Section IV crusade

crusade is a war of aggression carried out by the papal feudal lords of Western Europe against the Muslim countries on the East Bank of the Mediterranean. It aims to “liberate” the Holy Land Jerusalem, and the soldiers are decorated with crosses, so it is called crusade. The Crusade was a world war in the middle ages. It lasted for nearly two centuries for nine times, involving many countries and regions on the three continents of Europe, Asia and Africa. Hundreds of thousands of troops were mobilized, which had a great impact on the politics, economy, military, culture and transportation of the whole Europe.

background

is located in Jerusalem, Palestine, on the East Bank of the Mediterranean Sea. It was once the capital of the ancient Jewish kingdom. The temple of the LORD was built in the city. It is not only the center of Jewish worship of God, but also the symbol of the Jewish nation. Jerusalem is also the place of crucifixion and “Ascension” of Jesus Christ, the founder of Christianity, It is regarded as a “holy land” by Christianity and goes to worship. Muslims believe that Jerusalem is the destination of the Prophet Muhammad’s mysterious night trip and one of the most solemn Holy Places of Islam. Arabs implemented a tolerant religious policy, allowed Christians to believe freely and guaranteed their personal and property safety. Before the end of the 11th century, Christians in Palestine and Jerusalem lived in peace with Muslims.

since the late 11th century, in order to overcome the increasingly serious political and economic crisis in Western Europe at that time, the papal feudal ruling class in Western Europe diverted the attention of class struggle by invading the land and wealth of the East, so as to consolidate its feudal rule. Therefore, the Roman Church incited religious fanaticism and preached that Christians in Jerusalem were brutally persecuted by Muslims, Call on Christians to join the Crusade and carry out a “sacred war” for the “liberation” of the holy land.

Templar order

in 1071, Byzantium was defeated by the Seljuks and the emperor Romanus IV was captured. Soon, the Seljuks occupied most of the territory of the Byzantine Empire in West Asia, including Jerusalem. From 1088 to 1091, Byzantium was attacked by Seljuk and pechneg from the north and south, and the capital Constantinople was in turmoil. Emperor Alexius I appealed to the Pope and Western European countries for military assistance. This provided an excuse for the feudal rulers of Western Europe to launch the crusade. In 1092, after the death of Sultan maliksha of Seljuk Empire, the Empire was divided and weakened. The feudal rulers of Western Europe seized this favorable opportunity and launched the crusade.

after

(1) the First Crusade (1095-1096)

in September 1095, Pope Urban II came to France from Italy, and held a religious Conference in the southern city of clement in November. At the meeting, urban II delivered a speech. He fabricated lies and tried his best to incite the crusade. Urban’s speech stirred up the participants’ great religious fanaticism and desire to get rich, and the noise of “God’s wish” rang out in the venue. The meeting decided that on August 15 of the following year, that is, the ascension day of the virgin, the Crusaders set out for the eastern expedition.

engraving of the Crusade

the poor farmers bewitched by the Pope could not wait for the specified departure date, and they took action after the meeting. Some farmers in France and Germany first embarked on the journey. Then there are tens of thousands of farmers in Scandinavia, Britain, Spain, Italy and other European countries. Like the great migration of nations, they took their wives and children with them and traveled with their families. Some drove cattle carts and some walked. With the beautiful illusion of getting rid of slavery, oppression and hunger and having a good day in the Oriental “paradise” world, they left their homes and embarked on a long expedition that they didn’t even know their destination. Without a guide, we had to use a goat or a female goose to lead the way, depending on heaven’s fate. In the early spring of 1096, peasant teams from all over the country successively arrived in Germany, then crossed the Rhine River under the leadership of French monk Peter and German Knight poor man Walter, headed east along the Danube River and entered the Byzantine Empire through Hungary. The peasant Crusader had neither necessary supplies and equipment, nor considerable organization and military training. They had to survive by robbery all the way. As a result, the local people attacked the road continuously, causing heavy casualties. When they arrived at Constantinople, the emperor did not allow them to enter the city and quickly sent them across the Bosporus. This exhausted peasant Crusade without unified command and specific battle plan was wiped out by Muslims as soon as it arrived in Asia Minor. Most people died, a few survivors were sold as slaves, and few survivors survived. The so-called peasant Crusade ended miserably.

(2) the Second Crusade (1096-1099)

in August 1096, the main force of the Crusade composed of feudal lords divided into three routes, starting from Normandy, Lorraine, southern France and other places, all led by second rate feudal monarchs. The total number of Crusaders is claimed to be 2.3 million, but in fact, only 30000 people arrived in Asia Minor. Compared with the peasant Crusades, they have better equipment, considerable organization and rich combat experience. But in fact, there is no unified command, and the leaders of the armed forces are opposed to each other. This Crusade, which advertises that it is its duty to “liberate” the holy land of Christ, is actually a group of armed bandits. They looted and killed all the way, and were resisted everywhere by people everywhere. Even the commander of the Third Route Army, Hugo, was once captured. The bandit behavior of the Crusaders caused anxiety in Constantinople, so they were not allowed to enter the city. After reluctantly letting the Crusaders spend the winter in Byzantium, they rushed to the front line of Asia Minor.

the siege of Nicaea

in May 1097, the Crusaders successively divided from near Nicomedia, opened the mountain road between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire and began to siege Nicaea. Nicaea was the capital of the Seljuk Empire and was heavily defended. King Suliman II of Seljuk led 50000 cavalry to retreat to the mountains and fight the enemy. Crusaders used tunnels, hammers, tortoise shell barriers, Greek fire, catapults, catapults, etcWeapons, attack the city violently, and the defenders in the city defend the enemy according to danger. Suliman led his army to attack the Crusaders twice from the side, but failed due to the fierce resistance of the Crusaders. After seven weeks of siege, the city of Nicaea is still solid. At this time, Byzantium drove many small boats carrying Crusaders into Lake aragan, so that the Crusaders could attack the defenders from the north and south, so Nicaea was in a hurry. The Byzantine emperor Alexius took the opportunity to send someone to negotiate secretly with the garrison and let them surrender to Byzantium on the condition of ensuring their personal and property safety. On June 19, the Byzantine flag was raised in the city of Nicaea. The Crusaders’ attempt to occupy and plunder Nicaea failed.

the battle of Dorion

after the Nicaraguan siege, the Crusaders set out to the southeast to capture Dorion. Suliman gathered 100000 cavalry in the East, ambushed on both sides of the Crusader’s way, and cut off the supply of food and water along the way. When the Crusaders entered the ambush position, Suliman attacked from both sides and hit the Crusaders hard. After the Crusaders retreated to Dorion, Suliman attacked again, causing the Crusaders to collapse. Commander in chief goford and count Hoog led 60000 cavalry to help, and the two armies fought a fierce battle. The crescent moon shaped Yanyue sword, easy to swing short gun, long Tatar bow and arrow and highly lethal crossbow used by Seljuk cavalry moved rapidly, and were very successful in the surprise attack on the Crusaders lined up with heavy long guns and strong armor. The Crusaders suffered heavy casualties and fell into crisis again. However, at this time, the last Crusader led by Raymond suddenly appeared behind the Seljuk through the mountain pass, so the battle situation took a turn. Suliman was forced to give up Dorion, lead the army to break through and lose to the East. After Dorion’s siege, the Crusaders triumphed through 500 miles of almost uninhabited mountains and deserts in Asia Minor. Heat, hunger and disease claimed many lives. But because of the temptation of wealth, the Crusaders still struggled to move forward. In early 1098, Baldwin occupied EDSA, the richest city in Armenia, and established edsab, the first Crusader state, with this place as the center.

battle of Antioch

on October 21, 1097, the Crusaders arrived in Antioch. Antioch is the gateway from Asia Minor to Syria and occupies an important strategic position in politics and economy. The general will be governor bagisayan, who has 6000 cavalry and 15000 infantry. The Crusaders besieged the city for three months and still didn’t break the city. At this time, winter came and the rain continued. The Crusaders ran out of ammunition and food and were hungry. On the late night of June 30, 1098, because the traitors opened the city gate, the Crusaders marched in, and Antioch fell into the hands of the Crusaders. After entering the city, the Crusaders robbed and killed wantonly, feasted and reveled for days, and ate all the remaining food in the city in a few days. Three days after the fall of Antioch, Mosul governor keboga led Seljuk’s army to help and surround the city. The Crusaders who ran out of food and aid fled in large numbers. Later, inspired by religious fanaticism, the Crusaders rushed out of the city gate and fought to the death with the enemy. The Seljuk who besieged the city for a long time were not careful. As a result, they suffered a disastrous defeat, and keboga abandoned the city and left.

captured Jerusalem

at that time, Jerusalem was under Egyptian rule, and was garrisoned by general alachin with 40000 troops and 20000 militias. On January 13, 1099, the Crusaders set out for Jerusalem. Arrive at the destination on June 7. After five days of fighting, the Crusaders reached the city through natural danger and launched a general attack. The defenders resisted tenaciously. The Crusaders suffered heavy casualties and returned to their original positions. After 40 days of siege, the Crusaders made no progress, so they built two mobile arrow towers, approached the city wall under the cover of the arrow tower, and attacked the fortress of the approach bridge. After a fierce bloody battle, the Crusaders occupied Jerusalem. After the Crusaders entered the city, they burned, killed and looted wantonly, and killed 70000 Muslims in three days. Women, children, old and children were not spared.

so far, the Second Crusade declared victory. The commander-in-chief goford left don creed, 300 knights and 2000 infantry to guard Jerusalem, and the rest of the Crusades returned to Europe with their gold and silver treasures. Later, the Crusaders established four Christian countries in the East: edsab, Antioch, Jerusalem and Tripoli. In order to strengthen the defense force of Jerusalem, the Knights of France, Italy and Germany have successively established three knights, namely the temple (Temple) knights, St. John (hospital) knights and Teutonic Knights.

(3) the Third Crusade (1147 ~ 1149)

at the beginning of the 12th century, the eastern Muslim world was reunited and its power gradually recovered and became strong. In 1128, the governor of Mosul, Imad Zanji, recaptured Aleppo occupied by the Crusaders, took control of Syria and established the Zanji Dynasty. In 1235, the eastern territory of the Principality of Antioch was seized and edsab was eliminated in 1144. Other Crusader colonies were also in danger, so they asked the holy see for military assistance. Pope ginius III sent Bernard, the abbot of Burgundy, as an envoy to lobby all over Europe and advocate the launching of the Third Crusade, which was responded by French King Louis VII and German Emperor Conrad III.

in April 1147, Conrad III led 70000 troops from Germany to start the Third Crusade. German Knights robbed local residents along the way and suffered several blows along the way. Because of the deception of the Greek guide, the Crusaders lost their way when they entered the mountains of Asia Minor. Heat and hunger killed many people. When the German Knights arrived near dorignon, they were attacked by Seljuk people. They suffered heavy casualties and fled to Nicaea. There were only 7000 survivors. Therefore, they stationed in situ and waited for the French knights to arrive before continuing the eastern expedition.

Louis VII of France led French knights to start the eastern expedition after Germany, with a force of 70000. The French Knight crossed the Bosporus and joined the German army in Nicaea. Louis VII decided not to go to the hinterland of Asia Minor and to bypass the western coastal provinces in order to avoid stepping back on the mistakes of being attacked by the German army on the way. At the beginning of 1148, the French army trekked through mountains and rivers. It was not easy to get near dalaudikia. Immediately, it was attacked by Seljuk people at night, and the French army diedfall. After the Crusaders entered the city, they burned, killed and looted wantonly for three days and nights, and 20000 people died in the war. After the occupation of Constantinople, the Crusaders and the Venetians divided the Byzantine Empire according to the prior agreement and established the Crusader state, namely the Latin Empire. The Latin Empire is a military feudal empire jointly established by the papal feudal lords in Western Europe, with many internal contradictions. In 1261, the kingdom of Nicaea eliminated the Latin Empire and revived the Byzantine state. However, after the restoration of the country, Byzantium was already weak, and the so-called Empire had no name.

(6) the sixth Crusade (1217 ~ 1221)

the fifth Crusade established the Latin Empire, ignoring the Holy Land Jerusalem. The church repeatedly called for a new crusade, but there were few responders. In order to arouse new religious fanaticism, the church directed a tragedy. Advocating that only “pure” children can be blessed by God and liberate the “holy mausoleum” from Muslims by miracle. In 1212, tens of thousands of children’s Crusades were sent to the East. However, most of the poor children died on the way, and the rest were sold as slaves by merchants.

later, King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria and some big feudal lords in southern Germany expressed their willingness to be called out for their own interests. In the summer of 1217, the Crusaders set out from the port of Dalmatia, sparto. However, at this time, Christians in Syria no longer welcomed the Crusades. Because they live in peace with Muslims and trade on an equal footing, war will undermine their commercial interests. Therefore, when the Crusaders arrived in the East, they received a cold reception and spent a meaningless year in AK. Knowing that it was futile, Andrew II led his army home. The remaining Crusaders are ready to attack the Egyptian commercial fortress city of damiita. The city was dangerous and indestructible. The Crusaders besieged it for months and made no progress. Some Crusaders were disappointed and returned home one after another. Later, due to the famine in the city, Egypt and Sudan took the initiative to withdraw from damiita. A crusade into the city. In June 1221, the Crusaders attacked mansura, when the Nile rose sharply and the Crusader camp was flooded. Muslims took the opportunity to launch a counter offensive and cut off the way back, and the Crusaders were in a dilemma. The Muslim army attacked from all directions, and the Crusaders were on the verge of collapse. Finally, he was forced to accept the peace negotiation, quit damiita and fled back to Europe.

(7) the seventh Crusade (1228 ~ 1229)

in the summer of 1128, German Emperor Frederick II took the initiative to lead the army to start the seventh Crusade in order to seize the throne of Jerusalem. After the Crusaders arrived in AK, they negotiated with Egypt and Sudan. At that time, the Egyptian Sultan and the governor of Damascus had a tense struggle for the domination of Syria and Palestine, and were unable to deal with the attack of Frederick II. In February 1229, the two sides concluded a 10-year treaty stipulating that the Sudan would cede Jerusalem and Palestinian cities such as Bethlehem, nashal, tyre and Sidon to Frederick II. Frederick promised to support the Sudan’s struggle against its enemies and the freedom of Muslim belief in the above-mentioned cities. In this way, Frederick II successfully obtained the territorial claim through diplomatic means.

(8) the eighth Crusade (1248 ~ 1254)

in 1244, the huarazimi people who originally lived near the Caspian Sea began to move westward under the pressure of the Mongolian Western Expedition. Later, they defeated the Frankish Crusade and invaded Syria. The Sultan of Egypt took advantage of the attack and occupied Jerusalem, and the holy city returned to the hands of Muslims. In 1245, the Holy See held a religious conference in Lyon and adopted the resolution of the eighth Crusade at the request of Pope Innocent IV.

Louis IX, king of France, was willing to March eastward in order to consolidate France’s position in the Mediterranean. In 1248, Louis IX led the Crusade from France to the island of Cyprus. Louis, like the 6th Crusade, made Egypt the first target. In June 1249, the Crusaders were sent by the Genoa fleet to damiita on the Nile. Due to the lack of preparation of the defenders, the Crusaders successfully occupied the city. Louis IX was dazzled by the temporary victory. He thought the enemy was weak and invincible. Before the main force arrived, the leading forces began to attack mansura. As a result, they were caught in an enemy ambush, hundreds of knights were killed, and the count of adoya, the younger brother of Louis IX, was also killed in the battle. Louis IX led the main force to rush across the river and set up a camp in front of the enemy. The Egyptians used favorable terrain to surround the enemy from all sides. First, they sank the ships of the Crusaders anchored in mansura on the Nile, cut off the traffic between the Crusaders and their base damiita, cut off the supply of food and military supplies, and then waited for the opportunity to launch a general attack. The plight of the Crusaders, due to lack of food supply, the fate of the whole army was at stake. Louis IX was forced to order the withdrawal of troops. The Egyptian army pursued the victory. The enemy collapsed and surrendered one after another. After Louis IX retired to acre, he still wanted to regroup and continue the war. He sent home to gather troops, but there was no response. Without reinforcements, Louis had to lead the defeated soldiers back home in 1254.

(9) the ninth Crusade (1270)

in the second half of the 13th century, the Crusader colonial forces in Syria and Palestine gradually disappeared and almost disappeared. Louis IX, the French king, could not bear the humiliation of his defeat that year. He held a meeting of nobles in Paris and decided to take the initiative to request another eastern expedition. In 1270, he led three princes, 6000 knights and 30000 infantry to set sail for the eastern expedition from the port of egmot in South France. After arriving in Sardinia, he decided to march into Tunisia in North Africa, and then Tunisia attacked Egypt.

however, when Louis landed in North Africa, he found that the governor of Tunisia did not welcome the Crusades and was heavily armed in the capital. Louis IX was so angry that he ordered the army to besiege the city. The governor of Tunisia contacted Egypt, supported by the Sudanese pebalchi army, and the Crusaders suffered heavy losses. At the same time, the Crusaders were trapped by the heat and plague. Louis Aizi and himself died of the plague, and the Crusaders almost collapsed. Later, Charlie, count of Anju and TIPP, count of navar led troops to help, but it was too late. twelveIn October 1970, Charlie led his troops home after making peace with the enemy.

ending

after the ninth Crusade, the Crusader colonies of Tripoli, Sidon, tyre and Yafa were successively occupied by the Egyptian army, and the Crusaders were forced to retreat to AK. In 1291, the Sultan of Egypt launched a general attack on AK. After 33 days of siege, he finally occupied AK. The angry Sultan razed the city to the ground. 60000 Christians were killed or sold as slaves. Most of the others drowned when they fled to the ship, and there were few survivors. So far, the colonies built by the Crusaders in the East were completely eliminated, and the Crusade movement, which lasted nearly two centuries, finally came to an end.

influence ` evaluation of the crusade of

which lasted more than 200 years, was a colonial war carried out by the Holy See of Western Europe and some feudal countries against the countries on the east coast of the Mediterranean in the name of “liberating” Christian holy sites. In the nine Eastern expeditions, hundreds of thousands of Crusaders set out from Western Europe, crossed thousands of miles of land and sea and entered foreign wars. There were many battles, both victories and defeats, which had a far-reaching impact on medieval Europe. As far as the feudal ruling groups in Western Europe are concerned, the Crusades occupied the vast and rich areas on the east coast of the Mediterranean, including Jerusalem, and established four Crusade countries, Jerusalem, Antioch, Tripoli and EDSA. By colonizing and plundering the East, the feudal rulers of Western Europe greatly improved the political and economic situation of Western European society. For the people of all ethnic groups in the East, the Crusade was undoubtedly a catastrophe. It ransacked many cities and villages, lost countless precious lives, destroyed social productivity, destroyed local economy and culture, and seriously hindered the healthy development of societies in the Near East. At the same time, it also caused great sacrifices to the European people, and thousands of people died.

objectively, the Crusade opened the door of Oriental trade, revolutionized European commerce, banking and monetary economy, promoted the development of cities, and created conditions conducive to the germination of capitalism. The eastern expedition also increased the culture and exchanges between the East and the west, and stimulated the Renaissance of the west to a certain extent. Arabic numerals, algebra, navigation compass, gunpowder and cotton paper were successively spread to Western Europe, which promoted the development of social civilization in Western Europe.