedong received the visiting Zambian President Kaunda, he put forward the strategy of dividing the three worlds according to the development of the international situation in the 1970s.
When the United States attended the sixth United Nations Conference on the division of world hegemony in 1974, it pointed out in detail the main causes of world unrest.
To maintain world peace, we must oppose us Soviet hegemonism.
Emphasizing that the third world is the main force opposing hegemonism and safeguarding world peace.
Europe, Japan, Canada and other second world countries are forces that can be united to oppose hegemonism and maintain world peace.
Under the guidance of this strategic thought, China has strengthened its unity and cooperation with third world countries, improved its relations with western countries and socialist countries in Eastern Europe, and promoted the development of China’s foreign relations.
In short, after major adjustments in the 1970s, China’s foreign relations overcame the adverse effects of the domestic “Cultural Revolution” and achieved great development.
In the 10 years from 1970 to 1980, 75 countries established diplomatic relations with China.
On this basis, China has signed many cooperation agreements with these countries in economy, trade, science and technology, culture and civil aviation, and bilateral economic and cultural cooperation has developed considerably.
Since then, China has fully participated in international affairs and played an increasingly important role in the international arena.
During this period, China’s diplomatic characteristics were summarized as “one line, one large area”, that is, from China to Japan, from the Middle East to Western Europe, from the south to Australia and New Zealand, and finally to the United States.
This is “one line”, and the surrounding countries are “one large area”. IV. the new adjustment of China’s foreign policy and the new situation of foreign relations in the 1980s.
China’s foreign policy was significantly adjusted in the 1980s, and foreign relations developed greatly, showing the characteristics of “invincible diplomacy”.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, great changes have taken place in the international situation.
Although the basic feature of the international pattern is that the two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union continue to compete for hegemony in the world, and the two sides have a strategic posture of attacking and defending each other due to the change of strength, at the same time, several other forces on the international stage, such as Japan, Western Europe and the third world, have also developed rapidly and their role has become increasingly prominent.
While the international situation has changed, China’s domestic situation has also changed.
Marked by the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978, China has entered a new period centered on economic construction.
According to the new changes in the international situation and the needs of domestic tasks, Comrade Deng Xiaoping timely proposed to make major adjustments to China’s foreign policy, so as to develop and improve the independent foreign policy of peace, comprehensively create a new diplomatic situation, and push China’s diplomacy in the 1980s to a new period of development.
This adjustment is mainly reflected in the following five aspects.
(1) the new concept of war and peace has been established.
For quite a long time in the past, China emphasized the danger of war and believed that world war was inevitable and imminent.
After the reform and opening up, Comrade Deng Xiaoping, through calm observation and objective analysis, changed the estimation of the inevitability of war and believed that the growth of world peace factors exceeded the growth of war factors, which may make it impossible to fight world war for a long time.
Therefore, China should make friends, unite and support all forces for peace, actively promote international disarmament, oppose hegemonism and war.
(2) it is not necessary to form alliances or establish strategic relations with any major country.
On the basis of comprehensively summarizing the experience and lessons of the past 30 years and in combination with the needs of the international situation, it is not only unnecessary but also detrimental to China to continue to implement the “one line” strategy.
Under such circumstances, China has timely adjusted its diplomatic strategy, changed the “one line” strategy of uniting with the United States and opposing the Soviet Union, formed alliances or established strategic relations with any major power, and did not support either party against the other.
What China seeks is the normal development of Sino US relations on the basis of strictly abiding by the principles stipulated in the Sino US communique.
After removing the three major obstacles and returning to normal, China Soviet relations will develop good neighborly and friendly relations on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
This strategic adjustment promoted the healthy development of Sino US and Sino Soviet relations in the 1980s.
(3) we should not talk about the past based on the similarities and differences between social systems and ideologies.
China is in realityIn the process of implementing the “one-sided” and “one line” strategies, there has been a tendency of “drawing a line with the United States” and “drawing a line with the Soviet Union”, which has affected China’s relations with some third world countries at the same time.
After entering the 1980s, China realized that it was unreliable to divide the front and decide on intimacy and estrangement according to social system and ideology.
Only by transcending the similarities and differences of social system and ideology and generally implementing the five principles of peaceful coexistence can we develop normal state relations, enhance international cooperation and maintain world peace.
China understands the situation of countries that are friendly to the Soviet Union and the United States and the choices of the people of all countries, and respects their policies and practices.
(4) having formulated the basic national policy of comprehensive opening to the outside world, new China has decided to develop foreign trade and economic cooperation on the basis of equality and mutual benefit since its birth.
However, for a long time, due to the influence of international and domestic factors, China’s foreign economic ties have been seriously restricted.
Since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, Comrade Deng Xiaoping has decisively made the policy of opening to the outside world in accordance with the changes of the international situation and the needs of domestic construction, and has determined it as a basic state policy that will remain unchanged for a long time.
Our opening to the outside world is comprehensive, both to capitalist countries and to socialist countries.
It is open to both developed and developing countries.
The construction of material civilization should be open, as should the construction of spiritual civilization.
The implementation of the policy of comprehensive opening to the outside world is bound to bring about new changes and new characteristics in China’s diplomatic work.
The main manifestations are: diplomacy should face the whole world and show the characteristics of “invincible state diplomacy”.
The content of diplomacy is richer, and economic diplomacy occupies an important position.
Diplomatic means tend to be gentle, and the color of peaceful diplomacy is becoming stronger.
Diplomatic forms are flexible and diverse, and folk diplomacy is extremely active.
(5) put forward the new concept of “one country, two systems”.
The concept of “one country, two systems” is a scientific concept with legal effect put forward by Deng Xiaoping in September 1982 and approved by the second session of the Sixth National People’s Congress in May 1984.
It is also a long-term basic national policy of our country.
It refers to the implementation of two different social systems in a unified country, that is, the socialist system in the mainland and the capitalist system in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao.
This policy was first put forward from considering how to solve the Taiwan issue.
It was also applied to the settlement of the Hong Kong and Macao issues and achieved success.
“One country, two systems” shows that China respects history and reality, takes care of the legitimate rights and interests of all parties concerned, and provides a new experience for solving problems left over by history through peaceful means.
It is a major victory for China in realizing national reunification.
At the same time, it also has a great influence in the world.
Since the 1980s, a new situation has emerged in China’s diplomacy and great progress has been made in its foreign relations.
In the 1980s, Sino Soviet relations were normalized.
Sino Soviet relations entered a comprehensive confrontation during the Brezhnev period.
The Soviet Union stationed nearly one million heavy troops on the Sino Soviet and Sino Mongolian borders.
It supported Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia in 1975 and sent troops to Afghanistan in 1979, which posed a serious threat to China from three aspects: South, North and West, which became the three major obstacles to the normalization of Sino Soviet relations.
After the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union began to face up to these problems and took measures.
In the second half of 1988, the Soviet Union began to withdraw troops from Afghanistan, reduced Soviet troops stationed on the Sino Soviet border and Mongolia, prompted Vietnam to announce the withdrawal from Cambodia, and Sino Soviet relations developed rapidly.
During Gorbachev’s visit to China in May 1989, Deng Xiaoping announced that “relations between the two countries have been normalized”.
This meeting marked “ending the past and opening up the future”.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, China continued to develop normal state relations with its cis neighbors in accordance with the five principles of peaceful coexistence.
China’s relations with western countries have been further developed.
In the 1980s, China’s relations with western developed countries entered a period of all-round development.
The establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States in 1979 has opened up broad prospects for the development of bilateral relations.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, exchanges and cooperation between the two sides in various fields such as economy, trade, science, technology and culture have been greatly strengthened.
Leaders of the two sides have exchanged visits for many times and often maintained high-level contacts and dialogue.
In the early 1980s, there were some twists and turns in China US relations due to the Taiwan issue.
Mainly, shortly after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, the US Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act, claiming that it would continue to sell weapons to Taiwan and that the United States would still be responsible for Taiwan’s security.
This is a provision of gross interference in China’s internal affairs.
Through the exchange of visits between leaders of the two sides and consultations between officials at all levels, China and the United States issued the August 17 Communique on August 17, 1982.
The two governments reached a certain degree of understanding and coordination.
The United States promised that the performance and quantity of weapons it sold to Taiwan would not exceed the supply level in recent years after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the United States, and was prepared to gradually reduce the quantity of weapons it sold to Taiwan, To lead to the final solution of this problem over a period of time.
Since then, the friendly cooperation between the two sides has developed steadily.
In 1984, the leaders of China and the United States exchanged visits, which enhanced mutual understanding and stabilized bilateral relations.
China’s relations with Western Europe have entered a new period of development after reform and opening up, and their political relations have been significantly strengthened.
The heads of state, government and foreign ministers of China and Western European countries have exchanged frequent visits.
China’s economic relations with Western Europe have developed rapidly, the volume of trade has increased significantly, and the scope of economic and technological cooperation has been expanding.
In September 1984, China Yingda achieved the agreement on the return of Hong Kong sovereignty to China on July 1, 1997.
In April 1987, China and Portugal reached an agreement on China’s resumption of sovereignty over Macao on December 20, 1999, which opened up broad prospects for the development of Sino British and Sino Portuguese relations.
China Japan relations have been developing steadily in the 1980s.
In the early 1980s, China put forward the three principles of “peace and friendship, equality and mutual benefit and long-term stability”, which received a positive response from the Japanese government.
Later, the Japanese prime minister proposed to add the content of “mutual trust”.
In accordance with the “four principles”, China Japan relations have been further developed.
China’s solidarity and cooperation with developing countries have been continuously strengthened.
Since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, China has taken strengthening unity and cooperation with third world countries as the basic foothold of China’s foreign work.
Since the 1980s, China has not only improved and developed its relations with neighboring developing countries, but also improved and developed its relations with developing countries in other regions to varying degrees. V. new diplomatic situation since the 1990s.
In the early 1990s, the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe underwent drastic changes and the cold war endedXi reached a principled agreement with President Clinton to promote the development of China US relations.
The two heads of state will exchange visits in the next two years.
From October 16 to November 3, 1997, President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to the United States.
This is the first state visit of Chinese president to the United States in 12 years and a major event of historical significance in the history of China US relations.
President Jiang Zemin held formal talks with President Clinton.
The two heads of state further confirmed the need to develop China US long-term, healthy and stable relations and work together to establish a “China US constructive and strategic partnership”.
The two sides also reached important consensus on how to properly handle the most important and sensitive Taiwan issue in China US relations.
President Jiang Zemin elaborated the guiding principles for developing China US relations facing the 21st century, that is, adhering to the strategic vision and long-term perspective to examine and handle China US relations, and firmly grasping the overall situation of China US relations.
Actively seek the confluence of common interests, considering both their own interests and the interests of the other party.
Scrupulously abide by the three Sino US joint communiques, which is the basis for the development of Sino US relations.
Correctly handle the differences between the two countries in the spirit of mutual respect, equal consultation and seeking common ground while reserving differences.
Properly handle the Taiwan issue.
From June 25 to July 3, 1998, President Clinton visited China.
The two sides further clarified the direction and framework for the development of China US relations in the 21st century.
During his visit, President Clinton publicly promised the “three noes” policy to Taiwan for the first time.
*** The successful exchange of visits between China and the US dollar has injected new vitality into the improvement of bilateral relations.
However, the development of China US relations is not plain sailing.
With the rise of new interventionism in the United States, China US relations are facing a new severe test.
In particular, on May 8, 1999, the United States brazenly bombed the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia in disregard of international law, resulting in the death of three Chinese journalists, the injury of several diplomatic officials and the complete destruction of the embassy.
The atrocities of the United States and NATO have aroused great indignation of the Chinese government and people.
The Chinese government issued a solemn statement, expressed firm protest and condemnation, and postponed high-level exchanges between China and the United States in some fields.
The bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia once again plunged Sino US relations into a trough.
At the same time, a new round of “China Threat Theory” has been launched in the United States.
On September 11, 1999, the heads of state of China and the United States held another formal meeting while attending the informal APEC leaders’ meeting in aucya, New Zealand.
Both China and the United States expressed their continued commitment to building a constructive strategic partnership for the 21st century.
Since then, the two sides resumed the negotiations on China’s accession to the world trade organization, which were suspended earlier, and finally reached an agreement at the end of 1999.
In 2000, China US relations were further repaired and developed steadily.
During the UN Millennium Summit and the informal APEC leaders’ meeting in Osaka, the two heads of State met successively, and the two countries resumed security dialogue and military exchanges.
Congress passed the permanent normal trade relations act with China.
In January 2001, Bush became the new president of the United States.
He pursued unilateralism and implemented a tough foreign policy.
New changes have taken place in China US relations.
After the plane collision incident between China and the United States on April 1, the relations between the two countries were once tense.
Some political forces and media in the United States took the opportunity to set off a new round of Anti China wave.
China US relations are facing new tests.
After the “9 / 11” incident, the US government realized that terrorism was the main real threat to the United States.
Considering the US Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and a series of other important strategic interests, the US government has to re-examine its China policy and make corresponding adjustments.
In 2001, President Bush attended the informal APEC summit held in Shanghai, China.
In February 2002, President Bush paid an official visit to China and reiterated the importance of developing China US relations.
China US relations have entered a new period of development.
China and the United States share broad common interests and have positive factors to promote the sound development of bilateral relations.
However, there are difficulties in the development of China US relations, and there will still be twists and turns.
It will take time to establish a real and constructive strategic partnership between China and the United States.
Both sides need to face the future and make joint efforts on the basis of following the three Sino US joint communiques. 2. After the “June 4th storm” in China’s relations with Japan in the 1990s, although Japan once followed the United States to impose sanctions on China, in August 1990, Japanese Prime Minister Haibu visited China and became the first country in the west to lift sanctions against China.
Miyazawa cabinet also proposed that “Japan China relations and Japan US relations are the two wheels of Japanese diplomacy”.
In April 1992, General Secretary Jiang Zemin visited Japan.
In October of the same year, the emperor of Japan visited China, confirming that Japan China relations have entered the era of “Japan China relations in the world”.
In the mid-1990s, due to Japan’s cessation of economic assistance to China due to China’s nuclear test and the struggle between the two sides on the Diaoyu Islands, the Taiwan issue, Japan’s invasion of China, understanding and human rights issues, the development of China Japan relations experienced twists and turns.
In 1997, Japanese Prime Minister Hashimoto and Chinese Prime Minister exchanged visits, and China Japan relations returned to the track of rapid development.
Since the 1990s, China Japan bilateral economic and trade relations have developed rapidly, and the two countries have become major trading partners to each other.
From November 25 to 30, 1998, President Jiang Zemin visited Japan at invitation.
This is the first visit by a Chinese president to Japan.
During his visit, President Jiang Zemin comprehensively expounded China’s position on history and the Taiwan issue.
China and Japan issued a joint declaration on the friendly and cooperative partnership committed to peace and development.
The main contents are as follows: the two sides announced the establishment of friendly and cooperative relations committed to peace and development facing the 21st century.
The two sides believe that facing the past and correctly understanding history are the basis for developing China Japan relations.
Japan deplores the responsibility for the major disasters and damages caused to the Chinese people by its past aggression against China, and expresses its deep reflection on this.
The Japanese side reiterated that there is only one China and that Japan will continue to maintain non-governmental and regional exchanges only with Taiwan.
Establishing a friendly and cooperative partnership committed to peace and development is a new goal of China Japan relations.
The realization of this new goal will bring bilateral relations into a new stage of development.
The joint declaration is the third important document in the history of Sino-Japanese relations after the Sino-Japanese joint statement and the Sino-Japanese Treaty of peace and friendship.
It is bound to positively promote Sino-Japanese relationsThis wish of the Republic of Tanzania.
After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the six countries of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization strengthened cooperation and consultation in combating terrorism and extremist forces.2. Relations with other neighboring countries China’s traditional friendship with neighboring countries such as North Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Thailand, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan has withstood the test of time.
Under the new international situation, China’s friendly and cooperative relations with these countries have entered a new stage.
At the same time, China has resumed diplomatic relations with Indonesia, which has been suspended for 23 years, established diplomatic relations with Singapore and Brunei, and participated in the meetings of the ASEAN Regional Forum as an observer state, thus pushing the friendly and cooperative relations between China and ASEAN countries to a new stage.
Due to well-known reasons, China’s relations with Mongolia, Laos, Vietnam and other countries have been in an abnormal state for quite some time.
However, through the joint efforts of China and these countries, China has successively normalized its relations with three neighboring countries.
On the basis of normalizing relations, the areas of cooperation between China and Mongolia are expanding day by day.
China and Laos formally signed a border agreement in 1991, which solved the long-standing outstanding border issue.
Relations between China and Vietnam have been normalized and border trade has made great progress.
The relations between China and India, the two largest developing countries in the world, have ended their indifference, and the two sides have resumed consultations on border issues at the Vice Foreign Minister level.
The isolation between China and South Korea has lasted for more than 40 years.
In 1992, the two countries officially established diplomatic relations, the development momentum of bilateral relations is rapid, and the achievements of economic and trade cooperation are outstanding.
In short, the five principles of good neighborliness and peaceful coexistence between China and its neighboring countries have created a very favorable environment for the peaceful development of China’s relations with its neighbors after the cold war.
This has not only provided favorable conditions for China’s modernization and the economic development of its neighboring countries, but also contributed to peace and stability in Asia and the world.
China’s mutually beneficial, friendly and cooperative relations with neighboring countries are conducive to the development of world multipolarization and the promotion of world peace and development.
(3) China’s relations with third world countries have been strengthened.
After the end of the cold war, China’s traditional friendship with third world countries has withstood the test of sudden changes in the international situation.
With the easing of the overall international situation, China’s friendly and cooperative relations with developing countries have achieved new development, with continuous high-level mutual visits, expanded cooperation fields, increased cooperation methods and outstanding cooperation achievements.
We have strengthened close cooperation in international affairs.
In 1992, China was admitted as an observer state of the non aligned movement and participated in the non aligned summit as an observer, marking a new stage in China’s relations with the non aligned movement and the constructive development of China’s friendly and cooperative relations with the group of 77.
The successful holding of the “China Africa Cooperation Forum” in 2000 was remarkable.
(4) actively carry out multilateral diplomacy and play a role in the international arena.
In the more than 20 years of reform and opening up, China has gradually created and possessed the subjective and objective conditions for actively carrying out multilateral diplomacy, thus creating an unprecedented situation of multilateral diplomacy.
After the end of the cold war, this trend has become more obvious.
Its main features are: China is an important participant in many major global and regional issues, and China’s attitude and position have important weight.
Chinese leaders are increasingly involved in multilateral diplomatic activities at home and abroad, and often participate in discussions on major international issues and strengthen cooperation in multilateral fields with leaders of other countries.
China’s participation in multilateral diplomatic activities has gradually expanded from politics and security to economy, disarmament and arms control, human rights, environment, social development and other aspects.
China’s cooperation with multilateral organizations is becoming more and more effective.
Chinese personnel are increasingly holding important positions in international organizations.
It is common to hold important regional and world-wide international conferences and activities in China.
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has actively promoted the settlement of regional hotspot issues, participated in UN peacekeeping operations many times, strengthened cooperation with developing countries within the United Nations and actively safeguarded the interests of developing countries.
Chinese leaders have participated in important UN activities on many occasions, expounded China’s views on major international issues, and promoted understanding with countries around the world.
China has actively participated in arms control and disarmament activities.
It has not only taken many practical disarmament actions on its own initiative, but also put forward many reasonable, practical and feasible disarmament proposals.
China’s activities in the multilateral economic field are increasing day by day.
In 1980, China resumed its seats in the International Monetary Fund and the world bank.
China has actively participated in Asia Pacific Regional Economic Cooperation and attached increasing importance to the role of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization.
In November 2001, China joined the world trade organization again, integrating into the international community to a greater extent and to a deeper extent and playing its due role.