characteristics of crime research on the social crimes in the 30 years after India’s independence (1947-1977), we can see some obvious characteristics.
First, the crime rate is on the rise.
In the first few years after India’s independence from 1948 to 1977, except for the high level in 1919, it remained generally stable, with a crime rate of about 180 per 100000.
In 1952, the decline was large, 166.
7 per 100000.
It fell to the lowest point in 1955, 137.
5 per 100000.
It began to rise in 1956 and reached the highest point in 1974, 203.
4 per 100000.
In 1977, there were still 202.
5 out of 100000.
Second, the crime rate is far lower than that in developed capitalist countries.
The statistics of the crime rate of several developed countries and India by the international police organization in 1976 are as follows: the above table shows that the crime rate in India is much lower than that in developed countries.
It should be added that India’s crime statistics do not include special law and local methods, so the statistics of prisoners are incomplete.
If the Ministry of all offenders is included, the crime rate in India in 1976 could reach 572.
3 per 100000.
Even the latter figure is also much lower than that of the developed countries in the above table.
Third, the crime rate in urban areas is higher than that in rural areas.
In 1971, for example, the proportion of urban and rural crimes was 63.
5% in cities and 36.
5% in rural areas.
According to the 1978 Tongzhi, the state with the highest crime rate is Madhya Pradesh, which is]0 3 / 10000] 9.3. The lowest state is Punjab, with 84.
1 per 100000.
The highest crime rate in cities, such as 1369 per 100000 in Bangalore and 806.
1 per 100000 in Delhi.
However, it should be noted that India’s high urban crime rate is different from that of developed countries.
The flow of bankrupt farmers and handicraftsmen from rural areas into cities in India has exacerbated various social problems in cities, but the poverty and backwardness in rural areas remain the same and have not been alleviated.
Fourth, theft accounts for a large proportion in criminal crimes.
For example, in the 1970s, various theft crimes, including taking out money and prying door locks, accounted for 52.
6% of the total number of crimes: 52.
1% in 1971, 52.
1% in 1973, 51.
7% in 1975 and 49.
4% in 1977.
This shows that the theft remains about half.
Fifth, according to the five socio-economic indicators, the crime rate shows the complexity of crime.
The five indicators are per capita income, literacy rate, population density, unemployment and percentage of scheduled tribes and castes.
Take the five states with the highest crime rate and rank them according to the order of crime rate, and the situation in]971 is shown in the following table.
The above table shows that crime is a complex social phenomenon.
It is not that the crime rate is low when the income is high and the educational level is high, and vice versa.
Therefore, in the study of social crime, in addition to economic and cultural factors, it is also necessary to comprehensively investigate society, psychology, religion, folk customs and customs, and carry out comprehensive research on this basis in order to find out the truth and provide feasible suggestions for the fight against crime. II. Types of criminal crimes there are many kinds of criminal crimes and the situation is complex.
The highlights are summarized as follows: (1) alcoholism and drug abuse, regular or periodic excessive drinking of alcoholic beverages, and those who endanger the body or society are alcoholism.
People who take cocaine, barbitur NTE, cannahi, heroin and hallucinogens are drug users.
Drinking and sprinkling in India can be traced back to ancient times.
There are 120 poems on Suma in Rigveda, which describe in detail how to extract Suma wine from plants and how exciting it is to drink it.
In the Mughal era, Emperor Jahangir was addicted to drinking, and some of his ministers even died of drinking.
However, the manufa ban on drinking, listed drinking as one of the king’s “ten bad habits caused by pleasure”, and pointed out: “he should know that among the group caused by pleasure, the four most harmful are drinking, dice rolling, lust and hunting.
” Should be severely punished.
Mughal emperor olangzeb, as a devout Muslim, also strictly banned alcohol.
Around the 8th-9th century, cannabis was popular because it gave people a dreamlike pleasure.
At the same time, opium was introduced into India and poppy cultivation developed rapidly.
Smoking opium and marijuana has gradually become a fashionable trend in upper class society.
During the period of British rule, in order to smuggle opium and make huge profits, the colonists expanded cultivation in India, monopolized trade and obtained ill gotten gains.
Some of them are sold in India to extract the blood and sweat of Indians and bake σ Huai people.
However, it should be noted that the sharp increase in alcohol and drug consumption was mainly during the British rule.
As the report of the India marketing ban Commission pointed out: “throughout the Hindu and Muslim period, the masses were generally free from alcohol and drug abuse – this is confirmed by peripheral tourists visiting India at different times, including fahian, Vasco da Gama, benier and tavinier.
” In today’s India, regardless of people’s age, sex e, nationality, religious belief, education and income, a considerable number of people drink, smoke, and even drink and take drugs.
Who is an “addict”? The former feudal princes and their children lost all their power, but they had wealth.
Therefore, they lived in luxury, and tobacco and wine became indispensable treasures for a moment.
Literati and refined scholars, who are elegant and unrestrained, drink and compose poetry, or breathe clouds and fog, which is part of their way of life.
People of the working class, such as coolies, Coachmans or Dalits, enjoy themselves in bitterness, or use alcohol to relieve their worries, or smoke to relieve their boredom.
They do not hesitate to throw the proceeds of their hard work into wine pots or cigarette guns in order to obtain temporary relief.
What makes the society more concerned is that students, especially college students, some of whom have contracted these bad habits.
Supported by the Ministry of education and social welfare of India and under the guidance of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a sampling survey was conducted at the University of Delhi, including 4000 students (2000 boys and 1991 girls).
They belong to several colleges, from different grades of undergraduate and graduate students.
The results showed that among the surveyed students, 11% were smokers, 12% were drinkers, 3% were sedatives and 1.
3% were marijuana smokers.
The parents of most students know nothing about it.
The harm of excessive smoking and alcohol is serious.
Sociologists can be summed up in eight words: injury to the body, destruction of the family, crime and loss of the country.
It goes without saying that smoking and drinking hurt the body.
It is common to see the misfortunes of families caused by excessive smoking and drinking.
Tobacco and alcohol are also injected, accompanied by whoring and gambling, which induces more serious crimes, soKnown as the “twin sister” of crime.
When referring to “harming the country”, they quoted the words of French Marshal Bertrand, “our soldiers are unable to fight because of heavy drinking”, or quoted the words of British Lloyd George, “our country is fighting Germany, Austria and wine.
In my opinion, wine is the biggest enemy of the three deadly enemies”.
These words are unavoidable, but if they are used as a warning of the harm of tobacco and alcohol, they are also necessary.
Therefore, the Indian government advocates a ban on sales.
The constitution of India stipulates in the guiding principles of national policy that in addition to medicine, the State prohibits the sale of spirits and drugs harmful to health.
However, the prohibition of alcohol has encountered difficulties.
At the beginning of independence, various States issued sales bans successively, but as a result, a surprisingly large number of societies engaged in illegal wine making, underground sales and illegal drinking emerged.
At the same time, the sources of income (funds) urgently needed by the state government coffers are also threatened.
This makes the state government waver in implementing policies.
In 1977, India’s central prohibition Commission recommended a complete prohibition in stages within four years.
To this end, the central government promised to subsidize the economic losses suffered by various states due to the prohibition of sales.
The method is to compensate 50% of the actual income from 1977 to 1978.
(2) gambling was very popular in ancient times.
Gambling and alcoholism are classified as one category in the manu law, which should also be punished.
However, there were many gamblers in ancient India, and dice was the usual way of gambling at that time.
As early as the era of Rigveda, dice was very popular in social life.
There is a poem in the adavaveda praying for the prosperity of gambling, It chanted: “Dice! Please let me bet on American Express, like a cow milking forever.
Please tie me with victory, like a bow string.
However, gambling is not good for all gamblers, and gambling will never always have good stars.
There are many people who lose all their money because of bad gambling luck, even lose their families, divorce, and even lose the whole kingdom.
The hero of Batu in Mahabharata was defeated by his cousin in a gambling game.
As a result, he lost the whole kingdom and turned their five brothers and a wife they loved into slaves.
Nara, the king of Nara, and his brother lost all their land and all their property by rolling dice.
The couple had to flee.
Later, he learned to gamble and won back his country with gambling.
These are extreme examples.
This bad habit still exists today, but it’s just more fancy.
In the clubs of powerful people, rich people play cards with high stakes, and no one cares.
On the racetrack, anyone can take a chance with a bet.
There is also a gambling game monopolized by the government, which exists almost without exception in all Indian states, that is, issuing lottery tickets.
The amount of such gambling is sometimes as high as one million rupees.
In fact, this is a kind of gambling recognized and encouraged by the society.
The harm of gambling is obvious.
Some gamblers either stay up all night or gamble with all their money.
As a result, they are often destitute and their families are broken.
More gamblers do not hesitate to take risks, leading to vicious crimes, such as murder, robbery and so on.
The government of India has enacted the gambling (Prohibition) act to prohibit gambling.
However, the law recognizes to some extent that this prohibited act is the demand of the people and accepted by the society.
However, it is only when gambling is held in public or making money through gambling that it is considered a crime.
Lottery is also a kind of gambling.
However, the Indian criminal law makes it possible for state ministries to organize the issuance of lottery tickets with an obscure collateral condition.
Therefore, although thousands of people are arrested for gambling every year, this punishment is too illogical to really control gambling and achieve the welfare goal of legislation.
(III) theft and robbery among all kinds of traditional criminal crimes, theft is the most common and lasting for a long time.
Stealing, stealing and stealing all have special skills, which are maintained and taught by some people or associations, so as to form the “stealing tribe” or “stealing caste” of Indian society.
In ancient India, there was a book called stealing Sutra, which discussed the way of stealing.
The thief seems to be recognized as a social profession and has his own God – “thief God”.
It is said that the thief God’s name is skantha.
He is the son of Shiva God.
He has six heads and twelve hands, rides a peacock and is the Grand Marshal of the army and horse in the heaven.
In this way, the thief seems to be quite arrogant.
There are also descriptions of thieves in classical literary works.
For example, in the play “little mud cart” by shoudharaja, one of the important characters is a rogue, named night tour, born of Brahman caste, who dug into the room at night to steal in order to redeem his lover.
After the play’s night tour came on stage, there were a few words: ha ha! Why did the rabbit (referring to the moon) also fall? This is — the watchman on patrol can’t see my whereabouts.
I call myself a hero.
The stars are dim and dark clouds cover the sky.
At night, like a loving mother, I protect this urchin.
Theft is still a major criminal offence in India today.
What is different from the past is that with the development of the times, the stolen goods are not small molds, agricultural tools and cattle, but large and high-end goods, such as tape recorders, televisions, motorcycles, cars and so on.
The means and technology of theft are also becoming more and more modern, resulting in greater economic losses and more serious consequences.
According to the official statistics of India, theft has always ranked first in all kinds of criminal cases, accounting for about half of the total number of crimes.
Taking 1978 as an example, the total number of convictions in this year was 1273000, and the number of thieves was 596000 (46.8%). In 1974, there were many theft cases, with a total value of 690 million rupees.
Robbery is a more serious criminal offence.
Robbers are committed individually or in groups.
They plunder money and goods, hurt human lives and endanger society.
In Indian history, Thug or thugee belong to this category.
They recruited disciples in a special way, including Hindus and Muslims, but worshipped the goddess of Galilee.
They travel in disguise, kidnap tickets on the road and kill (strangle) innocent, lonely and helpless passengers, but they believe that the sacrifices falling into their poisonous hands were executed by the hand of God dummies.
They were often supported by some chiefs, landlords and businessmen, and their organization spread almost all over India.
With the decline of Mughal Empire, flag people were once very rampant.
The British and Indian governments once took severe repressive measures and sent troops to suppress it from 1826 to 1835.
Kill closeThe social and economic reasons for the rise are the lack of necessities, poor circulation channels and poor management.
Although the state has legislative measures and regulates the production, distribution and consumption of goods to ensure normal supply, it often fails to work.
Extort money, open up joints, do everything possible to engage in tight commodities, hoard a large number, and then make money on the black market.4. Smuggling and violation of foreign exchange regulations.
The state maintains the balance of foreign trade by restricting imports and expanding exports, and implements foreign exchange control, although it restricts the import of luxury goods and non necessities, such as small electric toys, tape recorders, photographic equipment, cosmetics, etc.
The export of art treasures, gold, silver and jade articles, cash, postal orders and foreign currency exchange certificates are prohibited.
However – some unscrupulous businessmen engage in illegal transactions by smuggling, and deal in various ways through land, sea and air transportation.
They also used fictitious organs, perjury and bribes to get licenses.
Smuggling involves countries, sometimes accompanied by espionage and sabotage.
Therefore, it not only destroys the economy and morality, but also hinders political stability and national security.
It is an economic crime with great harm.5. Business license and quota permit, license and quota system are a measure for the state to manage industry and commerce.
Illegal activities in this regard include: first, unauthorized or unauthorized sale of licenses and quotas, and theft or private sale of government officials for profit.
First, those who forge business names or personal names to defraud licenses and quotas, or those who use their real names but forge certificates, and some license users are willing to pay a large amount of additional fees to “borrow” their licenses.
These criminal activities make the permits and licenses useless, make the quota useless, destroy the management system, endanger the national economy and corrupt the folk customs.6. Destroy the national legal leather weighing standards, which are used internally to safeguard the interests of consumers and externally to safeguard the reputation of the country.
But the outlaws use either fake weighing instruments or crude traditional weighing instruments.
They ignore national laws and regulations, deceive customers with short weight or unpredictable units of quantity, and harm the interests of consumers.7. Illegal annual profits of professionals there are illegal profiteers in almost all professional fields, especially in medical treatment, political science and law, engineering and construction.
The illegal profit-making methods of medical personnel, such as abortion without authorization, selling alcohol and narcotics, issuing fake leave slips, selling hospital drugs to outsiders, unnecessary treatment, issuing false reimbursement documents, extorting patients, etc.
The legal adviser’s illegal profit-making methods, such as consulting the parties on tax evasion methods when taking over the relevant cases, misinterpreting the evidence, making excessive demands in accident cases, assisting in litigation and illegal financing to one party, drafting or confirming false documents when handling transfer certificates and cash property evaluation documents, extorting the parties, etc.
The consulting firms of engineers, architects and appraisers engage in illegal profit-making practices, such as colluding with contractors and auctioneers, making false reports and evaluations in real estate appraisal and construction, and cheating in jewelry and asset appraisal.
In addition, there are criminal activities of prostitution, which have been introduced in this part of women’s issues and will not be repeated here.